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Published on October 19, 2007

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Agriculture in Rwanda:  Agriculture in Rwanda Background Picture: B.Thierry, 2000 Bibliographical document realised within the framework of the activities of IFAD in collaboration with MINAGRI Text and design Caroline Bidault Slide2:  Geography Soils National context Population Poverty Crops Agricultural zones Picture: B.Thierry, 2001 A landlocked country:  A landlocked country Capital: Kigali Located in the central part of Eastern Africa Landlocked between Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo Surface = 26 338 km2 Arable lands=1,4 million hectares (60-70% are cultivated) Map source: http://www.africa-onweb.com/pays/rwanda/carte.htm Administrative divisions:  Administrative divisions Source: Map services of MINAGRI 12 provinces 106 districts A fragmented, mountainous country :  A fragmented, mountainous country 3 different zones from West to East: Low eastern lands The volcanic chain and central plateau Congo-Nile crest overhanging Kivu Lake in the West Source: http://bch-cbd.naturalsciences.be/rwanda/contribution/bsap/chap21.htm Average altitude = 1500 m Picture: B. Thierry, 2000 Tropical temperate climate:  Tropical temperate climate Temperate conditions in the higher areas Average temperature: 19°C 20.5 à 30°C 15.5 à 20°C 10.5 à 15°C Source: FAO, 1997 Altitude influence on rainfall :  Altitude influence on rainfall Average annual rainfall :1111 mm Variations from 700 to 1 600 mm/an 3 zones: > 1500 mm/year in the South-West and in the North-West Intermediate zone between 1000 and 1500 mm/year occupying the West of the country < 1000 mm/year low rainfall area in the East 725 – 974 mm/year 975 – 1474 mm/year 1475 – 2474 mm/year Map source : FAO/ IIASA 2000 Two rainy seasons broken up by two dry seasons:  Two rainy seasons broken up by two dry seasons Short rainy season from September till November Long rainy season from February till May Short dry season from December till January Long dry season from June till September  Advantages of seasons:  Advantages of seasons Saison A Saison B Dense hydrological network :  Dense hydrological network 135 000 ha of rivers and lakes 2 unequal collecting basins, on both sides of the Congo-Nile Crest: Congo basin and Nile basin Large wetlands and shallow lakes large influence of the rainfall on Wetlands and on the surface of lakes Map source: http://www.studentsoftheworld.info/informations_pays.php?Pays=RWA Picture: B.Thierry, 2003 Different types of soils:  Different types of soils Derived from rock degradation schist, quartz gneiss, granite And volcanic 6 groups: Derived from schists, sandstone and quartz Derived from granit and gneiss Derived from basic intrusive rocks alluvium and colluvium Derived from recent and ancient volcanic rocks 50% of the soil is not suitable for demanding crops Source: http://bch-cbd.naturalsciences.be/rwanda/contribution/bsap/chap21.htm Picture: B. Thierry, 2003 Severe soil degradation:  Severe soil degradation Causes heavy precipitations Fragmented relief encouraging erosion agricultural over farming by human beings Source: http://www.fao.org/landandwater/agll/glasod/glasodmaps.jsp?country=RWA&search=Display+map+%21National Annual losses:  Annual losses Hydrous erosion = scraping down many cultivated lands Annual losses 14 million tons of soil Decrease in the capacity to feed 40 000 persons/year Source: Document de stratégie Impacts of erosion  Loss of soil fertility by leaching arable lands  Worsened by: the destruction of structures against erosion the inefficiency of the soil protection measures Photo: B.Thierry, 2003 Soil conservation practices:  Soil conservation practices Centuries-old practices Colonisation: Soil conservation Programme 60s: Expansion of the cultivated areas (land and Wetlands) 90s: Abandonment or destruction of soil conservation measures 2004…Land law inadequate, to be reformed soon Picture: B. Thierry, 2000 Strong erosion:  Strong erosion Steep slopes Crops on slopes sometimes up to 80% 37.5% need to be managed 39.1% with a high level of erosion risk Few measures of fight against erosion Land losses 14 Million tons/year due to erosion Other reasons: changeable and aggressive