Banking law & and operation

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Information about Banking law & and operation

Published on January 28, 2016

Author: madhuazad


1. Presentation From , Madhu sudan.S 1st ‘A’sec S.V.R.F.G.C Chandapura SUB :- Banking law and operation TOPIC ;- BANKING INNOVATIONS

2. New technology in banking E-services Debit and Credit card Internet banking ATM Electronic fund transfer MICR RTGC DEMAT

3. E commerce essentially is the paperless exchange of business information through network based technologies. Its nothing but transaction routed through internet. Today's banking business is virtual banking. It denotes the provision of banking and other related services through the extensive use of IT, without direct source to the bank by customer. The principle types of virtual banking services ATM’s, EFT, smart card, phone banking, home banking, internet banking, store value cards.

4. TRADITIONAL V/S E- BANKINGIn traditional banking, the customer has to visit the branch of the bank to perform basic banking operations via account enquiry, funds transfer, cash withdrawals etc. it is the brick and mortar structure of a bank is one of the essential banking function. On other hand E-Banking enables the customers to perform the basic banking transactions by sitting at their office or at home. By using PC and laptops or from mobiles. The customer can access the banking websites for viewing their account details and perform the transactions on account as per their requirements

5. E-BANKING TRANSACTIONS 1.A/c enquiries 2.Fund transfer a. Payment of electricity, water, Telephone bill etc,,, b. Online payments for transaction actually performed through NET c. Request for passbook, cheque, Draft etc,,,, d. Request for statement of A/c by bank that lists Deposits, withdrawals, interest earned, etc,,,, up to the date

6. Electronic Delivery Channels 1. ATM’s 2. Smart cards 3. Tele banking 4. Internet banking ATM(AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE) ATM is a computerized telecommunication device that provides bank’s customer a secure method of performing financial transaction in a public place without the need of any one An ATM is also known as Automated Banking machine in Canada, Cash Machine in UK and cash point in New Zealand

7. Structure of ATM

8. An Armenian named Luther George Simjian was forced to move to USA in the year 1920, under the account of Armenian Genocide. He owned to his credit the invention of a portrait camera and then rolled out the formulated idea of ATM, the Automated Teller Machine. Confident of his invention, he persuaded Citibank to run his product on a six month trial basis. Soon enough, he was disappointed with the performance and the lack of users and concluded that ATM was a wasteful addition to personal banking. And lack of demand for the ATM finally forced him to take a back seat. Clear enough; the time was not right for this concept to have been accepted generously. Simjian clearly lost out on the success and fame and the same was passed on to two other gentlemen, John Shepherd-Barron and Don Wetzel. Historical development of ATM

9. Today, ATMs hold a strong foothold in the world, offering everyone a better access to their money, be it in any corner of the world. Let’s put figures to assumptions, there are about 1.8 million ATMs in use around the world with ATMs on cruise and navy ships, airports, newsagents and petrol stations. ATMs too have been categorized as on and off premise ATMs. On Premise ATMs are capable to connect the users to the bank with multi-function capabilities. Off premise, ATM machines on the other hand are the "white label ATMs" and are limited to cash dispense, no balance enquiries, no statement print-out. The developments have not stopped; the contactless technology is on its rise. Shepherd-Barron continued to take inimitable and lively interest in technology well even in his old age and had foreseen a future where plastic cards too would be numbered. For his excellent and unforgettable contributions to financial technologies, he was also offered the OBE in the year 2005. And in the year 2010, he took his last breath and left behind his legacy of technological advancements which would refuses to end. Many more inventions are in process and many will be successful too. The time is just right to bring in the glorious inventions rolling in.

