Published on February 24, 2008
Slide1: B822: Creativity, Innovation and Change Course Slides Slide2: Amabile's article describes what kind of managerial practices foster creativity and which ones 'kill it'. Expertise = knowledge (technical, procedural or intellectual) Creative thinking skills determine how flexible and imaginative people approach problems - do they end up with the status quo Motivation - where the solution is far more creative than the external reward e.g. money Components of Creativity Amabile Bk1 – Ch1 6 Managerial Practice Which Stimulate Creativity: 6 Managerial Practice Which Stimulate Creativity Amabile identifies six general categories of managerial practice which affect creativity: Challenge; Freedom; Resources; Work-group features; Supervisory encouragement; and Organisational support. Amabile Bk1 – Ch1 Slide4: The Systems Model creativity occurs when a set of rules and practices are transmitted from the DOMAIN to the individual (PERSON) the individual must then produce a novel variation in the content of the domain the variation must then be selected by the FIELD for inclusion in the domain Ideas generated by the PERSON are accepted or rejected by the FIELD who act as gatekeepers Csikszentmihalyi Bk1 – Ch1 Creative People: Qualities & Characteristics – The 5 Ps: Creative People: Qualities & Characteristics – The 5 Ps Bk1 – Ch1 pp27-28 6 Qualities of Creative Leaders: 6 Qualities of Creative Leaders have good perceptual abilities are good communicators have capacity to build coalitions and work through teams have persuasive powers to communicate their ideas recognise others’ contributions have good social skills Bk1 - Ch2 p34 Kanter Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence a term coined to describe: the self-awareness, self-regulation and motivation needed to manage yourself and the empathy and social skills needed to manage relationships with others. Goleman believes that though these qualities can be developed over time, they often require a programme of individualised training over a long period. Bk1 – Ch2 pp34-35 Slide8: 5 Components of Emotional Intelligence Goleman Bk1 – Ch2 pp34-35 Types of Leader: Entrepreneurial – inventor to innovator Transformational – have the ‘know how’ Visionary – often products of their time Distributed - shared across a group Types of Leader Bk1 – Ch2 pp35-36 Characteristics of Creative Organisations: Characteristics of Creative Organisations Bk1 – Ch2 pp47 Informal Network Map: Informal Network Map Krackhardt & Hanson claim that asking people who they would turn to for advice and who they trust and representing these links diagrammatically along the lines indicated above can give managers a much better idea of who gets on with who and who will lead a particular project team most effectively than consulting the formal organisational chart. Bk1 – Ch2 p45 Contrasting Approaches to Organisational Change: Contrasting Approaches to Organisational Change Bk1 – Ch2 pp49-50 Perception – Chapter 3 Overview: Perception – Chapter 3 Overview This chapter addresses cognition and perception in management looks at how the brain and mind works looks at the role of intuitive management discusses mind-sets and thinking biases Bk1 - Ch3 Tacit Knowledge: Tacit Knowledge Most Western managers rely on hunches to make decisions, based on explicit, rational modes of analysis which has been encouraged by value placed on logic, precision and evidence. Many Eastern cultures have accepted the importance of tacit knowledge and reliance on intuition, imagery and metaphor tacit knowledge and intuition are particularly important when handling messy, ill-defined and uncertain situations Bk1 - Ch3 p55-56 The Brain: The Brain stores and retrieves information and memories in different ways depends on what one perceives they have seen What is recollected is dependent on the mood / state of mind that a person is in. Our perception and memory of events are affected by what we expect to see. Bk1 - Ch3 pp 56-58 The Brain: Analysis & Perception: The Brain: Analysis & Perception Bk1 - Ch3, p66 Mintzberg Link with table on slide 17 Styles of thinking Employed in Planning and Managing: Styles of thinking Employed in Planning and Managing Bk1 - Ch3, p66 Mintzberg Unconscious Information Processing: Unconscious Information Processing we process information and learn without knowing it and in ways which would be difficult to replicate consciously Conscious recognition is about half a second behind unconscious processing Bk1 - Ch3, p68 Unconscious Learning and Decision Making: Unconscious Learning and Decision Making Many management decisions are made on a hunch or through intuition. Schooler found that those who had been asked to think through their decisions were more likely to go back on the decision than those who had followed their gut reaction experimental evidence demonstrates that people are more likely to come up with the right answer if