Basic Overview In Supervision

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Published on September 3, 2008

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Basic Overview of Supervision : Basic Overview of Supervision Slide 2: There are several interpretations of the term "supervision", but typically supervision is the activity carried out by supervisors to oversee the productivity and progress of employees who report directly to the supervisors. For example, first-level supervisors supervise entry-level employees. Depending on the size of the organization, middle-managers supervise first-level supervisors, chief executives supervise middle-managers, etc. Supervision is a management activity and supervisors have a management role in the organization. Slide 3: Occasionally, writers will interchange "leadership" and "supervision". Both activities are closely related. Supervision requires leadership. Leadership does not necessarily have to involve supervision. Slide 4: Traditionally, the term "management" refers to the activities (and often the group of people) involved in the four general functions: 1. planning, 2. organizing, 3. leading and 4. coordinating of resources. Note that the four functions recur throughout the organization and are highly integrated. Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions are carried out must change to accommodate a "new paradigm" in management Slide 5: The Autocrat The autocratic leader dominates team-members, using unilateralism to achieve a singular objective. This approach to leadership generally results in passive resistance from team-members and requires continual pressure and direction from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, an authoritarian approach is not a good way to get the best performance from a team. Slide 6: The Laissez-Faire Manager The Laissez-Faire manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process himself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little direction or motivation. Slide 7: Again, there are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate when leading a team of highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the past. Once a leader has established that his team is confident, capable and motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By handing over ownership, a leader can empower his group to achieve their goals. Slide 8: The Democrat The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, but still maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows his team to decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task. Slide 9: The democratic leader can be seen in the ff: 1. A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that he bears the crucial responsibility of leadership. 2. He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing from a pool of his team members' strong points in order to obtain the best performance from his team. 3. He motivates his team by empowering them to direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign. Slide 10: Views that Leading is Different Than ManagingManagement Styles Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and how they handle various situations will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager. There are two sharply contrasting styles that will be broken down into smaller subsets later: Autocratic  Permissive Slide 11: Combining these categories with democratic (subordinates are allowed to participate in decision making) and directive (subordinates are told exactly how to do their jobs) styles gives us four distinct ways to manage: Directive Democrat: Makes decisions participatively; closely supervises subordinates. Directive Autocrat: Makes decisions unilaterally; closely supervises subordinates. Permissive Democrat: Makes decisions participatively; gives subordinates latitude in carrying out their work. Permissive Autocrat: Makes decisions unilaterally; gives subordinates latitude in carrying out their work. Slide 12: In what situations would each style be appropriate? Inappropriate? Managers must also adjust their styles according to the situation that they are presented with. Below are four quadrants of situational leadership that depend on the amount of support and guidance needed: Telling: Works best when employees are neither willing nor able to do the job (high need of support and high need of guidance). Delegating: Works best when the employees are willing to do the job and know how to go about it (low need of support and low need of guidance). Slide 13: Participating: Works best when employees have the ability to do the job, but need a high amount of support (low need of guidance but high need of support). Selling: Works best when employees are willing to do the job, but don’t know how to do it (low need of support but high need of guidance). Slide 14: Can you guess which management styles would work best for each situation listed above? Should managers use only one management style? Situational style? Listed below are a few situations and options for what you would do. Try to decide which of the four situational styles would work best in each situation. Then pick the option that best fits that style. Slide 15: Situation 1 The employees in your program appear to be having serious problems getting the job done. Their performance has been going downhill rapidly. They have not responded to your efforts to be friendly or to your expressions of concern for their welfare. Which style would you pick? What would you do? Slide 16: Situation 2 During the past few months, the quality of work done by staff members has been increasing. Record keeping is accurate and up to date. You have been careful to make sure that the staff members are aware of your performance expectations. Which style would you pick? What would you do? Slide 17: Situation 3 Performance and interpersonal relations among your staff have been good. You have normally left them alone. However, a new situation has developed, and it appears that staff members are unable to solve the problem themselves. Which style would you pick? What would you do? Slide 18: Situation 4 You are considering a major change in your program. Your staff has a fine record of accomplishment and a strong commitment to excellence. They are supportive of the need for change and have been involved in the planning. Which style would you pick? What would you do? The Difference Between Management And Leadership : The Difference Between Management And Leadership Leadership is a facet of management The main aim of a manager is to maximize the output of the organization through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers must undertake the following functions: organization planning staffing directing controlling Slide 20: Differences In Perspectives 1. Managers think incrementally, but leaders think radically. "Managers do things right, while leaders do the right thing.“ 2. A leader is more emotional than a manager . "Men are governed by their emotions rather than their intelligence" . 