Backyard Biology

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Information about Backyard Biology
Education

Published on January 25, 2008

Author: Reginaldo

Source: authorstream.com

Backyard Biology: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow Stow Community Garden Club March 13, 2000:  Backyard Biology: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow Stow Community Garden Club March 13, 2000 Jim Chatfield Ohio State University Extension Echoes of the Past:  Echoes of the Past Hot, Dry Spring and Early Summer of 1999. Low Foliar Diseases in 1999. Drought Stressed Plants in 1999. Which of the following diseases was worse in 1999 than usual::  Which of the following diseases was worse in 1999 than usual: A. Apple Scab B. Sycamore anthracnose C. Rose black spot D. Volutella blight of pachysandra E. All of the above F. None of the above The reason for this lower disease incidence was::  The reason for this lower disease incidence was: A. New GMOS B. Dry spring and early summer conditions C. Last winter’s severe January weather D. Pokemon E. All of the above F. None of the above Which of these diseases will probably be worse in the coming few years?:  Which of these diseases will probably be worse in the coming few years? A. Cytospora canker of spruce B. Verticillium wilt of maple C. Dogwood anthracnose D. Ash decline E. All of the above What’s Happening Now?:  What’s Happening Now? Drought Damage to Evergreens Phenology Update Possible Winter Injury this Year Global Warming The Ag-Biotechnology Revolution:  The Ag-Biotechnology Revolution Developments pre-1996: Virus-resistant tobacco (1991) FlavrSavr Tomato (1994) (Calgene)) rBST (1994) (Monsanto) Developments post-1996: Rapid US adoption of Bt corn, Bt cotton, Roundup Ready® soybeans Source: Ian Sheldon Worldwide Adoption of GM Crops:  Worldwide Adoption of GM Crops 100 million acres worldwide Major adopters (% acreage): US – corn (40%), soybeans (60%), cotton (65%) Canada – canola (65%), corn (47%), soybeans (20%) Argentina – soybeans (70%+) Mexico – cotton (20%+) China – cotton, tobacco (?) Brazil – soybeans (8% “smuggled”) Source: Ian Sheldon Non-Market Effects of GMOs:  Non-Market Effects of GMOs Environmental Impact on non-target species Despite 1999 Cornell study, risk to Monarch population from Bt corn pollen considered minimal Impact of transgenic crops on natural predators also considered minimal Source: Ian Sheldon Non-Market Effects of GMOs:  Non-Market Effects of GMOs Cross-Pollination Many crop-species cross-pollinate with weedy relatives Major crops in US have no weedy relatives, e.g. corn, soybeans and cotton Rice, wheat, canola and sorghum do cross-hybridize Gene transfer to weedy relatives unlikely to generate “superweeds” –but could lead to coding for herbicide resistance Source: Ian Sheldon Non-Market Effects of GMOs:  Non-Market Effects of GMOs Insecticide Resistance Important sustainability concern for some GM crops European corn borer may become resistant to Bt toxin No proven strategy to prevent insecticide resistance—refuges most common EPA requiring farmers to plant 20% non-Bt corn Source: Ian Sheldon Non-Market Effects of GMOs:  Non-Market Effects of GMOs Food Safety Transfer of genes between species transfers allergenic risks 90% of food allergies due to specific proteins in 8 foods – peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soybeans, shell fish, fish and wheat FDA has steps to ensure such transfers do not occur, e.g.—protein from Brazil nuts inserted into soybean by Pioneer Hi-Bred Source: Ian Sheldon First Generation:  First Generation Any GM that results in improved plant efficiency characteristics or changes the mix of inputs necessary for production of the crop. Bt corn Round-Up Ready soybeans Drought resistant corn High oleic high oil corn [stacked traits] Source: Thomas Sporleder Bt Corn Reduces Mycotoxins in Grain:  Bt Corn Reduces Mycotoxins in Grain “These results indicate that genetic engineering for insect resistance can suppress fumonisin concentrations and enhance the safety of maize for human and animal consumption.” Source: Thomas Sporleder Second Generation:  Second Generation Any GM that modifies the output characteristics from plant, animal, or processed product Low linolenic soybean oil [lowers trans fatty acids in diet] High solids potatoes Enhanced lycopene tomato juice and paste Source: Thomas Sporleder Third Generation:  Third Generation Industrial examples Chemical production from GM plants Plants become mini-factories for the production of ingredients for detergents, nylon, glue, lubricants, and plastics Plastic plants: biodegradable polymers Source: Thomas Sporleder Pharming: Edible Vaccines:  Pharming: Edible Vaccines Foods specifically engineered to confer immunity to certain diseases. Example: already lab rats made immune to cholera from ingesting genetically modified potatoes. For human trials, same antigen produced in genetically modified bananas. Source: Thomas Sporleder Pharming: Biofactories or Pharmaceutical Pharming:  Pharming: Biofactories or Pharmaceutical Pharming Insulin in cows’ milk. Targeted production of pharmaceuticals. Technique is to use transgenic animals as bioreactors for the biological production of valuable human protein enzymes, hormones and growth factors. Source: Thomas Sporleder New Area: Nutraceuticals:  New Area: Nutraceuticals Pharmaceutical Nutraceutical Drugs used in the TREATMENT of disease Nutrients that may PREVENT disease Source: Thomas Sporleder Truth or Fiction::  Truth or Fiction: Transgenic Breeding is a great leap into the unknown. Truth or Fiction::  Truth or Fiction: Perspectives: Traditional plant breeding is all about phenotypes. Transgenic breeding gets specific about genotypes. Which is the greatest leap? “The true voyage of discovery lies not in finding new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” - Marcel Proust:  “The true voyage of discovery lies not in finding new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” - Marcel Proust

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