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Band Level of Integration

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Information about Band Level of Integration

Published on July 10, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A Comparison of bands in two different regions: the Arctic north and the Kalahari of Southern Africa
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Band Level of Integration Family and Multifamily Groups

Band Level of Integration Band in recent history are found in marginal areas Inuit (Eskimo) in cold climates of North America (upper left) !Kung San of the Kalahari in southern Africa (lower left) Aborigines in Australia, who adapted to a dry climate for 40,000 or more Mbuti “pygmies” of the Ituri rainforest in Congo

Band in recent history are found in marginal areas

Inuit (Eskimo) in cold climates of North America (upper left)

!Kung San of the Kalahari in southern Africa (lower left)

Aborigines in Australia, who adapted to a dry climate for 40,000 or more

Mbuti “pygmies” of the Ituri rainforest in Congo

Bands: Main Feature They comprise a few families at most Populations: 40-100 They tend to be nomadic Leadership is informal and not permanent Their property is communalistic; private ownership is rare or nonexistent Subsistence base: simple foraging

They comprise a few families at most

Populations: 40-100

They tend to be nomadic

Leadership is informal and not permanent

Their property is communalistic; private ownership is rare or nonexistent

Subsistence base: simple foraging

Simple Foraging: Main Features I Food is where you find it Direct dependence on naturally available plants and animals Plant foods (like the mongongo nuts this !Kung woman just gathered) are the most abundant They form 80% of the diet among most foragers Animal food is hard to come by

Food is where you find it

Direct dependence on naturally available plants and animals

Plant foods (like the mongongo nuts this !Kung woman just gathered) are the most abundant

They form 80% of the diet among most foragers

Animal food is hard to come by

Simple Foraging: Main Features II Near total reliance on hunting is rare (as among the seal-hunting Inuit here) Fluctuation of food sources by place, season, and year Means of meat storage rare or nonexistent—except in the North Foragers do have wide variety of food, however

Near total reliance on hunting is rare (as among the seal-hunting Inuit here)

Fluctuation of food sources by place, season, and year

Means of meat storage rare or nonexistent—except in the North

Foragers do have wide variety of food, however

Foraging: Carrying Capacity Population limited by the environment Its carrying capacity is the population that resources can support Liebig’s Law of the Minimum defines carrying capacity. According to this law, a population may not increase Beyond the minimum amount of critical resources of a given environment

Population limited by the environment

Its carrying capacity is the population that resources can support

Liebig’s Law of the Minimum defines carrying capacity.

According to this law, a population may not increase

Beyond the minimum amount of critical resources of a given environment

Liebig’s Law of the Minimum Illustrated The lowest stave of a barrel limits its capacity Plants can yield only as much As the amount of a critical nutrient is available. This principle applies to carrying capacity limits When the lowest stave is lengthened, The next lowest stave sets the limit

The lowest stave of a barrel limits its capacity

Plants can yield only as much

As the amount of a critical nutrient is available.

This principle applies to carrying capacity limits

When the lowest stave is lengthened,

The next lowest stave sets the limit

Foraging: Sharing and Property: Netsilik Inuit (Eskimo) Sharing ethic: rules govern meat sharing Netsilik Inuit: Partnerships by the anatomical part of the seal A hunter’s partner may be his “shoulder” If he kills the seal he gives his partner the shoulder If the partner bags the seal, then he gives the shoulder to the first man

Sharing ethic: rules govern meat sharing

Netsilik Inuit: Partnerships by the anatomical part of the seal

A hunter’s partner may be his “shoulder”

If he kills the seal he gives his partner the shoulder

If the partner bags the seal, then he gives the shoulder to the first man

Foraging: Sharing and Property: !Kung Hunters !Kung: Hunters and owner of arrow “own” the game Ownership is only stewardship; An “owner” keeps the animal until the time comes to share Game is shared by definite obligations Property: communalism—land may be used by all in the band

!Kung: Hunters and owner of arrow “own” the game

Ownership is only stewardship;

An “owner” keeps the animal until the time comes to share

Game is shared by definite obligations

Property: communalism—land may be used by all in the band

Effects of Contact with Industrialized Society Individual families may own food or other objects Nuts, roots, and other plant foods are property of a woman and her family Land itself is accessible to all Conflict arises when “white” society imposes private ownership of land Walkabout demonstrates this conflict

