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Published on December 30, 2007

Author: abdullah

Source: authorstream.com

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Müllerian mimicry: An examination of Fisher’s theory of gradual evolutionary change:  Müllerian mimicry: An examination of Fisher’s theory of gradual evolutionary change Alexandra Balogh and Olof Leimar Department of Zoology Stockholm University Sweden All things are not equally nice to eat…:  All things are not equally nice to eat… Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) while eating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) (left) and a few minutes later (right) - Aposematism is a way of signalling unprofitability to predators - Avoidance learning reduces predation on aposematic populations Müllerian mimicry:  Müllerian mimicry - Mimicry between unpalatable species Shared signal dilutes predation risk Fritz Müller 1891:  Fritz Müller 1891 Resulting appearance will depend on the relative initial protection of the participants of the cooperation, like abundance and unpalatability How does Müllerian mimicry evolve?:  How does Müllerian mimicry evolve? Saltational evolution Purifying selection prevents most mutations from invading Fisher 1930 Peak shift produces gradual evolution towards mimicry Slide6:  Advergence or coevolutionary convergence ? If evolution is gradual, both advergence and coevolutionary convergence seem possible Saltational evolution gives only advergence No empirical evidence for coevolution :  No empirical evidence for coevolution There seems to be a model and a mimic (Mallet 1999) Typical model characters: higher abundance, larger geographical distribution, higher unpalatability, more ”original” appearance Because of this, Müllerian mimicry is often believed have come about through saltations Mimic and model in Batesian mimicry Danaus plexippus Limenitis archippus original character fake character Müllerian mimics Testing Fisher’s process: Model:  Testing Fisher’s process: Model Individual-based simulations of a community of two prey types and predators Predator avoidance learning and generalization Prey appearance is a one-dimensional quantitative trait Given that a gradual process is possible, assess advergence through individual-based simulations and by solving the canonical equation Predators:  Predators Predators accumulate inhibition Next encounter: altered probability of attack q (h) = Probability of attack on a discovered prey depends on predator experience and on the trait of the encountered prey (predator generalization). Prey Individual-based: survivors reproduce, mutations with a given distribution of effect sizes are produced Canonical equation: invasion fitness of mutants computed, canonical equation integrated Survival and invasion fitness:  Survival and invasion fitness Na = 1000, Nb = 5000, Np = 100 Fisher’s process is possible (individual-based simulations) :  Fisher’s process is possible (individual-based simulations) The degree of advergence depends on the range of mutational increments:  The degree of advergence depends on the range of mutational increments Curves 1-3 correspond to succesively smaller ranges of mutational increments, 3 computed by solving the canonical equation. Conclusions:  Conclusions Gradual evolution by peak shift towards Müllerian mimicry is possible also for large initial trait differences when a proportion of predators generalize broadly The range of mutational increments affects the degree of advergence The canonical equation approximates the evolutionary trajectory for very small mutational effects For somewhat larger ranges of mutational effects, there is gradual evolution and more advergence than predicted by the canonical equation The deviation from the canonical equation is related to the curvature of invasion fitness Gradual evolution through Fisher’s process seems consistent with observations of advergence in Müllerian mimicry in nature Müllerian mimicry: An examination of Fisher’s theory of gradual evolutionary change:  Müllerian mimicry: An examination of Fisher’s theory of gradual evolutionary change Alexandra Balogh and Olof Leimar Department of Zoology Stockholm University Sweden

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