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Basic GPS Theory

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Information about Basic GPS Theory
Science-Technology

Published on March 21, 2009

Author: 8404167546

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide 1: ????: ????????? ??? GNSS Leica GPS System 1200 ?????????? : ?????????? GNSS ??????? ?????????????? GNSS ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????: ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??: ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? GNSS ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? (Dilution of Precision) ?????????, ???????, ???????? ??????? ?????????????? : ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? U. S. Department of Defense (DOD) ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????? 10 - 20 m ???????? ?? ?????? ???? 24 –????? ?????? ?????? ( ???? ) ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? GNSS ?????????? : ????????? ??????? 1 ?????? ??????? 5 ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? NAVSTAR : NAVigationSatellite Time and Ranging 24 ???????? 20200 Km ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? GNSS ?????????? GNSS ??????????- ????????? ??????? : GNSS ??????????- ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????: 1 AirForceBase Colorado Spring 5 ??????????? ??????? GNSS ???????? : ?????????? : GNSS ???????? : ?????????? ?????????? = ?????*????????? ?? ?????????? S=t*V ??????? ???????? : ??????? : 1 ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ? ?????? R1... R1 ??????? ???????? : ??????? ??????? ???????? : ??????? : ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???? “????????? ??????? ?????” ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????, ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? GPS ??????????? ????????? ??-?????? ?????????, ????? ????? ?? ??-??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? (299 792 458 m/s) (?????????? = ?????*????????? ?? ?????????? S=t*V) ??? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? 1/10 ???. ?????? = 30,000 ?? ?????? 1/1,000,000 ???. ?????? = 300 ? ?????? ??????? ???????? : ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? : 4 ?????????? ?? ?? ?? ????????? ???????, ??????, ???????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? GNSS ????????? ?? ??????? : ????? GPS ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????: C/A ??? ????? ??????? L1 P ??? Y ??? ????? ????? ??????? L1 ? L2 ???????????? ????????? ??????????????10.23 MHz x 154 x 120 L11575.42 MHz L21227.60 MHz C/A Code1.023 MHz P-Code10.23 MHz P-Code10.23 MHz ÷ 10 50 BPS ???????????? ????????? GNSS ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? : ???????????????? (???) ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????? 1 msec ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? (DT) ???? ?? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ???, ??????? ?? ???????? ???, ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? : ?????????? ?? ??????: ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ? 19 ?? ?? ??????? L1 ? 24 ?? ?? ??????? L2 ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?e???? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????: (?????????????? ?? ??????) ? ???????, ? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?.?. ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ???????? (???????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????) ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????, ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? : ????????????? ? ???? 4 GNSS ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ( ????? GDOP ) ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? : ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? GNSS ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ???? ????????, ?? GNSS ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? : ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????: ????? ??, ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????. ??????? ? ????????: ????????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????, ?? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? : ?????? ??? ???????????? GNSS ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?, ?? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? (299 792 458 m/s) GNSS ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ???????????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ????????, GNSS ????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????????. ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? GNSS ????????? . 19950 Km 50 Km Troposphere Ionosphere 200 Km ?????? ? GNSS ????????? : ?????? ? GNSS ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????????. ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????: ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? : ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? GNSS ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???, ? ???? ???? ? ?????????? ??????,????? ???? ??? ??????????. ??????? ??? ????????????? : ??????? 10 - 30 m ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? 10-30? ??????????? ?? ?? C/A ??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? : ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? 10 - 100 m ??????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? SA SA ???????? ?????????,??????????? ?? C/A ???? ?? 2*???????????? ??????????: +/- 100 m ? ????????? +/- 160 m ??? ???????? Slide 21: ... ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ????????? Differential GNSS ?????? ????? ?? ??????????????? GNSS ?????????? : ????? ?? ??????????????? GNSS ?????????? ????????? ?? Rover B ???? ?? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? Reference A ??? ??????? ??: ???????????? ?? Reference A ?? ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????? GPS ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? 3mm - 5m ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??? / ???? : ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??? / ???? ??? ?? ???????? ???? Code ????????? ? ? ????????? 30 - 50 ?? ?????????? ???? ???????? DGPS ??? ?? ???????? Phase ??? Code & Phase ????????? ? ? ????????? 5-10 mm + 1ppm ??????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? : ???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? (0) ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ? (0) ???????? ?? ????????????????? : Rapid Static ?????? ?????? ??????????????????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????????? ? ???????? ??-????: ???????? ?? ????????????????? ??????? (m) 1.00 0.10 0.01 STATIC 0 120 RTK 0 20 ????? (sec) Ambiguities Not resolved Ambiguities Resolved ?????????? ?? ????????? (DOP) : ?????????? ?? ????????? (DOP) ???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? DOP ? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?? ???????????? GDOP (?????????), ??????? ?? Lat, Lon, Height & Time PDOP (3D ???????) ??????? ?? Lat, Lon & Height HDOP (???????) ??????? ?? Lat & Lon VDOP (????????) ??????? ?? ???? Height ????? GDOP ??? GDOP ????????? ?? GNSS ??????????????? : ????????? ?? GNSS ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? : 10 - 100 m (??????? ? 1 ?????, ? ?????????? ?? SA ????) 5 - 10 m (24 ????) ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???? : 30 - 50 cm (P Code) 1 - 5 m (CA Code) ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? : 5 mm + 1 ppm

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