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Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Obama

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THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE A case study about how the impossible became reality :  THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE A case study about how the impossible became reality Josep Puig i Boix Former Sustainable City Councillor of Barcelona EUROSOLAR Spain Johannesburg, Aug.-Sept., 2002 The city of Barcelona :  The city of Barcelona Municipal surface: 99.07 km2 buildings 55.89% roads 16.57% green spaces 9.42% forests 18.12% Inhabitants: 1,505,581 (15,197 inh/km2) Metropolitan area: 3,000,000 inhabitants Barcelona Energy Flow:  Barcelona Energy Flow Minimum Domestic Energy Services Barcelona (1):  Minimum Domestic Energy Services Barcelona (1) Barcelona population (1997): 1,505,581 W/cap GWh/year End-Use conventional 200 2,638 Technologies efficient 35 462 real (1998) 102 1,348 (only domestic sector, not including service sector nor industry) Minimum Domestic Energy Services Barcelona (2):  Minimum Domestic Energy Services Barcelona (2) Supply Technology - conventional TPP/CCGT - NukPP End-Use conventional 377 MW Technology efficient 66 MW real (1998) 192 MW (CF= 0.8) Barcelona Renewable Energy Flow:  Barcelona Renewable Energy Flow Minimum Domestic Energy Services Barcelona (3):  Minimum Domestic Energy Services Barcelona (3) Supply Technology - RES clean & renewable energies energy capacity surface capacity surface GWh MWSEGS km2 MWWECS km2 E-U conv. 2,638 860 16.61 1,004 10.04 Tech. effic. 462 151 2.91 176 1.75 real(1998) 1,348 440 8.49 513 5.13 SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.25; LU: 1 Ha/MW) Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun and Wind:  Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun and Wind Electricity SEGS(th) WECS consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf. GWh MW km2 MW km2 Total 5,385 1,756 33.9 2,459 24.6 Domestic 1,348 440 8.5 616 6.2 Com/ind. 3,917 1,278 24.6 1,789 17.9 Transport 120 39 0.8 55 0.6 SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.25; LU: 1 Ha/MW) Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun (1):  Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun (1) Electricity SEGS(th) SEGS(PV) consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf. GWh MW km2 MW km2 Total 5,385 1,756 33.9 2,442 24.4 Domestic 1,348 440 8.5 611 6.1 Com/ind 3,917 1,278 24.6 1,777 17.7 Transport 120 39 0.8 54 0.5 SEGSth (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - SEGSPV (EF: 0.15; LU: 1 Ha/MW) Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun (2):  Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun (2) Electricity SEGSPV consumed Capac. Surf. GWh MW km2 m2/inh m2/aprt. Total 5,384.7 2,442 24.4 16.2 36.5 Domestic 1,348.1 611 6.1 4.1 9.1 Com/ind. 3,917.1 1,777 17.7 11.7 26.5 Transport 119.6 54 0.5 0.4 0.8 SEGSPV (EF: 0.15; LU: 1 Ha/MW) Barcelona: Heating Water with the Sun:  Barcelona: Heating Water with the Sun Energy Consumption for Domestic Hot Water: Natural Gas: 558 GWh/year Electricity: 337 GWh/year Total 895 GWh/year Total area needed: 1.5 km2 (city: 100 km2) Total area per person: 1.0 m2 Total area per apartment: 2.3 m2 Total area per building: 19.0 m2 Realising the Renewable Energy Potential :  Realising the Renewable Energy Potential Three conditions: political will: political commitment technical ability: committed & skilled technicians people’s involvement: public participation PARTNERSHIP Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (1):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (1) Barcelona, June 1995 - May 1999: A committed group of people worked hard to open the door to the Energy Sustainability into the city An interesting set of circumstances came together to make it happen: municipality RE Companies RE NGOs Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (2):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (2) Municipality As a result of the 1995 municipal elections the city government adopted sustainability as a issue. April 22nd., 1998: the Plenary Session of the City Council adopted a political decision on Energy Sustainability, including: promotion of energy efficiency, use of renewable energies, information to the citizens, cooperation with other local energy actors. Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (3):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (3) To implement policies the municipality made use of two key instruments: the Civic Table on Energy (‘Taula Cívica de l’Energia’) the Local Energy Agency (‘BarnaGEL - Barcelona Grup de Energia Local’). Realising the EE Potential: the case of Barcelona (4):  Realising the EE Potential: the case of Barcelona (4) The Civic Table on Energy (municipal body) created in 1994 as a result of a public hearing on environment and energy involves local officials/staff from different departments of the city council with a local representative of a NGO energy platform Barcelona Saves Energy (‘Barcelona Estalvia Energia - BEE’) main objective: to build complicities on energy from all people in different departments of the city council. Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (5):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (5) The local Energy Agency BarnaGEL(independent) EU-PERU (now SAVE) project, 1994 Main proposers: Leicester City Council and Metropolitan Area of Barcelona Other local Partners: Ecoserveis (local NGO on energy & environment), ICAEN (Regional Energy Agency of Catalonia) and UAB (Autonomous University of Barcelona) Main objective: to build complicities between local actors in order to develop energy projects Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (6):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (6) The results of the work (1995 -1999) an EE&RE demo caravan the Sustainable City Resources Centre doubling the solar the collector area solar thermal: from 700 to 1,350 m2 29 times more solar PV collector area solar PV: from 80 to 2,400 m2 the Solar Law (Solar Ordinance) Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (7):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (7) The solar/wind/efficient caravan: Equipment being used in Barcelona city and around Barcelona province’s villages and cities to show in real operation how a house could run with renewables and energy efficient appliances 35 Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (8):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (8) The Sustainable City Resources Centre: A municipal fixed facility equipped with a permanent exhibition with energy efficient devices and appliances and renewable energy devices. It’s open to the public, free of charge, since May 1999. 