they are allowed a short break to consider their options – incubation of ideas Bk1 - Ch3, p61-64 Organisational Structure and Tacit Knowledge: Organisational Structure and Tacit Knowledge middle management is required to act a communicators between top management and front-line staff. He argues that whilst de-layering may create leaner organisations it is often a short-term fix and risks losing an organisation's tacit knowledge. organisational structure could be conceived as being circular, with front-line staff at the edge and top management in the middle. Bk1 - Ch3, p67 Mintzberg 7 Ways of Using Intuition: 7 Ways of Using Intuition Isenberg suggests that managers use intuition in at least five different ways to: sense when a problem exists; perform well-learnt activities rapidly; synthesise isolated data; use 'gut feeling' to check results arrived at rationally; and by-pass in-depth analysis Bk1 - Ch3, p 68-69 Simon claims that ‘intuition is no mysterious talent. It is the direct by-product of training and experience that has been stored as knowledge’. Agor adds Looking for future opportunities; and Ability to synthesise and integrate Mind-Sets: Visual Perceptions and Barriers: Mind-Sets: Visual Perceptions and Barriers Refer to visual perception diagrams identified in Figs 3.2 and 3.3. Once seen, it is impossible to see the strange mix of black and white that you originally perceived. . Visual Perceptions Barriers to Problem Solving Link up the nine dots above with four straight lines, without taking your pen off the paper or going through each dot more than once. Need to think 'outside the box' Bk1 - Ch3, p 75 Cognitive Tendencies And Barriers When Faced With Problem Solving: Cognitive Tendencies And Barriers When Faced With Problem Solving Kaufmann identified the following: over-reliance on stereo-typed responses that have worked in the past; blocks / obstacles which do not allow new approaches; unnecessary assumptions limiting the range of possibilities which can be considered (see slide 22 which requires going outside the nine dot perimeter); and the tendency to seek 'confirming' and discard 'disconfirming' evidence (see Pearce and NASA ozone layer discovery). Bk1 - Ch3, p 76 Reframing: Changing Negative to Positive Beliefs: Reframing: Changing Negative to Positive Beliefs Transforming negative beliefs into positive ones is known as reframing (3 minute mile) reframing a negative statement to one which is positive should make one feel better about the reframed statement e.g. 'I am stubborn' might be reframed as 'I am determined' seeing the opportunity and positive side of a situation rather than the problems and negative side (Handy p80) changing 'yes but' to 'yes and'. Bk1 - Ch3, p 79-81 Morgan’s 8 Organisational Metaphors: Morgan’s 8 Organisational Metaphors Machine – classic picture of bureaucracy, structure, rules and procedures. Employees are unintelligent cogs in a machine who are required to conform rather than create. Organism – ‘living’ (biological), structurally flat, open climate (see table 4.1 p87) Culture Brain Political system Psychic prison Flux and transformation Instrument of domination Bk1 – Ch4, p 86-100 Other Organisational Metaphors: Other Organisational Metaphors Machine (Burns and Stalker) Biological (Hawthorne, McGregor and Agyris) Ecological (emphasises nurturing and facilitative aspects of management) Social (focus on relationships and communication patterns in an organisation) Cognitive (Senge – learning organisation, creative network, knowledge management) Systemic (Network & Complexity) Bk1 – Ch4, p 86-100 Manager Metaphors: Manager Metaphors Captain – in charge and leads from the front Author - a matter of choosing than generating ‘a clear and adequate problem formulation from incoherent and disorderly events (Shotter) Jazz Musician - who acts on the hoof and makes sense of what he or she does in retrospect (Weick) Craftsman – illustrates, experience, knowledge, element of trial and error, hands on (Mintzberg) Beachcomber - examining the spoils of high tide and deciding whether to pick up the flotsam, leave it or throw it back’ (Isenberg) Conductor - whose role is both to inspire and bring out the best from his or her orchestra Bk1 – Ch4, p 101-103 Cognitive Style: Cognitive Style Refers to our preference for : Thinking; Working; and Behaving in particular ways Bk1 – Ch4, p 113 Inventories provide one means of highlighting the ways in which different cognitive styles lead to different approaches to creativity, communication, problem solving and decision making, and emphasise the extent to which such differences can affect perception, strategy and behaviour. All styles have their strengths and weaknesses. Cognitive Style: Cognitive Style Our style affects the way we: communicate; problem solve; make decisions; and relate to others There are three key ways to determine cognitive style: observe how we set about tasks; ask others how they