10. TYPES OF ATM’s 1.Mono-function devices 2.multi-function devices TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS OF ATM’s 1. On premises- These are mostly located near to the banks of their own branches 2. Off premises- These are mainly located at near to the shopping malls, educational institutions, restaurants etc,,,,

11. RECENT TRENDS IN ATM’s 1.Paying routine bills, fees and taxes 2.Updating pass book 3.Ticket purchase 4.Donations to charities 5.Purchasing postal stamp 6.Games and promotional features

12. SMART CARDS A smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit chip (ICC) that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. The card connects to a reader with direct physical contact or with a remote contactless radio frequency interface. TELE BANKING Telephone banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution, that enables customers to perform financial transactions over the telephone, without the need to visit a bank branch or automated teller machine. Telephone banking times can be longer than branch opening times, and some financial institutions offer the service on a 24-hour basis. From the bank's point of view, telephone banking reduces the cost of handling transactions by reducing the need for customers to visit a bank branch for non-cash withdrawal and deposit transactions.

13. 1. Balance inquiry in respect of all the accounts of the customer. Details of last 5 transactions of the account. 2. Cheque Status Inquiry. Request for Account statement through Fax, email or post. Stop Payment Instructions 3. Loan details of the customer. 4. Bank product information. Funds Transfer Facility.(Will be available in next phase) 5. Reporting of ATM/Debit/Credit card lost.(Will be available in next phase)Facility to change password. 6. Demat Account details. 7. Facility to talk to Phone banker/Relationship Manager/Call Centre TELE BANKING SERVICES

14. ISSUE OF DEMAND DRAFT A demand draft is a negotiable instrument similar to a bill of exchange. A bank issues a demand draft to a client (drawer), directing another bank (drawee) or one of its own branches to pay a certain sum to the specified party (payee). A telecustomer who wants to avail the facility is required to give in writing in advance thee names of parties in whose favour he may want a draft and the branch on which the draft is to be drawn.

15. FUND TRANSFER National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) NEFT is electronic funds transfer system, which facilitates transfer of funds to other bank accounts in over 63000 bank branches across the country. This is a simple, secure, safe, fastest and cost effective way to transfer funds especially for Retail remittances. INTERNET BANKING An electronic payment system that enables customers of a financial institution to conduct financial transactions on a website operated by the institution, such as a retail bank, virtual bank, credit union or building society. Online banking is also referred as Internet banking, e-banking,

16. INTERNET BANKS's PRODUCTS 1.Information Kiosks- It providing information regarding various products and services that are available in the bank to his customers is apart from general information 2.Basic Internet banking- In this type, customers are allowed to open a new A/c, to check their A/c balance and to pay telephone bills, electricity bill etc,,,. 3.E-commerce banking- The customers are enabled to operate these type of A/c through electric media for transfer of money, payment of bills, purchase and sale of Securities. The banking information is passed through web server to the bank Internet banking Services through the WWW interface to comply with customers requisites. The inter net banking server receives the customer's request and passes it to the banking server where the customer database are stored. with the fall in cellphone tariff and emergence of seamless connectivity B/w fixed and mobile lines, telebanking or mobile baning is set to emerge as one cost-effective delivery channel in the near future.

17. ELECTRONIC REMITTANCE Now a days all the banks are having computerized their banking operation. Besides all the banks in the world are interlinked with each other through internet. This mechanization has facilitated the easy and fast remittance of money not only with in country but also out side the country. All over the world banks are interlinked with each other through internet. with a satellite maintained by SWIFT(Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial Telecommunication). FOREIGN INWARD REMITTANCE PAYMENT SCHEMES(FIRPS) It is the new scheme is mainly intended for facilitating easy trnsfer of money from foreign countries. It is mainly meant for foreign inward remittace. In general, itt is means of an order to its branch or correspondence in India to pay certain sum of money stated to the person named in the document.This remittance is in foreign country.

18. REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT(RTGS) It is a new system of payment in the banking environment has been introduced from 2004 onwards. this system is called RTGC. It is an upgrade technollogy and would coexist with the present electronic clearing and funds transffer services untill RTGC is fully implemented. Working of RTGC When a payment message is moved through th clearing house, the paying bank A/c with the RBI immediately debited and simultaneously the receiving banks A/c is credited throught net. This system provides an opportunity to collect funds aster from payer and Hence it reduces the receiver's working capital cycle. Without realtime facility the RTGC system cannot be implemented.

