Bartlett Hatchery Reform

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Information about Bartlett Hatchery Reform

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Candelora


Hatchery Reform and Implications to Steelhead Management:  Hatchery Reform and Implications to Steelhead Management Heather Bartlett Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries in Washington State:  Hatcheries in Washington State WDFW Tribe USFWS Hatchery Reform Project:  Hatchery Reform Project Hatcheries have generally been unable to offset habitat degradation and meet harvest objectives. Systematic, science-driven redesign of hatcheries to achieve two new goals: Conserve naturally spawning populations Support sustainable fisheries Progress:  Progress Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG) for Puget Sound and Coast Formed in 2000 from federal legislation Composed of blue-ribbon scientists Artificial Production Review and Evaluation (APRE) for Columbia River Forum for open co-manager discussion Identify actions to improve programs Principles and Recommendations:  Principles and Recommendations HATCHERY SCIENTIFIC REVIEW GROUP Hatchery Reform Project Hatchery Reform: Principles and Recommendations of the Hatchery Scientific Review Group April 2004 Hatcheries as a Tool:  Hatcheries as a Tool Productive, natural habitat is key. Hatcheries are part of the ecosystem in which they operate. A successful hatchery program has more benefits than risks. A hatchery either enhances natural spawning or operates independent of it. Balanced portfolio represents the highest likelihood for success in a watershed. Adaptive management improves hatchery management. Assessment of Washington Populations and Programs:  Assessment of Washington Populations and Programs WDFW took the lead on the development of a steelhead science paper Provide a foundation for the development of a Management Plan Compilation of the history of steelhead management Summary of biological data through several decades Includes Findings and Recommendations Set parameters for steelhead management and artificial production into the future. Components of the Steelhead Science Paper:  Components of the Steelhead Science Paper Steelhead biology Artificial production Management Population identification Diversity and spatial structure Abundance and productivity Biology of the Steelhead:  Biology of the Steelhead Vast diversity in life history of the Pacific salmonids Varying degrees of anadromy Varying combinations of freshwater-ocean residency Iteroparity Plasticity between generations Findings and Recommendations:  Findings and Recommendations Diverse biological characteristics magnify management complexity Complexity of anadromous-residence relationship necessitates a broader view of land and fishery management actions Determine zones of shared and isolated use throughout Washington Artificial Production:  Artificial Production Strategies for hatchery programs Integrated - Represents 15 hatchery programs Isolated - Represents 32 hatchery program Primary management objective Recovery Harvest Survival rates variable Highest for Olympic Peninsula and SW Washington Lowest for Upper Columbia, Snake River and Puget Sound Artificial Production and Economic Benefits:  Artificial Production and Economic Benefits Hatchery steelhead provide substantial recreational and economic benefits to Washington residents Represent as much as 94% of the sport harvest Estimated economic value of $89 million dollars Cost:benefit ratio of 10:1 Impacts of Artificial Production:  Impacts of Artificial Production Occurs through four main categories Extinction Loss of within-population diversity Outbreeding depression Domestication Isolated Hatchery Programs:  Isolated Hatchery Programs Typically of non-local origin Risk Domestication Outbreeding depression/loss of among population diversity Expected gene flow rate < “stray” rate Integrated Hatchery Program :  Integrated Hatchery Program One population, two spawning environments Risk Domestication Ameliorated through management of ‘proportionate natural influence’, and Managing selective intensity of hatchery environment Analysis comparing two strategies preliminary Findings and Recommendations:  Findings and Recommendations Significant economic and conservation benefits of artificial production programs Most programs built from Chambers winter or Skamania summer origin steelhead Low reproductive success in natural spawning High potential genetic risk posed by Chambers and Skamania Performance of integrated programs superior for rates of gene flow >2% of isolated programs Management:  Management Cultural, ceremonial and religious value Economic value >$89 million in economic impact Legal framework Overlapping regulatory authority “Boldt Decision” The Tribes and non-Indians entitled to a fair share Determined usual and accustomed grounds Evolutionary Significant Unit:  Evolutionary Significant Unit Population Identification:  Population Identification Puget Sound - 51 populations Olympic Peninsula - 31 populations Southwest Washington - 19 populations within three sub-regions. Lower Columbia River - 19 populations The Middle Columbia – 9 populations The Upper Columbia – 11 populations Snake River – 40 populations Findings and Recommendations:  Findings and Recommendations Washington ESU populations remaining ranged from 45 – 100%. Pursue opportunities to preserve and restore population structure through linkage of the H’s Uncertainty in population structure Systematic review of the population structure in Puget Sound, Olympic Peninsula and Southwest Washington. Genetic data from juveniles inconclusive Locations with greatest uncertainty need the most effort to increase understanding of structure. Diversity and Spatial Structure Range of Estimated Loss:  Diversity and Spatial Structure Range of Estimated Loss Findings and Recommendations :  Findings and Recommendations Substantial loss of spatial structure and diversity for some regions of state Preserve and restore spatial structure and diversity through careful review of H-actions No metric, protocol or structure exists for assessing changes in diversity Expand current Salmon Stock Inventory (SaSI) reporting of abundance to include diversity and spatial structure. Mapping of habitat with redds will be invaluable for assessing recovery Enhance current Geographic Information System (GIS) Abundance and Productivity:  Abundance and Productivity Directly related to sustainable harvest and population viability Fishing opportunities for naturally produced steelhead are limited Potential risk of extinction exists for some populations within different ESUs Findings and Recommendations:  Findings and Recommendations Lack of escapement data for some populations Need funds and alternative estimation methods to increase percentage of populations assessed Habitat degradation substantially reduced production potential 83% potential reduction of 42 populations assessed in Washington Large variability in population status 90% of Olympic Peninsula populations were healthy Five of the ESUs had less than 20% of their populations has healthy 13 populations most at risk of extinction Hatchery Reform for Steelhead:  Hatchery Reform for Steelhead Evaluate programs for risk/benefit of the two strategies – isolated or integrated. Competition Gene flow potential Harvest benefit When risks inconsistent with policy objective Release steelhead only where they can be recaptured Replace program with integrated strategy developed from naturally spawning population Size program consistent with policy objectives

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