climate Picture: B. Thierry, 2002 Limitations:  Limitations Quality of the soils and their important degradation Some slopes are completely damaged by erosion and crop growth is not possible anymore, if nothing is done to renew the fertility Few organic materials Low fertility potential except for low grounds and volcanic soils High demographic pressure Rapid decrease of farm size Slopping farming lands are extremely steep without any anti- erosion measures No more fallow Over farming of the land without fertility renewal Picture: B. Thierry, 2000 Future effects:  Future effects Large agro-ecological variability  Abundant rainfalls Large water resources Wetlands can be developed Picture: H. Liversage, 2002 Types of land:  Types of land Cultivated lands: 1,12 million ha around 46% of the territory 0,87 million ha of annual crops 0,25 million ha permanent crops Wetlands: 165 000 ha wetlands <200 ha = 112 000 ha. 70 000 ha farmed wetlands farming is increasing Wetland of Nyamugali. Picture: B. Thierry, 2000 Land occupation:  Land occupation Forests 8% of the country almost 1/2 of the framers use 0,2 ha to sell wood products Annual wood deficiencies>4 million m3 Fishery resources Not very developed, mainly for self-consumption 2000 ponds in 2002 (3900 before 1994) Picture: B. Thierry, 2002 Crop seasons:  Crop seasons Season A (September/October-January) legumes (bean and pee), maize, sorghum, sweet potato, potato and cassava Season B (February-June) Bean, sorghum, sweet potato, potato and cassava Season C (June-August/September) vegetables and sweet potato Source: http://www.fao.org/sd/frdirect/EIan0006.htm Photo: B.Thierry, 1999 Length of cropping seasons:  Length of cropping seasons Days/year 240 - 269 270 - 299 300 - 329 330 - 364 365 Source: FAO and http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/GAEZ/index.htm Political climate:  Political climate 15th century : Local monarchy 1870- 1962 : Colonisation 1962 : Independence Source: www.burundi-site.com Political climate second:  Political climate second 1962 - 1994 : From Independence to genocide Post 1994 : The return of the exiles 2003 : Elections Recent political activity:  Recent political activity New constitution May 2003 adopted by Referendum multi party system Since 1994: stability, security high economic growth during reconstruction years significant policy and economy liberalisation programme Economic climate:  Economic Growth Rate 6,7% in 2001 9,2% in 2002 0,9% in 2003 Estimation for 2004: 6% Source: IMF, 2004 Pictures: B.Thierry, 2000 Moderated inflation rate Low fluctuation of exchange rate. Budgetary deficit : 10,1% in 2001 7,9% in 2002 13 % in 2003 Economic climate Social climate:  Social climate After the war relocation and rehabilitation of survivors and of exiles launch of social services, and fight against AIDS   National reconciliation process social rehabilitation of former refugees (previous to 1994) and of survivors and refugees arrest and prosecution of the presumed perpetrators of the genocide trial and popular reconciliation under the institution «Gacaca» Photo: B. Thierry, 2001 High population density:  High population density 8,4 million inhab. (2004) (8,162 according to 2002 census) Demographic Growth 3,2% (DSRP 2002)/ year Average population density 320 inhab./km2 (Vietnam 249inhab/km2) 102 inhab./km2 in 1960 Life expectancy (2003) 39.18 years Birth rate (2003) 40,01/1000 Mortality rate (2003) 21,86/1000 Infant mortality rate (2003) 101.68/1000 Literacy rate (2003) 69.30 % (Source www.populationdata.net) Source: Document PRSP Poverty and food security:  Poverty and food security IDH 2003: 158th (PNUD 2003, 173 countries) Annual income 168 US$ in 2003 ($current) 270 US$ in 1999 60% of the population lives under the poverty line (53 % before 1993) 42% of the population lives under the extreme poverty line Poverty definition : general level of expenses below 64 000 RWF per year, or level of expenses for food below 45 000 RWF per year (different definition than the EICV.) Source: PNB, Banque mondiale, http://devdata.worldbank.org/external/CPProfile.asp?CCODE=RWA&PTYPE=CP Food poverty:  Food poverty Insufficient agricultural production 96 % of the poor live in rural areas Poverty level depends on The size of the property The