19. Superiority Over cheque system 1.Speedy collections 2.Irrevocable Payments 3.No settlement risks 4.Easy Liquitidity Management 5.Reduction in Processing Cost 6.No Risk of Fraud, Loss etc.. 7.Better Inventory management

20. E-BANKING TRANSACTIONS Any type of transactions can be handled throght E- banking.the following are some of the basic functions: 1.Payment of electricity water, telephone bills etc,, payment for transactions actually performed through Internet. 3.Request for issuance of cheque book, draft etc, 4.Request for statement of A/c's 5.Access to latest schemes 6.Access to rates of interest and other service charges.

21. TRUNCATED CHEQUE AND ELECTROMIC CHEQUE To facilitate E-banking, trancated cheque and electronic cheque have been very recently introduced. Sec. 6 of N.I Act contains the definition of a cheque. This Sec has been recently amanded to include trunceted and clectronic cheques within the definition of cheque. N.I Act Amendment The amanded Sec. 6 of N.T Act “a cheque is a Bill of Exchange Drawn on a sdpecified banker and not expressed to be payable otherwise than on demand and it includes electronic image of a turncated cheques and cheque in electronic form.” Turncated Cheque It is the conversion of a physical cheque into a substitute electronic form for transmission to the paying bank. Cheque truncation eliminates cumbersome physical presentation of the cheque and saves time and processing costs.

22. Essential features of truncated cheque 1. It is nothing but an electronic image of a physical paper cheque. 2. It is only clearing House or the bank involved can turncate a cheque 3. Any holder or drawer cannot truncate the cheque 4. This electronic image of the truncated cheque will substitute the physical cheque immediately from the time of truncation 5. It can be done only for the purpose of clearing to reduce the time taken for collection. 6. The clearing house or bank only cm truncate the cheque

23. Electronic cheque A form of payment made via the internet that is designed to perform the same function as a conventional paper check. Because the check is in an electronic format, it can be processed in fewer steps and has more security features than a standard paper check. Security features provided by electronic checks include authentication, public key cryptography, digital signatures and encryption, among others. 1. Time-tracking tools 2. Paper and electronic form support 3. Flexibility 4. Audit trail documentation 5. Built in process for employee requests Essential features of E-Cheque

24. Mechanism of E-cheque 1. The drawer prepares the E-cheque in his computer with the help of specialized software 2. He enters all the particulars like name of the bank, date, payee, amount, signature etc., and fill them up 3. He signs the same with his digital signature 4. It is then forwarded to the payee through e-mail or internet 5. The payee upon receiving the E-mail, opens the E-cheque with a specialized software 6. Then, the payee forwards the E- cheque along with the deposit slip to his bank through E-mail the paying banker has to verify the signature of the drawer and the payee and then forwards it to the drawer’s bank i.e., the paying banker

25. Advantages of E-cheque 1. Offer more convience 2. Any time cheque 3. Less expensive 4. Avoids loss in Transit, Bad delivery etc, 5. More protection 6. Avoids delay in payments 7. Facilitates E-banking

26. MOBILE BANKING The another new banking innovation product introduced is ‘Mchq’. ‘Mchq’ is nothing but a mobile-to-mobile payment option. It means that any one can use his cellphone like a wallet. This concept is taken from Japan and Asian countries. Modus operandi of ‘Mchq’ All vital personal information that are normally stored in the magnatic strip on the back of a credit card are now loaded on to the SMI card in a secure formate. The existing SIM card on a mobile has to replaced with one that has 128 bit which offer a higher degree of safety. while shopping, one has to give his pone number to his merchant, who would then send on a special mobile phone an SMS to the server of the mobile service provider. The customer does shopping will in turn get an SMS asking to conform payment.