3. "Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. Slide 21: Subordinate As A Leader "Leaders must let vision, strategies, goals, and values be the guide-post for action and behavior rather than attempting to control others." When a natural leader emerges in a group containing a manager, conflict may arise if they have different views. When a manager sees the group looking towards someone else for leadership he may feel his authority is being questioned. Slide 22: Loyalty Groups are often more loyal to a leader than a manager. This loyalty is created by the leader taking responsibility in areas such as: Taking the blame when things go wrong. Celebrating group achievements, even minor ones. Giving credit where it is due. "The leader must take a point of highlighting the successes within a team, using charts or graphs, with little presentations and fun ideas" "Leaders are observant and sensitive people. They know their team and develop mutual confidence within it." Slide 23: The Leader Is Followed. The Manager Rules - A leader is someone who people naturally follow through their own choice, whereas a manager must be obeyed. - A manager may only have obtained his position of authority through time and loyalty given to the company, not as a result of his leadership qualities. - A leader may have no organizational skills, but his vision unites people behind him Purpose of Leadership : Purpose of Leadership Leadership is a way of focusing and motivating a group to enable them to achieve their aims. It also involves being accountable and responsible for the group as a whole. - A leader should: 1. provide continuity and momentum 2. be flexible in allowing changes of direction 3. Ideally, a leader should be a few steps ahead of their team, but not too far for the team to be able to understand and follow them. Leadership Styles : Leadership Styles Leadership Styles Leadership Attitudes Contingency Models Leadership Styles : Leadership Styles The AutocratThe Laissez-Faire ManagerThe DemocratReferences Leadership Attitudes : Leadership Attitudes One way of looking at different leadership styles is in terms of task orientation versus employee orientation. =Task Orientation or Directive Behavior. This reflects how much a leader is concerned with the actual task at hand and ensuring that those following him complete it. =Employee Orientation or Supportive Behavior. This reflects how much a leader is concerned for the people around him, providing support and encouragement for them. Slide 28: The combination of these two effects lead to the following diagram: Slide 29: Anaylsing Your Style How do you lead your group? What is your attitude to both them and the task at hand? Impoverished Management (low concern for the task, low concern for people). "I'll just let them get on with it, I'm sure they'll do fine, they don't really want me interfering anyway" Company Management (low concern for the task, high concern for people). "It stands to reason, if they're happy they'll work harder and the work will take care of itself." Slide 30: Authority/Obedience Management (high concern for task, low concern for people). "We're here to work, the work needs to be done. If they're working hard enough they won't have time to feel unhappy, they're not here to enjoy themselves." Team Management (high concern for task, high concern for people). You see the completion of the task and the well being of the group as interdependent through a common stake in the organization's future. "We're in this together. We need to support and help each other to get this job done." Style Choice : Style Choice Directing A team member who has a lot of enthusiasm for the job but not much actual ability, for example a new start, will need to be directed. You will not need to spend much time giving encouragement or coaxing them along. You will however have to tell them what to do next after they complete every task, and how to do the tasks set. Coaching : Coaching After being in the group for a while, somebody might begin to lose confidence and therefore motivate, as they still can't seem to do the work they want to do. At this stage you will need to coach them along. You will still need to tell them what to do at virtually every point along the way, while taking care to encourage them and praise them at every turn. Slide 33: Supporting Gradually the team member's technical ability will increase until they are at a stage where they can actually do everything required of them, however they may still lack the confidence to actually do it off their own backs. Slide 34: Delegating A technically competent person's confidence will gradually grow until they feel able to work completely on their own. You should now be able to delegate specific areas of work to them and feel little need to tell them either what to do or to praise them as frequently for doing it.. Fiedler's Contingency model : Fiedler's Contingency model Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. Situational favorableness, determined by three factors: 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. 3. Position power - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment. Slide 36: This theory suggests that leadership style should be matched to the maturity of the subordinates. Maturity is assessed in relation to a specific task and has two parts: 1. Psychological maturity - Their self-confidence and ability and readiness to accept responsibility. 2. Job maturity - Their relevant skills and technical knowledge. As the subordinate maturity increases, leadership should be more relationship-motivated than task-motivated. For four degrees of subordinate maturity, from highly mature to highly immature, leadership can consist of: 1. Delegating to subordinates. 2. Participating with subordinates. 3. Selling ideas to subordinates. 4. Telling subordinates what to do Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory Path-Goal Theory : Path-Goal Theory Evans and House suggest that the performance, satisfaction and motivation of a group can be affected by the leader in a number of ways: 1. Offering rewards for the achievement of performance goals. 2. Clarifying paths towards these goals. 3. Removing performance obstacles. A person may do these by adopting a certain leadership style, according to the situation: 1. Directive leadership - Specific advice is given to the group and ground rules are established. 2. Supportive leadership - Good relations exist with the group and sensitivity to subordinates' needs is shown. 3. Participative leadership - Decision making is based on group consultation and information is shared with the group. 