Individual families may own food or other objects

Nuts, roots, and other plant foods are property of a woman and her family

Land itself is accessible to all

Conflict arises when “white” society imposes private ownership of land

Walkabout demonstrates this conflict

Foraging: Other Derived Characteristics Egalitarianism No incentive to hoard Social class differences minimal Work time Average: 15-20 hours/week Nonintensive labor with other activities Domestic mode of production: work done until needs are met

Egalitarianism

No incentive to hoard

Social class differences minimal

Work time

Average: 15-20 hours/week

Nonintensive labor with other activities

Domestic mode of production: work done until needs are met

Complex Foraging: Primary Characteristics Food source dependence is still direct Food sources now are richer Contemporary example: Salmon complex in NW Coast societies, Inuit of Alaska’s North Slope Variance still occurs by season and location Carrying capacity of environment is higher Minimum specified in Liebig’s Law is higher than in simple foragers

Food source dependence is still direct

Food sources now are richer

Contemporary example: Salmon complex in NW Coast societies, Inuit of Alaska’s North Slope

Variance still occurs by season and location

Carrying capacity of environment is higher

Minimum specified in Liebig’s Law is higher than in simple foragers

Complex Foraging: Derived Characteristics Settled communities form They depend on stable, rich resources Groups need not rely only on plant or animal domestication Assemblage of tools and artifacts will: Multiply in number; Multiply in type (specialization)

Settled communities form

They depend on stable, rich resources

Groups need not rely only on plant or animal domestication

Assemblage of tools and artifacts will:

Multiply in number;

Multiply in type (specialization)

Social and Cultural Features of Complex Foragers As populations increase, societies become more complex In Mesolithic, settled communities were common without agriculture Monte Verde, Chile, was one example (upper left) Recent examples: Kwakiutl of Northwest coast (lower left) Main food: salmon, which was plentiful and preserved by smoking

As populations increase, societies become more complex

In Mesolithic, settled communities were common without agriculture

Monte Verde, Chile, was one example (upper left)

Recent examples: Kwakiutl of Northwest coast (lower left)

Main food: salmon, which was plentiful and preserved by smoking

Band Economies Bands do exchange goods Nevertheless, they rarely have markets Exception: Trade with the outside world Trading posts portrayed in Nanook of the North Shops in !Kung territory Outside trade with whites, rules of reciprocity govern exchange

Bands do exchange goods

Nevertheless, they rarely have markets

Exception: Trade with the outside world

Trading posts portrayed in Nanook of the North

Shops in !Kung territory

Outside trade with whites, rules of reciprocity govern exchange

Imperatives of Exchange: Background Marcel Mauss: The Gift (upper left) Preface: “When two groups of men meet, they may move away or in case of mistrust they may resort to arms or else they may come to terms” Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or an obligation that has the force of law in the absence of law As shown here by this New Guinean man (lower left)

Marcel Mauss: The Gift (upper left)

Preface: “When two groups of men meet, they may move away or

in case of mistrust they may resort to arms

or else they may come to terms”

Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or

an obligation that has the force of law

in the absence of law

As shown here by this New Guinean man (lower left)

Obligations of the Gift Obligation to give To extend social ties to other person or groups Obligation to receive To accept the relationship Refusal is rejection of offered relationship Induces hostilities Obligation to repay Failure to repay renders one a beggar

Obligation to give

To extend social ties to other person or groups

Obligation to receive

To accept the relationship

Refusal is rejection of offered relationship

Induces hostilities

Obligation to repay

Failure to repay renders one a beggar

Types of Reciprocity: Generalized The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions. Gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due Example: meat distribution among !Kung (left)

The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity

Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services

Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions.

Gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due

Example: meat distribution among !Kung (left)

Types of Reciprocity: Balanced Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange Value of gift is calculated Time of repayment is specified Selling surplus food (upper left) Kula ring, Trobriand Islands One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left) Expects a red necklace of equal value in return Promissory gifts are made until return is made

Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange

Value of gift is calculated

Time of repayment is specified

Selling surplus food (upper left)

Kula ring, Trobriand Islands

One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left)

Expects a red necklace of equal value in return

Promissory gifts are made until return is made

Band Level of Integration: Egalitarianism Individuals depend on ability alone for prestige No one individual “Lords it over“ the others Indeed, there are sanctions against such behavior See what happened when Richard Lee gave an ox to his Dobe hosts (next slide)

Individuals depend on ability alone for prestige

No one individual “Lords it over“ the others

Indeed, there are sanctions against such behavior

See what happened when Richard Lee gave an ox to his Dobe hosts (next slide)

By Way of Introduction: Case Study “ Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung or Ju/’hoansi (left) He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule valuable game. This is “insulting the meat”

“ Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee

Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung or Ju/’hoansi (left)

He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them

Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift

Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule valuable game.

This is “insulting the meat”

Why This Bizarre Behavior? Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.” “ When a young man kills much meat, He thinks himself as a chief or big man And the rest of us as his servants. We cannot accept this. Someday his pride will make him kill somebody. So we always speak of his meat as worthless. That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.”

Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.”

“ When a young man kills much meat,

He thinks himself as a chief or big man

And the rest of us as his servants.

We cannot accept this.

Someday his pride will make him kill somebody.

So we always speak of his meat as worthless.

That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.”

Lessons from This Tale Even bandsmen know about inequality They fear domination by one man Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive So they denigrate this gifts The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy

Even bandsmen know about inequality

They fear domination by one man

Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive

So they denigrate this gifts

The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy

Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest Definition: a collective reaction to anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows Summary: “All men seek to rule but if they cannot rule they seek to be equal.” — Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist

Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest

Definition: a collective reaction to

anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows

Summary: “All men seek to rule

but if they cannot rule

they seek to be equal.”

— Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist

Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism The group consciously suppresses individuals trying to dominate the band “ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”) Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo—left photo) Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner

The group consciously suppresses individuals trying to dominate the band

“ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe

Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt

Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”)

Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo—left photo)

Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner

Bands: A Definition Small group of related households occupying a particular region People often come and go Bands do not yield sovereignty to larger group such as a chiefdom Leadership is conducted by persuasion rather than use of force. There are no permanent leader status or offices Examples: !Kung, Inuit, Mbuti (left)

Small group of related households occupying a particular region

People often come and go

Bands do not yield sovereignty to larger group such as a chiefdom

Leadership is conducted by persuasion rather than use of force.

There are no permanent leader status or offices

Examples: !Kung, Inuit, Mbuti (left)

Supernatural Beliefs: Magic Sir James Frazier’s distinction: Magic versus Religion Magic: manipulation of supernatural beings and/or forces Sympathetic vs. contagious magic Usually addresses an immediate problem Left: a jealous husband raising a tupilik (monster) in Greenland to attack his rival

Sir James Frazier’s distinction: Magic versus Religion

Magic: manipulation of supernatural beings and/or forces

Sympathetic vs. contagious magic

Usually addresses an immediate problem

Left: a jealous husband raising a tupilik (monster) in Greenland to attack his rival

Supernatural Beliefs: Religion Religion: Recognition of unseen world Focus: explanation based on myth Supplication emphasized Considerable overlap in distinction between magic and religion Left: St. Jude, the Patron Saint of Lost Causes, is often invoked to intercede for the hopeless

Religion: Recognition of unseen world

Focus: explanation based on myth

Supplication emphasized

Considerable overlap in distinction between magic and religion

Left: St. Jude, the Patron Saint of Lost Causes, is often invoked to intercede for the hopeless

Supernatural Beliefs: Animism Most band and tribal societies believe in animism This is the belief that spirits inhabits all things The faces carved in trees comprise one example (left) The False Face society of the Iroquois carved masks from trees Believing the spirits would be infused into the masks.

Most band and tribal societies believe in animism

This is the belief that spirits inhabits all things

The faces carved in trees comprise one example (left)

The False Face society of the Iroquois carved masks from trees

Believing the spirits would be infused into the masks.

Band Level Societies: Conclusion and Case Studies The features of band are ideal types These features are what one expects of informal groups Your task: compare the ideal types presented here With actual case studies:: The Inuit of Alaska (upper left) The !Kung San of the Kalahari (lower left)

The features of band are ideal types

These features are what one expects of informal groups

Your task: compare the ideal types presented here

With actual case studies::

The Inuit of Alaska (upper left)

The !Kung San of the Kalahari (lower left)

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