Published on October 9, 2007
Bamboo Resources, Management and Productionin China: Bamboo Resources, Management and Production in China Lou Yiping, Ph. D International Network for Bamboo and Rattan Slide2: 1\ Key Points: Bamboo Resources Species Growth Bamboo Cultivation and Management Nursery Plantation Bamboo Products Slide3: Bamboo Resources Slide6: Types of Bamboos: Subtropical species (Running bamboos, or monopodial bamboos)： Phyllostachys spp… Tropical species (Clumping bamboos, or sympodial bamboos): Bambusa spp… Monopodial bamboo Sympodial bamboo Slide7: Monopodial bamboo (subtropical bamboo, running bamboo Sympodial bamboo (tropical bamboo or clumping bamboo) Growth of Subtropical Bamboos: Growth of Subtropical Bamboos Individual shoot-culm height growth Quality growth of culm Slide9: Nursery, Cultivation and Management of Bamboo Plantations Slide10: Propagation of bamboo Slide11: Raising seedling from seeds Season: early spring Diversity of seedlings: huge diversity exists among the seedlings from eeds. Slide12: 2. Raising with branch cutting Slide13: 3. Raising with single-node culm cutting Slide14: 4. Raising with whole culm cuttings Slide15: 5. Ground layering Slide16: 6. Raising from rhizome Slide17: Cultivation and Management Cultivation of Moso bamboo in China (Phyllostachys pubescens): Cultivation of Moso bamboo in China (Phyllostachys pubescens) Suitable climate zone in China: Total area: about 3 m ha Slide19: Matching climatic zones in the world for moso bamboo Slide20: Site for Growing Moso Bamboo (1) 1. Climate: In the monsoon zones south of the Yangtze River, the annual mean temperature is 15-210C, mean temperature during hottest month 26-29 0C, mean temperature during coldest month 1-12 0C, frost-free days 210-330 0C, yearly PPT 750-2,000 mm, yearly average relative humidity 80%. The heavy monsoon rainfall in spring and summer is a key climatic factor for moso growth. Slide21: Site for Growing Moso Bamboo (2) 2. Suitable soil Humid dark brown loam and deep soil rich with humus is suitable for thick culm large-sized species Comparatively drier sandy loam for middle-sized species Not high underground water level and enough drainage are required Slide22: Site for Growing Moso Bamboo (3) 3. Altitude: In warm tropical areas, moso bamboo normally can not grow well, but might grow well in higher altitude areas. Taking Chishui of Guizhou province as an example: below an altitude of 800 m, moso bamboo can grow well naturally. Sympodial bamboo grows naturally below 800 m in the same area. Below 800 m altitude in Chishui area Above 800 m altitude in Chishui area Nursery plant : Nursery plant Three forms of bamboo nursery plant Rhizomes with mother culm(s) : most superior growth can be expected Rhizomes with mother culm(s) cut at ground level Rhizomes without mother culm Age of rhizomes for nursery plants 2 – 3 years for large species, 1 – 2 for mid-sized Suitable condition of rhizome thick with many buds, 50 – 70 cm in length Planting season and density : Planting season and density December to February 450 – 600 mother plants per ha for large-sized 600 – 1000 nursery plants per ha for mid-sized Fertilizing : Fertilizing Fertilizing is usually not practiced in mature forests Chemical or organic fertilizers are applied to newly planted bamboo Seasons for fertilizing are from June to July and September when using fast-acting fertilizer and in winter when using compost Harvesting and age of culm : Harvesting and age of culm Harvesting is mainly practiced by selective cutting method. In mature and stable forests it is ideal if the volume of harvested timbers is similar to that of new culms expected in next spring. General harvesting age of culms is about 4-5 years old. Standing culm density : Standing culm density The range of density in matured plantation: 4,000 – 8,000 culms/ha Slide28: Production of moso forest: a. Stands of intensive management. These occupy 5% of the total pure stands, the productivity of which is around 7-10 t/ha/yr, with highest yields at optimum sites up to 35 t/ha/yr. b. Stands with mid-level management. About 40% of the total, the productivity of which is 3.5-7 t/ha/yr. c. Stands of extensive management. These are about 55% of the total and usually over-harvested. It’s productivity is lower than 3.5 t/ha/yr. Bamboo Products: Bamboo Products Furniture and Handicrafts : Furniture and Handicrafts Traditional woven products have been made for thousands of years These traditional products still have a role in creating cash incomes for the rural poor They also link rural and urban poor and are more environmentally friendly than plastic Bamboo Flooring: Bamboo Flooring Three stages in China: 1988-1995 with an annual production of 30-50,000 m2; equipment from Taiwan; quality not ensured. 1996-1999 development of int’l market and enterprises reform 2000- rapid growth, intervention in the developed markets; annual production more then 2 million m2 Prices: United States - $60/m2 UK - $90/m2 Bamboo mats and boards: Bamboo mats and boards Bamboo pulp and paper: Bamboo pulp and paper Bamboo pulp output in China (tons): 1999 – 200,000 2000 – 500,000 2010 – 1600,000 Bamboo Charcoal: Bamboo Charcoal Bamboo charcoal is highly prized for many uses - decolouring, de-odorising Bamboo Fiber and Textiles: Bamboo Fiber and Textiles Bamboo Shoots: Bamboo Shoots International trade in bamboo shoots from China is now worth more than USD 150 million per year.