Published on February 21, 2014
Background to Mary Tudor
Her Father Henry VIII • When Henry VII died in 1509, this popular eighteen-year-old prince became King Henry VIII. • Soon after he obtained the papal dispensation required to allow him to marry his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon. • In the first years of his reign Henry VIII effectively relied on Thomas Wolsey to rule for him, and by 1515 Henry had elevated him to the highest role in government: Lord Chancellor.
Henry VIII • In 1521 Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the Faith on Henry for his book 'Assertio Septem Sacramentorum', which affirmed the supremacy of the Pope in the face of the reforming ideals of the German theologian, Martin Luther. • Henry VIII's early military campaigns began when he joined Pope Julius II's Holy League against France in 1511. • Wolsey proved himself to be an outstanding minister in his organisation of the first French campaign and while the Scots saw this war as an opportunity to invade England, they were defeated at Flodden in 1513. • However war with France ultimately proved expensive and unsuccessful.
A Male Heir • Henry was acutely aware of the importance of securing a male heir during his reign. He was worried that he had only one surviving child, Mary, to show for his marriage to Catherine, who was now in her 40s. • So the king asked Cardinal Wolsey to appeal to Pope Clement VII for an annulment and it soon became clear he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, who had been a lady-in-waiting to his first wife. • But, unwilling to anger Catherine of Aragon's nephew – the most powerful ruler in Europe, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V – the Pope refused. • In 1533, Henry VIII broke with the church and married the now pregnant Anne Boleyn in a secret ceremony. • Henry was excommunicated by the Pope. The English reformation had begun.
After Catherine • Anne gave birth to Elizabeth (later to become Elizabeth I) • Anne had two other miscarriages, Henry charged her with adultery and beheaded her • Married Jane Seymour, had a son, Edward, but died in labour • Then married the daughter of a German prince, Anne, divorced her a few months later • Then married Catherine Howard, short lived, she was executed for adultery (had affairs with people in Henry’s court) • Final marriage was to Catherine Parr who outlived him
Where does this leave Mary? • Mary was a devout Catholic • Henry separated from the Catholic church to divorce Mary’s mother and she was raised outside of Hampton Court • Henry created the Church of England, which was founded in the ideas of the Reformation and Protestantism • Catholic monasteries were shut down and their land and riches taken away from them • Mary had a lot of hatred towards Henry and refused to acknowledge him as head of the Church • Eventually he reconciled with him and was brought back to court. • She was named 2nd in line to the throne after Edward
Edward’s Death, Mary the Queen • Edward VI succeeded his father in 1547 and, under the protectorate of the Duke of Northumberland, zealously promoted Protestantism. • Mary, however, remained a devout Catholic. When it became clear that Edward was dying, Northumberland made plans for his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to take the throne in Mary's place. • On Edward's death in 1553, Jane was briefly acclaimed queen. But Mary had widespread popular support and within days made a triumphal entry into London. • Once queen, she was determined to re-impose Catholicism and marry Philip II of Spain.
‘Bloody Mary’ • Watch ‘Killer Queens’ and take notes on Mary’s evil deeds as Mary I Queen of England • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Liv6LvMu3Mw
Mary I • Why do you think Mary was so evil? • Can she be blamed for how she acted?
Sources • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/henry_viii • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_i_queen. shtml
1. Background to Mary Tudor. 2. Her Father Henry VIII • When Henry VII died in 1509, this popular eighteen-year-old prince became King Henry VIII.
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