4. Achievement-oriented leadership - Challenging goals are set and high performance is encouraged while showing confidence in the groups' ability. Vroom-Yetton Leadership Model : Vroom-Yetton Leadership Model This model suggests the selection a leadership style for making a decision. There are five decision making styles: Autocratic 1 - Problem is solved using information already available. Autocratic 2 - Additional information is obtained from group before leader makes decision. Consultative 1 - Leader discusses problem with subordinates individually, before making a decision. Consultative 2 - Problem is discussed with the group before deciding. Group 2 - Group decides upon problem, with leader simply acting as chair. Practical Aspects Of Leadership : Practical Aspects Of Leadership Following articles will help enhance your leadership style. Becoming a Leader Delegation Practical Aspects of Directing Teams Keeping the team together Slide 40: Becoming a Leader A leader may not always be a manager, and one day you may see an opportunity to lead a project or team within your group, but when do you decide the time is right and how do you go about becoming the leader? Steps to Leading : Steps to Leading 1. Identify team members and resources willing to support your leadership. 2. A crucial step is to empathies with others and assess their understanding of the situation. 3. Now you should open a discussion which the members. 4. Having convinced the team of your leadership, encourage team communication to build a team identity. 5. Plan and organize the team by setting realistic goals. 6. When goals are achieved recognize and reward the team. Slide 42: Look at the context of the situation and decide if your leadership is required and if you can feasibly lead the team. Perhaps another group member would be better or, even worse, the group would not accept your influence. If this is the case your attempt to lead will be a failure. Change may be resisted by some people or organizations, but if you can find enough support this resistance can be overcome. Note that the support of your team may not be enough if you do not have the support of authority (the boss for example) or the physical/financial resources to accomplish your goals. 2. This will help you understand how to influence these people. Many ways of doing this are available: memos, phone calls and informal chats are a few examples. 3. Clearly, without open discussion some people may feel neglected or excluded. By getting everyone's views it is more likely that you will be able to alter them and get what you want. Now you must convince the others that your view is the one most likely to achieve a favorable outcome for everyone. Slide 43: 4. You should also try to motivate the team appropriately. 5. However do not give too much or too little guidance, experienced workers may resent you treating them like new-recruits, and this can undermine your leadership. 6. Do not expect the team to exceed them - this will undermine your leadership and the team will lose trust in you. Of course you may decide that the goals are unachievable or insufficient, but any re-definition of these goals should be done carefully and with team co-operation. Delegation : Delegation A key aspect of leadership is delegation. Unless you delegate tasks to your subordinates, your team will become inefficient and demoralized. "I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow." - Woodrow Wilson Poor DelegationAdvantages of DelegationHow to DelegateResponsibilityAuthorityTasks you should not delegateYour Task after DelegatingBibliography Poor Delegation : Poor Delegation Signs that you are not borrowing enough brains or that your delegation is failing include: 1. Team Motivation / Morale is down 2. You are always working late 3. Your team is confused / conflicting / tense 4. You get questions about delegated tasks too often Advantages of Delegation : Advantages of Delegation Positive aspects of delegation include: 1. Higher efficiency 2. Increased motivation 3. Develops the skills of your team 4. Better distribution of work through the group How to Delegate : How to Delegate Identify a suitable person for the task. Prepare the person. Explain the task clearly. Make sure that you are understood. Leave room in the task description for ingenuity / initiative. Make sure the person has the necessary authority to do the job properly. Keep in touch with the person for support and monitoring progress. Do not get to close. Accept alternative approaches. Praise / Acknowledge a job well done. Slide 48: Responsibility Even though you have delegated a task to someone else, you are still responsible for making sure the task is done on time and correctly. If the task fails, you can not point the finger. You have delegated it. It is your fault. You may have picked the wrong person for the job Slide 49: Authority The amount of authority you delegate is up to you, although it should be enough to complete the task. Slide 50: Tasks you should not delegate Obviously some aspects of leadership are sensitive and should not be delegated. For example: Hiring Firing Pay issues Policy Slide 51: Your Task after Delegating After delegating: 1. Plan - goals, meeting, tasks 2. Direct - your team, keep them on track 3. Encourage - boost morale Keeping The Team Together : Keeping The Team Together Introduction One function that a leader of a team must perform is holding the team together. A leader is responsible for: 1. ensuring project goals are met 2. ensuring a full team effort 3. keeping the team happy Slide 53: MotivationThe key to holding the team together is motivation. To motivate is to: "cause (person) to act in a particular way; stimulate interest of (person in activity)." In simple terms, motivation can be considered as the amount of effort an individual is willing to put into their work. Slide 54: According to the influential motivator-hygiene theory, motivation occurs when people have job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be improved by increasing opportunities for: 1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Responsibility 4. Career advancement Slide 55: While not increasing job satisfaction, improvements in the following areas can lessen job dissatisfaction: 1. Supervision 2. Salary 3. Working conditions 6 Steps to Motivation : 6 Steps to Motivation The following steps can be taken to help achieve and maintain group motivation: 1. Provide opportunities for group members to become acquainted. 2. Indicate the importance/value of the group. 3. Make people feel they are important. 4. Clarify goals. 5. Identify progress. 6. Acknowledge achievements. Slide 57: Disputes =Inevitably, disputes ranging from minor differences in opinion, to fundamental differences in ideology, will arise. =The role of the team leader is to handle such disagreements constructively, ensuring that the team remains focused on achieving its goal. =The leader must encourage team members to stand back from any disagreements and look at things objectively. =By doing this, any differences between group members will be resolved and possible conflicts avoided. Slide 58: Conclusion The most important point for a team leader to remember is that each individual needs to think that they are working with the best people - to feel proud to be part of the team. By getting people into this state of mind a leader will instill a high level of group morale; people will work harder and achieve more. Slide 59: THANKS for LISTENING

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