27. ADVANTAGES 1. Paying through the mobile is quicker and more convenient than via internet. 2. This electronic payment facilitates small purchases 3. Generally credit cards are not much importance Launching of ‘Mchq’ in India In India, the ICICI bank has come forward to offer of ‘Mchq’ facility to its customer in collaborate with Airtel and this facility is offered to ICICI card holders and also the customer of Airtel. Initially , this facility is available in Delhi, Mumbai, national capital regions. The transation limit of rs.5000/- or 10 transactions only

28. Mondus Operandi This service allows a customer in one bank to remit funds to an A/c holder in another bank by using a mobile phone as a service of delivery channel. This service can be utilized either to receive money or pay money for which the following procedure is followed,,,,,,,,, To Receive Money 1. Register his mobile no with his bank to link to his bank 2. Get his Mobile Money identifier (MMID) from his bank 3. Share his mobile no and MMID with the remitter 4. Check the confirmation SMS for credit to his A/c from remitter To Pay Money 1. Register himself for mobile banking with his bank 2. Get his MMID and Mobile Banking Personnel Identification Number (MPIN) from his bank 3. Download the mobile banking application 4. Using SMS services 5. Check the conformation SMS for debit to his A/c and credit to Beneficiary A/c

29. Advantages 1.Round the clock banking 24*7 2.Convenience banking 3.Low cost banking 4.Profitable banking 5.Quality banking 6.Speed banking 7.Service banking

30. Constrains or Disadvantages 1.More Start up cost, implementation cost 2.Training and Maintenance 3.Lack of personnel skill 4.More Security 5.Legal issues 6.Restricted clientele and Technical problem 7.Restricted Services 8.Destruction of pricing mechanism

31. Security Measures 1)Authenticity control 2)Accuracy control 3)Completativeness controls 4)Privacy control 5)Audit trail control 6)Firewall controls

32. CREDIT CARD Credit card are innovated ones in the line of financial srevices offered by commercial bank. The idea of credit card was first developed by a Bavarian farmer, franz Nesbitum. This concept has adopted in USA by non banking companies. The credit B/s got momentum in sixties and a number of banks entered the field in a big way. credit card culture is old in Western countries. In India, it is relatevely a new concept that is fast catching on. The present trend indicates coming year will witness a burgeoning growth of credit card which will lead to a cashless society. What is a Credit card A credit card is a card which eanbles a card holder to purchase goods, travel and dine in a hotel without making immediate payment. It is a connivance of extended credit without formality. Thus, credit card is a passport to safety, connivance, prestige and credit.

33. Who can be a credit card holder 1. A person who earns a salary of Rs. 60000/- p.a is eligible for a card 2. A reference from a banker and the employer of the applicant is insisted upon Types of credit card 1. Credit card 2. Charge store 3. In-store card New types of credit card 1. Corporate credit card 2. Business card 3. Smart card 4. ATM card 5. Virtual card

34. Parties to a credit card 1. Issuer- the banker or other card issuing organization 2. Card holder – individual 3. Member establishment – shops and service organization enlisted by credit issuer who accept credit card 4. Member affiliated – these are tie-up arrangement Specimen of credit card

35. Facilities offered to credit card holders Making purchase / availing of services @ any of the member establishment Cash withdrawals at any of branches of the issuer or member affiliate of the issuer to meet emergent requirements Add on facilities for family members  free credit period ranging from 15 to 45 days ATM facility at selected centers Wide range of insurance facilities are available which includes personal accident insurance, cover of accidental death , baggage insurance, purchase protection, against risk of fire, risk, strike, theft etc during transportation and concessional premium rate for personal accidents insurance and midi claim.

36. Benefits of credit card To holder 1. credit card are simple to carry and easy to operate. 2. The holder is relive form carrying of cash or cheque. 3. A card is convent method of payment of goods and services. 4. Overdraft facility is given to credit card holder. 5. The purchasing power of the credit card holder increase to the extent of credit limit given in the card. 6. credit card provides a certain degree of prestige to the holder. Issuer 1. It decreases uses of the number of cheques. 2. Where the card is issued to non-A/c holder, it helps to get new customer. 3. Credit card offers high profit of the bank. Member Establishment1. No bad debt arises in credit cad transaction 2. The speedy selltlment of bills by bank 3. The acceptance of card in lieu of cash reduces security risk. 4. They are able to offer credit facility to their customer without setting up their own credit arrangement.