perceive our style; and complete psychological inventories which assess our style. Bk1 – Ch4, p 113 Personality Inventories: Personality Inventories NEO personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness plus Conscientiousness and Agreeableness - OCEAN) MBTI psychological types (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) KAI creative style (Kirton Adaption – Innovation Inventory) LSI learning style (Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory) Team Management Index (TMI) (Margerison McCann) Belbin’s 9 Team Roles Bk1 – Ch4, p 114 Reliability, Validity and Bias: Reliability, Validity and Bias All good inventories should contain the following three qualities: validity - measuring what it is supposed to measure; reliability - people answer similarly over time; and freedom from social desirability bias - not easy to cheat Also consider: - Acceptability - administrative convenience - cost Bk1 – Ch4, p 114 The ‘Big Five’: Neo Personality Indicators: The ‘Big Five’: Neo Personality Indicators Analysis of people's responses to numerous inventories has identified five over-arching personality traits (OCEAN): Openness; Conscientiousness; Extraversion; Agreeableness; and Emotional stability / Need for stability or Neuroticism Bk1 – Ch4, p 115 NEO Personality Traits: NEO Personality Traits Bk1 – Ch4, p 117 *Tends to be: Flattering less flattering MBTI’s 8 Work Preferences, Tendencies & Weaknesses: MBTI’s 8 Work Preferences, Tendencies & Weaknesses Bk1 – Ch4, p 121 MBTI: MBTI MBTI draws on Jung's theory of personality types and addresses how people: relate to others (Extrovert : Introvert); acquire information (Sensor : Intuitive); make decisions (Thinker : Feeler); and set priorities (Judger : Perceiver). There are 8 MBTI preferences and 16 MBTI types Bk1 – Ch4, p 119 MBTI: Bi-Polar Dimensions: MBTI: Bi-Polar Dimensions The MBTI model also examines the following bi-polar dimensions or preferences Bk1 – Ch4, p 119 Commonality Between MBTI and ‘Big Five’: Commonality Between MBTI and ‘Big Five’ Bk1 – Ch4, p 120 Issues to Consider with MBTI: Issues to Consider with MBTI Commonality with the ‘big five’ (Bayne) (slide 37) The 8 preference types Different work preferences Communication styles and behaviour How types conflict and complement each other Each types approach to problem solving (Hirsch) Preference type and time considerations (Hurst) Temperament (Briggs and Meyers) Cognitive bias (Haley and Stumpf) Leadership and innovative style (Miller) 16 MBTI types Bk1 – Ch4, p 118-130 Kirton’s Adaption-Innovation Inventory Theory (KAI): Kirton’s Adaption-Innovation Inventory Theory (KAI) KAI refers to preferred thinking styles in respect of: problem solving; creativity; and decision making Kirton argues that everyone fits on a continuum from highly innovative to highly adaptive. Bk1 – Ch4, p 130-131 Characteristics of Adaptor and Innovators: Characteristics of Adaptor and Innovators Three factors make up the adaption-innovation dimension: number of ideas (or sufficiency versus proliferation of originality); level of attention to detail; and a preference for working with versus challenging the status quo Bk1 – Ch4, p 130-131 Kolb’s Learning Styles & Competencies Compared to MBTI: Kolb’s Learning Styles & Competencies Compared to MBTI Bk1 – Ch5, p 138 Slide42: Kolb’s 12 Managerial Competencies Bk1 – Ch5, p 139-140 Belbin’s 9 Team Roles: Belbin’s 9 Team Roles Bk1 – Ch6, p 143-145 Belbin’s 9 Team Roles: Belbin’s 9 Team Roles Belbin argued that successful teams are not composed solely of striving, ambitious, high-flyers as these teams rarely got beyond what Tuckman called the 'storming' stage of group development (see slide 59) An effective team will be made up of a range of people who can perform a variety of roles. The role of the manager is to build teams with different skills and encourage them to take on a variety of roles and become more flexible. Belbin recognised that people are subject to illusions about self and are tempted to distort their responses once they believe that their answers affect job and career prospects. Bk1 – Ch6, p 143-145 Margerison and McCann’s Team Management Index (TMI): Margerison and McCann’s Team Management Index (TMI) More evidence of reliability and validity These roles are related to the MBTI dimensions The 9 MMcC team role categories are: Creator Innovator Explorer Promoter Assessor Developer Thruster Organiser Concluder Producer Controller Inspector Upholder Maintainer Reporter Adviser Linker. Bk1 – Ch6, p 145 Inventory measures: how you prefer to relate to others; how you prefer to gather and use information; how you prefer to take decisions; and how you prefer to organise yourself & others Margerison and McCann’s (TMI): Margerison and McCann’s (TMI) Bk1 – Ch6, p 145 Innovation Roles: Innovation Roles Traditionally, people have thought of innovation as a three stage process: identifying the idea - invention / inventor; developing