cattle Source Minecofin : Poverty Reduction Strategy. Picture: www.solidarite.org Food and nutrition :  Food and nutrition Food balance for Rwanda (compared to norms established by FAO) 87 % of calories 70 % of proteins 22 % of lipids Chronic lipid deficiency Diet Bananas, roots and tubers Legumes Some cereals Note : Average food needs per inhabitants / per day fixed by FAO and WHO for Rwanda are : 2100 Kcal; 59g of protein; 40g of lipids. The analysis is based dietary needs covered only by agricultural produce. Animal produce features very little in the diet. It contributes up to 2% of calories, 6% of proteins and 40% of lipids (moyennes calculées sur les années 2001-2003). Picture: FAO, 1995 Uncertain food situation:  Uncertain food situation 24 % infant malnutrition in 2002 Provinces with high chronic malnutrition rates Gikongoro (50 %), Kibuye and Butare (48 %), Byumba (47%) Picture:www.revafrique.com Poverty indicators :  Poverty indicators Large gaps between Kigali City and other provinces 96% of food poverty in rural areas Gikongoro, Butare, Kigali Ngali and Ruhengeri provinces are most stricken High population density High soil degradation Picture: Ifmsa Usa Poverty in agriculture:  Poverty in agriculture Average income /inhab.= 180 US$/year 64% of households live under poverty line 68% in rural environment 23% in urban environment Low yields still decreasing  Production 66% self- consumption 34% trade Export incomes around 16 US$/inhab. (average in sub-Saharan Africa 100 US$ )   Source : Minecofin, SNRP, results of statistical surveys and Participatory Evaluation of Poverty Picture: www.fifdh.ch Groups of households:  Groups of households “Destitute”: they have to beg “Landless” No land, no farm, no cattle They farm others land “No surplus” Land is not producing enough to live No surplus no saving “Land and smaller livestock holders” Little surplus allowing them to look at other needs as education Picture: UNESCO Groups of households:  Groups of households “rich in food terms” Large farm, rich soils, livestock Sufficient food Often access to a salaried job “rich in monetary terms” Sufficient monetary income (salaried jobs, shop), living conditions above the average Emigrate to urban centres Picture: Pau University, France Key role of women in agriculture:  Key role of women in agriculture In 2001, 34 % of the households were headed by women (21 % are widows), against only 18% in 1990 These household are among the vulnerable in the population    Minecofin : Poverty Reduction Strategy. Various studies from INADES, Agriucultural University of Burundi. Picture: B.Thierry, 2000 Division of work:  Division of work   Work productivity between 0,91 and 1,36 USD per working day 400 USD per cultivated hectare Time distribution per activity and gender:  Time distribution per activity and gender Source: Rapport principal, MINAGRI, 2004 MEN WOMEN The landless population:  The landless population Represents 11,5% of households Kigali Ngali (7,8%) Gisenyi (7,2%) Rented land of low quality Few financial means to buy fertilizers Depends on what they produce for their survival, no other income sources Source: EICV Picture: CIRAD Youth and its future in the agricultural sector:  Youth and its future in the agricultural sector Orphans (war, AIDS) Vulnerable population Need of professional training Picture: B. Thierry, 2000 Agricultural zones :  Agricultural zones 17 agro- bioclimatic zones 3 agricultural zones High zone > 1.700 m in the West and in the North-West Intermediate zone from 1.300 to 1.700 m Western valleys and the transition with the low zone Low zone < 1.300 m in the East and in the South-East The high zone:  The high zone 28% of the country Zaire-Nile crest Volcanic and fertile zones Forests Natural reserves Picture: B. Thierry, 2003 The intermediate zone:  The intermediate zone 33% of the country Poor lands Strong erosion Wetlands represent a land reserve Picutre: B. Thierry, 2002 The low zone :  The low zone 39% of the country Zone of plains Picutre: B.Thierry, 2001 Production influenced by rainfalls Highest numbers of cattle Distribution of crops:  Distribution of crops Conclusion:  Conclusion Picutre: B. Thierry, 2002 Slide47:  Created by Caroline Bidault

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