37. Demerits of credit card 1. Card holder  A high rate of interest is charged  The card holder are burned with service charge, annual fee, membership fee, etc.,  credit card tempts the holder foe more purchases beyond their income and repaying capacity. 2.Issuer Unless the number of card holder and the volume and the volume of B/s is high, the credit card B/s will not be a profitable one. The average utilization in India is only 20-30 % It establish the major problems for the issuer. 3.Member establishment The commission payable to the banks are heavy. Some banks makes delay in payment of amount. It affect the cash flow of the Member establishment

38. DEBIT CARDS Debit card is a plastic card issued by the banker to his customer used to withdraw money from ATM’s purchasing of goods in shopping malls. The developed countries like USA have moved a further step. It is an electronic product has become more and more popular in these countries. It requires the customer to open an account in the bank. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CREDIT AND DEBITCARDS 1. It is a pay later product 2. The holder can avail credit for 30 to 40 days only in case of credit card 3. No sophisticated telecommunication system is required. 4. Maintaining a required amount is not essential. 5. High possibility of risk of frauds. 1. It is a pay now product. 2. The customer has to maintain a minimum amount in his account. 3. The program requires installation of sophisticated communication networks. 4. Maintaining a required amount is essential. 5. The risk is minimized through PIN code Credit Card Debit Card

39. DEMAT ACCOUNT A DEMAT account is one where shares and securities of an investor can be held electronically instead of keeping them under physical possession. Clearing house of recognized stock exchanges, non-financial companies with minimum net worth, brokers and banks including foreign banks or eligible to open DEMAT accounts for their customers. A DEMAT account can be open by a depositary participants(DP). Before going to deep into the details of DEMAT account, it is essential that one should know the depositary process. DEPOSITARY PROCESS 1. THE DEPOSITARY 2. THE DEPOSITARY PARTICIPANTS 3. THE BENEFICIAL OWNERS 4. THE ISSUER

40. BANKER AS DEPOSITARY PARTICIPANTS Banker acts as a DEPOSITARY PARTICIPANTS for his customers by serving as intermediary between the investors and depositors. 1. Banks have specialized staff to deal with all types of shares and securities . 2. Banks have wider professional experience and a separate division specializing in merchant banking activities. 3. Bank have larger number of branches spread throughout the country. 4. Generally, banks provides quick processing and accessibility to their customer. 5. Some banks allows their customer to open a DEMAT account in any branch according to their option. 6. Some banks provides online access to the DEMAT account to check their present status of their holding. 7. Banks offer faster service since debits and credits to the DEMAT account will take only 2 to 3 days at the maximum. 8. Most of the banks keep savings account of their investors to which debits can be made for charges, purchases etc, by getting an authorization slip. Just like pass book entries, whenever purchases and sales take place, debit and credit entries made in the DEMAT account immediately.


42. 1) Investors will be able to change portfolio more frequently 2) The cost of transfer is less as the share transfer are exempt from stamp duty. 3) Faster payment takes place in case of sale of shares. 4) A single demat account can accommodate investments in both equity and debt instruments. 5) The problem of ‘odd lost’ shares will not arise since even one share can be brought and sold. 6) Demat account can be operated at any time from anywhere. 7) The companies will be able to know the particulars of beneficial owners and their holdings periodically. 8) At the time of declaration of dividends, bonus etc there will not be any rush for transfer related activities for the companies. 9) The foreign investors will start participating in the market resulting in a more buoyant capital market. 10) The existence of depository will result in increase in the volume of trade both by number and value. 11) It will attract more number of Indian middle income group within the ambit of capital market players either through direct involvement or through mutual funds.