the idea into something tangible - innovation / innovator; and introducing the product / service to the market - entrepreneurship / entrepreneur. Other roles for successful innovation include: the gatekeeper (or Belbin's 'resource investigator'); a champion to sponsor the idea; and project leader to deliver the product / service Bk1 – Ch6, p 145-6 Characteristics of Inventors: Characteristics of Inventors  They work for personal job satisfaction more than financial gain. Bk1 – Ch6, p 146 Entrepreneurs and Champions: Entrepreneurs and Champions Most entrepreneurs are achievement-oriented, and extrinsically motivated. Some identify strongly with particular business values, while others are much less particular about what they sell provided it offers the promise of high returns. Grossi (1990) suggests that champions and sponsors need three qualities: bravery, because going against the tide is necessarily risky; vision, so that the idea can be ‘introduced coherently within the company’s principles and strategies’; and realism, to counteract any tendency to wishful thinking. Schon (1963) suggests that champions primarily work through informal rather than formal channels. Bk1 – Ch6, p 150 Rewards for Innovators: Rewards for Innovators Bk1 – Ch6, p 151 See slide 126 Culture and Climate: Culture and Climate Ekvall distinguishes between culture & climate culture refers to more deep-rooted beliefs and values (for example, national differences in individualistic or more collectivist identities) organisational climate to refer to the more accessible, observable behaviours, attitudes and feelings (for example, work groups’ shared norms for working hours, levels of effort and attitudes to employment) Bk1 – Ch7, p 156 Motivation: Effects of Creative Climates: Motivation: Effects of Creative Climates Ekvall also argued that organisations with creative climates practiced and displayed high aspects of motivation and: freedom - employee empowerment and opportunity for initiative; trust - which builds open, supportive and 'safe' environments*; commitment - which adds to motivation; and diversity - which is necessary for varied and shared experiences * Handy explains the conditions necessary for, and consequences of, a culture based around trust. He points out that a high-trust culture with minimal controls does not mean that anything goes. Bk1 – Ch7, p 156 Changing Cultures - 8 Features of a Successful Organisation: Changing Cultures - 8 Features of a Successful Organisation a bias for action; close to the customer; autonomy and entrepreneurship; productivity through people; hands-on, value driven; stick to knitting (stick to what is done best); simple form, lean staff; and simultaneous loose-tight priorities Bk1 – Ch7, p 159 Peters & Waterman Changing Organisational Culture: Changing Organisational Culture Cultural change often meets firm resistance or has difficulties in being implemented Should involve full organisational participation, recording progress and lessons learned Should, like BP, attempt to change its culture from one of 'yes but' to 'yes and’ Rhetoric must be changed to reality and senior managers are expected to 'walk the talk’ In almost all cultures there are well established subcultures which compete with each other and which may conflict or coincide with the change culture that is required. See Course references to ‘Semco’ (Semler) and slides 172-173 Bk1 – Ch7, p 159 National and Regional Cultural Difference (IBM around the world): National and Regional Cultural Difference (IBM around the world) Power-distance - decision making appears greater in hierarchically structured organisations than in flatter, less hierarchical structures; Uncertainty avoidance - need for rules and hierarchical protocols and relates to attitudes to risk and boundary setting - a reflection on an organisation's structure and cultural; Individualism / collectivism - the degree to which people are concerned for themselves as individuals as opposed to the priorities and rules of the group to which they belong. Masculinity / femininity - the extent of emphasis on work goals and assertiveness as opposed to concern with interpersonal goals (such as a friendly atmosphere) and nurturing. Hofstede Bk1 – Ch8, p 165 National cultures are based on long established and shared values Differences Between Chinese and UK Management Styles: Differences Between Chinese and UK Management Styles Metaphorically Bk1 – Ch8, p 169-171 Social Capital: Social Capital Prominent in East Asian countries and commerce national differences in economic performance and business and governmental organisation can be related to deeply held cultural values concerning attitudes to trust and norms of reciprocity or social capital. sceptics argue that one person’s trust maybe another’s lack of accountability Social capital takes a long time to establish but can disappear very quickly Fukuyama Bk1 – Ch8, p 177 Team, Organisational and