Background to Confederation

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Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Cajetano

Source: authorstream.com

Background to Confederation in the Canadas :  Background to Confederation in the Canadas Sources: Careless: The Union of the Canadas Careless: Brown of The Globe Creighton: The Young Politician The Rebellions and Union:  The Rebellions and Union British react to Rebellions with Act of Union, 1841 Two Objectives: Responsible Government Assimilation of French Canadians Legislative Union:  Legislative Union Institutional element of assimilation was “legislative union” Upper & Lower Canada fused One legislative assembly 42 seats for each section of Union Under-represented Lower Canada Responsible Government:  Responsible Government Struggle for responsible government marks 1840s Cohesive alliance of Reformers in Upper & Lower Canada defeat Tories & Ultramontanes Alliance crumbles in 1850s Sectionalism & Gridlock:  Sectionalism & Gridlock 1850s marked by sectionalism, gridlock and unstable government Tensions are: Religious (1): Catholic vs Protestant Religious (2): Church vs. State Constitutional: Republican vs British Government Regional: West vs East Ideological Map of the Canadas:  Ideological Map of the Canadas Catholic Protestant British Republican Church State Ideological Map of the Canadas:  Ideological Map of the Canadas Catholic Protestant British Republican Church State Rouge Blues Ideological Map of the Canadas:  Ideological Map of the Canadas Catholic Protestant British Republican Church State Tories – Liberal-Progressive Rouge Clear Grits Blues Ideological Map of the Canadas:  Ideological Map of the Canadas Catholic Protestant British Republican Church State Tories – Liberal-Progressive Rouge Clear Grits Blues Ind. Reform Ideological Map of the Canadas:  Ideological Map of the Canadas Catholic Protestant British Republican Church State Tories – Liberal-Progressive Rouge Clear Grits Blues Ind. Reform 2 6 30 18 20 6 Sectionalism & Gridlock:  Sectionalism & Gridlock Situation is problematic because: No majority party Parties are not disciplined Alliances are made & broken by patronage & quid pro quo Common Schools Bill, 1850 Clergy Reserves Act – Seigneurial Bill, 1853 Sectionalism & Gridlock:  Sectionalism & Gridlock Just as often situation exacerbated by: Sectional tension: University Endowments Sectional Strategies: Movement of Capital Events: Gavazzi Riots 1853 “£10,000 Job” Scandal Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church A1 Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church A2 A1 Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church A2 A3 Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church A3 A4 Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church A4 A5 Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions American Republicanism British Responsible Government State Church A5 A1 Chaos in Multiple Dimensions:  Chaos in Multiple Dimensions No equilibrium in 2+ dimensions Clearly, not all alliances possible,…but Opposition could always break coalitions Vulnerable to events Hamstrung by institutions (double-majority) How do we get out of this??… Escaping Gridlock & Chaos:  Escaping Gridlock & Chaos Brown & Macdonald searching for stable solution: Step-by-step elimination of political dimensions Move to unidimensional politics or dimension-by-dimension median Brown’s Problem:  Brown’s Problem Sectarian appeals give Brown solid but limited support How can Brown expand his appeal? Brown’s Strategy:  Brown’s Strategy The Globe champions Tory-Blue alliance on church-state dimension (1851) Events & issues undermine this strategy: Supplementary School Bill, 1852 Ecclesiastical Corporations Bill, 1853 Gavazzi Riots, 1853 Macdonald’s Strategy:  Macdonald’s Strategy English-French coalition a fixed fact: “No man in his senses can suppose that this government can for a century to come be governed by a totally unfrenchified government.” (Careless 1967, 189) Macdonald’s Problem:  Macdonald’s Problem How to remove issues that exacerbate French-English tension… … and still get elected? Sideline Tories by championing secularization against Hincks-Morin cabinet Focus on shared commercial (rail) interests Macdonald’s Response:  Macdonald’s Response Moderate Liberal-Progressives Sideline Tories by supporting secularization against Hincks-Morin cabinet Focus on shared commercial (rail) interests Ideological Map of the Canadas:  Ideological Map of the Canadas Catholic Protestant British Republican Church State Rouge Clear Grits Blues Ind. Reform Liberal-Progressives Tories Macdonald’s Ideological Vision:  Macdonald’s Ideological Vision Catholic Protestant Commercial Rural Rouge Clear Grits Blues Ind. Reform Liberal-Progressives Tories Brown’s Alternative Strategy:  Brown’s Alternative Strategy By 1852 Canada West underrepresented “Rep-by-Pop” Removes Catholic “advantages” Limits church influence in state affairs Avoids gridlock of “double-majority” Rep-by-pop “without regard to a separating line between Upper and Lower Canada” lost 57-15 (March 1853) Brown’s Ideological Vision:  Brown’s Ideological Vision Double-Majority Rep-by-Pop Commercial Rural Rouge Clear Grits Blues Ind. Reform Liberal-Progressives Tories Brown’s New Problem:  Brown’s New Problem Can he ally with Rouges? “It is clear that the natural allies of the Reformers of Upper Canada are the Rouges.” Brown to Sandfield Macdonald (1854) (Careless 1960, v. 1, 191) The Double Majority Problem:  The Double Majority Problem In effect, Cabinet required majorities in West & East Hincks’ resignation: “I could not command the confidence of the section of the province to which I belong.” (Careless 1967, 210) Is double-majority a constitutional rule? Hincks: “exceedingly desirable in practical politics, but quite absurd as a constitutional requirement. Advantage Macdonald:  Advantage Macdonald Hincks loses vote on speaker, 59-62 (5 Sept 1854) BUT supports Macdonald’s coalition! “Of all the abortions it could enter the mind of men to conceive – it is the greatest.” The Globe, Sept 12, 1854 38 MPs condemn new cabinet Move & Counter-move:  Move & Counter-move Macdonald gets rid of sectional issues (e.g., Clergy Reserves, Seigneurial Bill ) Brown builds bridges: Supports Clergy Reserves & Seigneurial Bill Invites Grits to form united Reform party, 1856 Dorion & Brown:  Dorion & Brown Dorion (Rouge leader) opines on federation in 1856 Brown writes Holton: “No honest man can desire that we remain as we are. Yet what other way out of our difficulties can be suggested but a legislative union with rep by pop -- a federal union – or dissolution.” (Careless 1960, 253) The Double-Shuffle:  The Double-Shuffle Difficult to hide sectionalism: Taché Act Corrigan murder trial, 1856 Movement of Capital Question 21 May 1955 – won by 70-47 … but no double-majority Ask Queen to decide! The Double-Shuffle:  The Double-Shuffle Difficult to hide sectionalism: Taché Act Corrigan murder trial, 1856 Movement of Capital Question 21 May 1955 – won by 70-47 … but no double-majority Ask Queen to decide! The Double-Shuffle:  The Double-Shuffle Queen chooses Ottawa… Ottawa! Rouge motion that Ottawa unacceptable Splits Blues and passes 64-50 Cabinet calls adjournment: 61-50 The Double-Shuffle:  The Double-Shuffle Macdonald & Cartier resign! Head sends for Brown: “The Governor General gives no pledge or promise, express or implied, with reference to dissolving Parliament.” The Double-Shuffle:  The Double-Shuffle Brown & Dorion weak Ministers have to face by-elections Lose confidence vote 70-31 The Double-Shuffle:  The Double-Shuffle Brown & Dorion weak Ministers have to face by-elections Lose confidence vote 70-31 Independence of Parliament Act, 1857

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