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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Dixon

Source: authorstream.com

Hardwoods of California:  Hardwoods of California by Karen Waddell and Tara Barrett Forest Inventory and Analysis Photo courtesy of Dave Azuma, PNW FIA Slide2:  Hardwoods of California Important for watershed protection, wildlife food and habitat, firewood, hardwood lumber, recreation, grazing and biodiversity Slide3:  The only previous statewide assessment of hardwoods was made from 1981-1984 data. Reported in The Hardwoods of California’s Timberlands, Woodlands, and Savannas by Charles L. Bolsinger (1988). Limitations: Only 1 plot per 30,000 acres on woodland No inventory for national forests No inventory for reserved lands Slide4:  Methods (briefly) Results General results: volume, area by forest types Change from 1981-1984 to 1991-1994 Regeneration issues Pre-Sudden Oak Death assessment of forest conditions Hardwoods in California’s forests (1990s) Slide5:  The methods Good news: Twice as many woodland plots in the 1991-1994 inventory! Timberland: ~ 1 plot per 7,400 ac Woodland: ~ 1 plot per 14,800 ac Photo by Marc Hoshovsky, CA Dept. of Fish and Game Photo by Marc Hoshovsky, CA Dept. of Fish and Game Slide6:  More really, really good news: an inventory for national forests (1993-2000) For hardwood assessment on National Forest lands in California, we are using the Integrated Database (IDB) Region 5 (NFS) plots. Most measurements from 1994-2000. Also, small number of plots in Siskiyou and Del Norte counties from Region 6 (NFS), measured 1993 - 1996 Slide7:  The not-yet-perfect news: No inventory before 2001 for national parks, state parks, and other reserved lands outside of national forests. Guesstimate puts this at about 6 percent of forest land in California. California hardwood estimates “excluding reserved lands outside of National Forests” GIS data from Conservation Biology, Intl. Red areas: national park system, state park system, … Slide8:  “Non-forest” is not inventoried. For woodlands, “non-forest” means less than 10% tree canopy. Land with a “non-forest use” (golf course, city park, orchard, back yard) is not inventoried. Additional caveats Some of this wildland that isn’t considered forest land - chapparal in southern and central coastal counties – is assessed for 14 counties in a FIA resource bulletin currently in press (by Fried, Bolsinger, and Beardsley). Slide9:  California hardwoods: The Results The estimated area for hardwood forest types is 11.3 million acres (+/- 2% se).* The estimated net growing stock volume of hardwood tree species on unreserved land is estimated as 14.1 billion cubic feet (+/- 3 percent se). The estimated biomass of hardwood trees is 555 million tons (+/- 2 percent se).* Forest land Volume Biomass 29% 21% 40 % *“excluding reserved lands outside of National Forests” Slide10:  Average annual precipitation California has extremely varied environmental conditions; Hardwood species and forest types reflect that variability Slide11:  Forest types by location, combining FIA & NFS inventories (Points represent field plots, which have variable acre weights.) Slide12:  1 Excludes National Parks Estimated area for oak (Quercus) forest types in California, 1990s* * Excludes reserved land outside of National Forests Slide13:  * Excludes reserved lands outside of National Forests Estimated area for other hardwood forest types in California, 1990s* Slide14:  Distribution of California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) from NFS and FIA plots combined Slide15:  California 1990s growing stock volume for hardwoods Trees >= 5” dbh, excluding cull, unreserved land Slide17:  Blue oak: Decrease 5.5% Tanoak: Increase 0.8% Interior live oak Increase 6.3% Coast live oak Decrease 6.8% California black oak Decrease 10.6% Canyon live oak Increase 5.6% Oregon white oak Decrease 3.9% Pacific madrone Decrease 5.1% Hardwood forest types in 1980s vs 1990s, unreserved land outside of national forests (FIA inventory only) In many cases, the change in hardwood area is primarily caused by shifts of land to/from National Forest or reserved status. Best estimate of change: using plots and subplots measured in both inventories, applying 1990s algorithms for forest type to both inventories. Slide18:  1980s FIA inventory found regeneration sparse in oak woodlands, with much of the hardwood forest type being classified as nonstocked or lightly stocked with seedlings and saplings. Similar metrics for the 1990s inventory show similar results. Photo courtesy of Dale Waddell Slide19:  Stable tree populations over a region resemble a negative J-shape curve. Ratio is 350/130 = 2.7 Slide20:  For comparison, ratio of Small Sapling to Large Sapling ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 for most conifers. Quercus douglasii Quercus wislizeni Quercus agrifolia Lithocarpus densiflora Quercus chrysolepsis Quercus garryana Quercus kelloggii Regeneration – Sapling diameter class ratios Data from 10.8 ft fixed area plots in FIA inventory 1991-1994. Slide21:  Inventory shows regeneration is sparse for blue oak and Oregon white oak, with valley oak and Engelmann oak uncommon. This may be indicative of a possible problem, but it is by no means conclusive: We don’t know what a “sustainable” diameter class ratio would be. Regeneration could be episodic. (However …. hardwood report in 1980s found similar results.) The inventory cannot explain why regeneration is sparse: Designed research studies often better for understanding importance of different factors. Slide22:  Good news: The inventory dates are fairly good for a pre-SOD forest assessment. Sudden Oak Death described in tanoaks in Marin County in 1995. For sampled land in 12 SOD counties: 87% of forest was inventoried from 1991 to 1994 13% of forest was inventoried from 1996 to 1998 (Humboldt, Mendocino & Monterey counties) Pre- Sudden Oak Death forest conditions Slide23:  Estimated area of forest types for Sudden Oak Death Counties Alameda, Contra Costa, Humboldt, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma Slide24:  Potential wildlife impacts from Sudden Oak Death? Specific relationships between wildlife species and tree species generally unknown, but Over 300 vertebrate species depend on oak woodlands for habitat or food. Many wildlife species eat acorns or madrone berries, or are dependent on prey species that eat acorns in timberland forests, acorns are primarily from either California black oak or tanoak, both of which are host species subject to mortality from Sudden Oak Death Slide25:  Sudden Oak Death potential Large number of host species, both trees and shrubs/ Host tree species include those predominant for most forest in the area (74% of sampled forest). Host tree species noted for related mortality (tanoak, California black oak, coast live oak): Are predominant for large land areas Are common as components of other types Are competitors for commercial conifers, but Are very important for wildlife food and cover Area affected is increasing, unknown potential range limits. Summary: Potential for very extensive changes in species composition and structure over very large areas of forest, potential for many indirect ecosystem effects (wildlife). Slide26:  Acknowledgements Most of the work in collecting and processing the California hardwood data was conducted by … off National Forests: the PNW-FIA staff of the 1990s on National Forests: Region 5 staff, particularly the Ecosystem Planning (Remote Sensing) group, & Region 6 inventory staff Photo by Dale Waddell

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