Product Development: Team, Organisational and Product Development Development can be considered in a number of ways, including: as a staged progression; a cycle; a matter of balance; and through relationships Bk1 – Ch9, p 188-195 Development: Linear Staged Progression: Development: Linear Staged Progression E.g. Bk1 – Ch9, p 189-190 Tuckman Development – Cycles: Development – Cycles Kolb's Cycle of Experiential Learning And problem solving Leonard-Barton’s Cycle of Knowledge Creation in Organisations 1 Bk1 – Ch9, p 192 Development – Balance: Development – Balance The Chinese notion of balance accepts the inevitability of paradox, as shown in the intertwined figures of yin and yang, symbolising passivity and action respectively. Bk1 – Ch9, p 192 Development – Relationships: Development – Relationships This concept of development focuses on people and factors within the wider environment through the establishment and strengthening of networks may include those of mentor (senior member of staff), buddy (peer) or coach (internal or external and who focused on outcomes). Bk1 – Ch9, p 194 Approaches to Learning: Approaches to Learning Which include the following four: Improving deficiencies by improving competencies – knowledge acquisition and active reflection; the development of strengths*; the idea of unlearning assumptions which block development; and co-learning from others through participation, group learning. * Link to Gardner’s intelligences (see slide 64) Bk1 – Ch9, p 196-7 Developing Strengths: Gardner’s 7 Intelligences: Developing Strengths: Gardner’s 7 Intelligences Some people have combinations of the above intelligences and others abundance in some and lacking in others Bk1 – Ch9, p 197 Sustainability and Growth: Sustainability and Growth Bk1 – Ch10, p 203 This principle switches organisational thinking and business values, from an ethic that concentrates solely on growth, competition and profit to one which incorporates sustainability, cooperation and responsibility Environmental Issues: Environmental Issues Bk1 – Ch10, p 206 Environmental Issue: Social Drivers: Environmental Issue: Social Drivers Consumer concern and legislation has demanded improved Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) e.g. Withdrawal of GM products from supermarkets Ethically produced foods – free range eggs Reduction in emissions and CFCs – set by EU Reduction in individual and corporate ‘carbon footprints’ Regulation by government and organisations such as World Trade Organisation Bk1 – Ch10, p 206 Responsible Resourcing: Responsible Resourcing The five Rs: Recycle; Reduce; reduction of cost and pollution is Replace; possible by achieving some or Re-use; and all of the 5 Rs Repair Products such as cars and washing machines are now being manufactured with energy efficiency and less harmful chemicals in mind Bk1 – Ch10, p 214-216 Book 2: Managing Problems Creatively: Book 2: Managing Problems Creatively Preconditions of Problem Solving: Preconditions of Problem Solving VanGundy identifies the following preconditions as being necessary to begin problem solving: The existence of a gap between what is and what should be An awareness that a gap exists The motivation to decrease the gap An ability to measure the size of the gap The abilities and resources required to close the gap. Bk2 – Ch2, p 18 Problem Hierarchies: Problem Hierarchies Problems can also have a hierarchical structure in that there are lower level and higher level systems within those problems Bk2 – Ch2, p 20-21 Criticism, Reframing & Repatterning Problems: Criticism, Reframing & Repatterning Problems Criticism can feel particularly destructive when it is aimed at the higher levels, since that is normally where personal investment is greatest and changes are hardest. Take the sting out of criticism by moving it down a few levels and talking about a specific instance: ‘You say my team is no good’ (destructive attack on your team at identity level); ‘It would be very helpful if you could say exactly what it is that we are not doing well'. Reframing the problem may be more beneficial. See also Handy’s reframing problems p80 – slide 24 Repatterning - The overcoming of mindsets, habits and routines through the encouragement of teamwork, communication, coordination and networking Bk2 – Ch2, p 26 4 Ways to Address Problems: 4 Ways to Address Problems It is suggested that there are four ways in which problems can be addressed: change the situation - reframe / review the problem; change yourself - take look at the problem from a different angle; get out; and learn to live with it. What have we got to do? How do we solve it? Bk2 – Ch2, p 26 The complexity of some problems may require more than a one-off approach to finding a solution and may require ongoing an continuous problem management. Rational Approach to Problem Solving: Rational Approach to Problem Solving Kepner and Tregoe view problem analysis as the narrowing down