35 Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (9):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (9) Solar Thermal Water Systems in all the existing municipal sports facilities. Two first installations completed: Poliesportiu Torrent de Melis (74 m2 of solar collectors) Piscina Bon Pastor (80 m2 of solar collectors). Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (10):  Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (10) A PV Solar Roof at the two main buildings of the City Hall EC Thermie Project 1,000 m2, 100 kWp Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (11):  Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (11) Biogas valorisation from organic fraction of wastes Garraf Landfill 3 Methanisation Plants (75,000 tn each): the first one now in operation two more in construction Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (12):  Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (12) The Solar Law or the Barcelona Ordinance on Application of Solar Thermal Energy Systems into the Buildings The Law enforces all the new buildings to be built in Barcelona (and all the integrally retrofitted buildings) to have Solar Thermal Water Systems to cover 60 % of sanitary water heating needs. Adopted by the Plenary Session of the Council (July 1999) Mandatory since 1st August 2000. Barcelona Solar Ordinance :  Barcelona Solar Ordinance In 1995, as a city councillor, I asked the question: Why the solar energy was not widely used in Barcelona ? We have the resource: Sun We have needs: heating sanitary water We have surface available in the city Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Resource:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Resource The Sun in Barcelona Sunshine hours: 2,351 hours/year Solar radiation: 14.5 MJ/m².day 1,470.1 kWh/m².year The surface of Barcelona municipality receives 524.35 PJ/year = 145.65 TWh/year 10 times the energy consumption of the city 28 times the electricity consumption of the city Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Needs:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Needs The families living in Barcelona use for heating sanitary water: - natural gas: 558,139,535 kWh/year - electricity: 407,942,893 kWh/year The result: 200,000 T CO2/year 3.8 * 1012 Bq of radioactivity/year 1,400 kg/year of radioactive wastes Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Available Surface:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Available Surface The buildings in Barcelona mainly have roofs or flat terraces on top have between 14 m2 and 43 m2 of roof/terrace per apartment Barcelona Solar Ordinance (5): The Needed Surface:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance (5): The Needed Surface To heat by the Sun all the domestic sanitary water the city uses, it will be necessary to cover 1.61 km2 of surface 1.62 % of municipal surface or 2.82 % of built surface It represents 1.07 m2/inhabitant 2.4 m2/apartment 20.15 m2/building (residential) Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Process (1):  Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Process (1) June 1997: The Sustainable City Councillor’s Office translated to catalan the Berlin Solar Collector Ordinance Draft. Information to the Mayor of Barcelona. January 1998: The Barcelona Civic Table on Energy adopted a resolution to work on developing a Solar Ordinance for the city. 1998: discussion of the Barcelona Solar Energy Ordinance’s Draft with all interested parties. Sceptics said: ‘a city like Barcelona has no power to implement a local law about solar energy’ The supporters: ‘we will proceed and see what will happen’ Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Process (2):  Barcelona Solar Ordinance: The Process (2) February 1999: the Plenary Session of the City Council adopts the initial text of the Barcelona Solar Ordinance. Feb-May 1999: open time period for people/organisations to present writen proposals to modify the initial text. July 1999: the Plenary Session of the City Council adopts by unanimity the Barcelona Solar Ordinance. 1st August 2000: enforcement of the Barcelona Solar Ordinance Barcelona Solar Ordinance What are the results?:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance What are the results? Evolution of solar collector surface: 1995: 700 m2 of SHS 1998: 1,181 m2 1999: 1,350 m2 2000: 1,632 m2 2001: 6,321 m2 Barcelona Solar Ordinance The results (m2):  Barcelona Solar Ordinance The results (m2) Number of buildings: 65 Domestic: 3,145 6,425 Hotels: 1,745 2,114 Sports facilities: 972 1,458 Hospitals: 307 349 Other: 152 421 TOTAL: 6,321 10,768 dec.2001 jun.2002 Barcelona Solar Ordinance :  Barcelona Solar Ordinance The city has opened the door to the Sun Barcelona Solar Ordinance Complicities:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance Complicities All that have not been possible without a lot of complicities, ranging from companies to NGOs. Barcelona Solar Ordinance The exemple:  Barcelona Solar Ordinance The exemple In Catalonia inhabitants mandatory Sant Joan Despí 24,977 nov.1999 Montcada i Reixac 26,356 nov.2000 Esplugues de Llobregat 48,310 end 2001 Terrassa 158,063 jun. 2002 Cardedeu 9,040 end 2002 Palafrugell 17,417 end 2002 Sant Cugat del Vallès 38,937 end 2002 In Spain: Sevilla, Valladolid, Madrid, . . . THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE is a clear case that shows how the impossible becomes a reality !:  THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE is a clear case that shows how the impossible becomes a reality ! Josep Puig i Boix EUROSOLAR Spain e-mail: barnagel@energiasostenible.org END

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