Published on February 22, 2014
Integration of Climate Change in National Development Planning in Bangladesh
NAPA (Developed in 2005, revised in 2009) UNFCCC process-led, for LDCs To highlight a few immediate & urgent projects BCCSAP 2009 GOB led Introduced programme ideas, no details Not yet linked with development planning Yet to be owned by various relevant institutions NAP… to be developed UNFCCC led (COP decision), for all Parties Medium and long term, comprehensive Plan
Why BD Needs a Climate Change Strategy? • Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world • Bangladesh has done fairly well in several development areas despite such huge odds – GDP & food production tripled since 1971- largely food secure. – Population growth rate substantially fallen – Expects to be a middle income country in a decade and half – 4 out of last 5 years posted 6% or higher growth – Poverty has fallen in the last decade, though still very daunting numbers are poor. – Child mortality fallen and gender parity in primary education achieved • These gains and Bangladesh’s future well-being are under grave threat due to CC
Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP)2009 • Studies, investigations, modeling since 1988. Played active role in IPCC process in 2nd, 3rd, 4th assessments, • Bangladesh had prepared NAPA in 2005, Bangladesh prepared response to Bali Action Plan and submitted it to UNFCCC in March 2008. • Five Task Forces have been set up, comprising government officials, academics, professionals and representatives of NGOs for guiding countries responses to impacts of Climate Change and support GoB’s preparation in CC Talks. • BCCSAP was finalized in 2009; approved by the Cabinet in October 2009. GoB committed $200 million of own funds towards implementation of the BCCSAP 2009.
BCCSAP 2009…. • BCCSAP is based on NAPA that was formulated through a consultative process. • Ensure 4 securities inviolate – Food, Water, Energy and Livelihood (incl health) • All 4 Bali elements – adaptation, mitigation, tech transfer and finance have been addressed. • To be integral part of development process • Commensurate institutional and human capacity development emphasized • Focus on awareness raising and disaster preparedness. • Research and data management given importance.
BCCSAP 2009… • Six pillars (Themes) – Food security, social protection & health security – Comprehensive disaster management – Infrastructure development – Research and knowledge management – Mitigation and low carbon development – Capacity building – institutional and human
T1: Food Security, Social Protection and Health • P1. Development of climate resilient cultivars and their dissemination • P2. Development of climate resilient cropping systems • P3. Adaptation against drought • P4. Adaptation in fisheries sector • P5. Adaptation in livestock sector • P6. Adaptation in health sector • P7. Water and sanitation in climate vulnerable areas • P8. Livelihood protection in ecologically fragile areas • P9. Livelihood protection of vulnerable socio-economic groups (including women)
T2: Comprihensive Disaster Management • P1. Improvement of flood forecasting and early warning • P2. Improvement of cyclone and storm surge warning • P3. Awareness raising and public education towards climate resilience • P4. Risk management against loss on income and property
T3 : Infrastructure Development P1. Rrehabilitation and Management of existing flood embankments P2. Repair and Management of cyclone shelters P3. Repair and Management of existing coastal polders P4. Improvement of urban drainage P5. Adaptation against floods P6. Adaptation against cyclones and storm surges P7. Planning and design of river training works P8. Planning, design and implementation of resuscitation of rivers and khals.
T4: Research & Knowledge Management • P1. Establish centre for knowledge mgement & training on CC • P2. Climate change modelling at national and sub-national levels • P3. Preparatory studies for adaptation against sea level rise • P4. Monitoring of ecosystem and biodiversity changes and their impacts • P5. Macroeconomic and sectoral economic impacts of CC • P6. Monitoring of Internal and external migration of adversely impacted population • P7. Monitoring of Impact of various issues related to management of tourism in Bangladesh
T5: Mitigation & Low Carbon Development P1. P2. P3. P4. P5. P6. P7. P8. P9. P10. Improved energy efficiency in production & consumption of energy Gas exploration & reservoir management Development of coal mines and coal fired power stations Renewable energy development Lower emission from agricultural land Management of urban waste Afforestation & reforestation programme Expansion of energy saving devices Energy and water efficiency in built environment Improvement in energy consumption pattern in transport sector and options for mitigation
T6: Capacity Building & Institutional Strengthening • P1. Revise of sectoral policies for climate resilience • P2. Main-stream CC in national, sectoral and spatial development plans • P3. Strengthen human resource capacity • P4. Strengthening of Gender considerations in Climate Change Management • P5. Strengthen institutional capacity for CC management • P6. Main-streaming CC in the Media
Financing the Action Plan • During first 2 years $2.0 billion will be required to implement immediate Actions. Total Cost for first 5 years could be US$ 10.0 billion. • GoB has established a 350/-million CC Trust Fund from her own resources. • A Multi-donor CC Resilience Fund( (about $200m has been collected) has been set up.
BCCSAP 2009….. Future • A living document; will be reviewed and amended based on – country development priorities – Status of international negotiations, Science and technology of CC, CC management. – Bangla version will be released soon. • Interventions to be sectoral responsibility; FOCAL POINTS to be identified in all Ministries; MoEF’s role will be limited to coordination and facilitation; a Climate Change Unit has been set up.
Integration of CC at national Level • Integration of Climate Change in National Development Planning in Bangladesh – is it happening? It is happening but slowly; • Climate Change focal points established in relevant Ministries for implementation of BCCSAP-2009. • 6th Five Year (2011-15) stated that CC concerns have been incorporated, but not ineffectively; • Perspective Plan (2010-2021) has considered environmentally sustainable development
Integration of CC at national Level... • Climate Change Trust fund (BCCTF) and Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF) set up and operational; WB responsible for fiduciary management of BCCRF; • Ministry of Finance is conducting a study entitled “Climate Fiscal Framework” on fund utilization and its effectiveness; • A process has been initiated that will require all project plans to be approved by Planning Commission will declare that CC concerns have been incorporated;
Integration of CC at national Level... • Planning Commission has taken up an initiative entitled mainstreaming Poverty-EnvironmentClimate (PEC) nexus into national planning and budgeting process. • Annual Development Program guidelines ( 2012) has incorporated PEC nexus • Lots of initiative on capacity and technology assessment & transfer – but business-as-usual approach dominates;
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