43. DRAWBACKS OF DEMAT 1) Initially, the formalities to the complied with for opening and operation a Demat account are too many . 2) Trading in physical securities can be controlled easily as against trading in Dematerialized securities which may become uncontrollable at times. 3) Again, a close watch has to be exercised over the trading in dematerialized securities so that it may be as a detriment to investors. 4) Banks and others DPs who opened Demat accounts have to be conversant with multiple regulatory frameworks. 5) Keeping idle Demat account is a cause of great concern for bankers. CHARGES FOR DEMAT 1) Account opening fee 2) Annual maintenance fee. 3) Custodian fee. 4) Transaction fee.

44. DEMAT ACCOUNT v/s BANK ACCOUNT1) Nature of Product :- A DEMAT account mainly deals with securities where as a bank account mainly deals with funds. 2) Opening of an account :- A demat account can be opened with any depository participant, including a bank whereas a bank account can be opened only with a bank. 3) Purpose:- The purpose of opening a demat account is for safe keeping of securities whereas it is safekeeping of money in case of a bank account . 4) Interest:- A demat account does not earn any interest where as interest income is the main motivation for opening a bank account. 5) Minimum Balance:- A demat account does not insists upon any minimum balance. But minimum balance is mandatory in a bank account. 6) PAN number : It is a mandatory to give PAN number to open a Demat account. But it is optional in the case of a bank account except in some special cases.

45. MICR CHEQUE The Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) is basically a system which is used in banking operation world wide particularly for cheques. Due to a tremendous increase in the volume of cheques, it becomes very difficult to cheque each and every cheque to establish genuineness. To make this work easy, the MICR system has been used in banking operations. MICR TECHNIQUE Under this system, a cheque is pre coded with a band of codes and that is witten on ot can be read by machines very easily. The cheque can be read directly by MICR, without the necessity of Transcribing the data on punched cards of paper tapes. Generally, the requisites information is printed on the cheque in the form of codes with a special type of Ink. This ink is made of magnetic material. So, when the cheque is inserted into the machine, the information printed is magetized and it is read by the machine instantly. Thus, MICR technology is very useful in establishing the genuineness of a cheque and thereby it avoids frauds

46. FEATURES OF MICR CHEQUES 1). Size:- Under MICR system, the size of a cheque becomes an important element. Different size have been prescribed for different accounts, so that cheque pertaining to one account may be easily distinguished from another.

47. First field (6 digits) Second field (9 digits) For No. of the cheque Third field ( 6 digits) Fourth field (2 digits) Next 3 bank code First 3 for cities Last 3 bank code For account number For transaction number For amount Brand code Fifth field (13 digits) Examples of codes

48. City codes Transaction code codes Mumbai 400 New Delhi 100 Chennai 600 Kolkata 100 Savings A/c 10 Current A/c 11 Banker’s cheque 12 Cash credit 3 Dividend warrant 14 Traveler's cheque 15 Demand Draft For currents accounts, cash credit A/c’s etc.,

49. Specimen of MICR cheque 2.Quality of paper : the MICR system requires the us of good quality paper for cheques. The machine would not be able to read the information of a cheque on a poor quality paper. Hence, the working group on the use of MICR cheque has suggested that the weight of the paper should be 95 grams per sq.meter width. 3. MICR Code : Generally, a MICR cheques contains a band of codes having a width of “5/8” at the bottom of it. This band code can be divided into 5 fields as started below.

50. Drawbacks of MICR 1. This technology is very costly. Since a special type of paper is required for MICR cheque, so it is costlier. 2. This facility is limited for cities only, so only limited customers can make use of it. 3. It should not be fold and nothing should be written on the band of codes except signature and rubber stamp should enter the code band 4. The IT revolution has made it possible to introduced E-cheque and turncated cheque. So MICR cheque not gained more popularity. Advantages 1. Since MICR cheques are read by machines, the chances of error are minimized 2. The transfer of funds between two banks can take palce very easily and at greater speed. 3. The main advantage is that the clearing work is made for esier. 4. The burden of manual work gets r educed and t the same time accyracy is maintained

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