of a body of information in the search for a solution Problem recognition Problem analysis Cause identification Generate alternative actions (decision making) Contingency actions Implement plan They also recommend the use of what? when? and how much? questions as a means of honing in on a problem's solution Kipling's '5Ws and H' (Who, What, Where, Why, When and How) technique is also popular with and has been adapted for a number of problem solving techniques Bk2 – Ch2, p 30 Simple and Iterative Decision Making Processes – 3 ‘A’s: Simple and Iterative Decision Making Processes – 3 ‘A’s Simple (non-iterative) process models identify ‘steps’ or ‘stages’ in decision processes. These stages are often shown to be iterative, allowing for a reformulation of the decision-making situation as the process unfolds. The iterative process model Bk2 – Ch2, p 32-33 Link with Van Gundy (slide 70) and Kepner and Tregoe (slide 74) Prospect Theory: Prospect Theory Two stages to prospect theory: stage 1 – editing: simplification, recognition limitations – through use of e.g. CPS, synectics stage 2 - evaluation Bk2 – Ch3, p 33 Game Theory: Interactive & Pay Offs: Game Theory: Interactive & Pay Offs Game theory analyses interactive rather than individual decision making. The theory attempts to evaluate possible decision outcomes (payoffs) in the light of possible decisions and actions of other players in a similar decision situation. Game theory has conventionally been used to analyse decision making in competitive situations such as a market duopoly prospect theory offers predictions about how decision makers deal with risk whilst game theory suggests ideas about situations where one party's decisions has implications about the other's. Bk2 – Ch3, p 34 Game Theory (Example): Game Theory (Example) The classic game theory example concerns two prisoners. They are accused of committing a serious crime. The problem is how should they respond to questioning by their captors, bearing in mind that each is to be questioned separately? If both confess, they will each receive a moderate sentence of, say, five years’ imprisonment. If both prisoners plead innocence to the serious crime, both will be convicted of a less serious offence and receive a sentence of, say, three years each. However, if one confesses and gives evidence against the other who continues to plead innocence, the prisoner confessing will receive a light sentence, say two years, while the prisoner pleading innocence will receive the heaviest sentence possible, say seven years. These possible outcomes are shown in the matrix below. The risk of pleading not guilty is a longer jail sentence for both. Bk2 – Ch3, p 34 Normative Decision Making Model: Normative Decision Making Model This top-down, normative decision making model is common to most strategy books Bk2 – Ch3, p 36 Tame & Wicked Problems: Tame & Wicked Problems Bk2 – Ch3, p 36 Rittel’s characteristics of wicked & tame problems Wicked Problems: Wicked Problems These are complex systems of sub problems in which many potential situations are woven together in an interdependent way Sub problems are linked to differing values and views that people have Vested interests with problem owners and those affected add to the ‘wickedness’ of the problem (Rittell) Wicked problems also affect (Mason and Mitroff): Problem formulation - Problem/ / solution relationship Testability - Finality Tractability* - Characteristics Analysis - Reproductabilty Replicability - Responsibility * (exhaustive / definitive list of options) Bk2 – Ch3, p 42-43 Rittell / Mason & Mitroff Wicked Problems: Wicked Problems Wicked problems usually need a lot of exploration and understanding about how the complex issues fit together Sometimes wicked problems have no immediate or neat solution Solutions often boil down to personal or collective coping or compromising Bk2 – Ch3, p 45 Creative Problem Solving: Creative Problem Solving Osborn’s Creative Problem Solving (CPS) technique involves 3 stages: Fact finding (problem investigation); Idea finding (idea generation); and Solution finding (solution selection). Gordon’s Synectics (‘Springboard’) is another CPS technique which involves: ‘opening up’ (i.e. ‘I wish’); and ‘closing down’ (i.e. ‘how to’) Bk2 – Ch4, p 48 Creative Problem Solving: Creative Problem Solving Isaksen & Treffinger’s Buffalo model extrapolates Osborn’s CPS model and includes the following stages: Mess finding; Data finding; replaces Osborn’s ‘fact finding’ stage Problem finding; Idea finding; Solution finding; and Acceptance finding Soft Systems Method (SSM) (Checkland) – aims to inform the debate with a range of alternative interpretations delivered from the problem situation It also aims to identify the basic tasks required and the various issues raised by stakeholders Rich pictures build on the Soft Systems Method Bk2 – Ch4, p 49-50 Methods: Methods "Getting from puzzlement to clarity“ This a complete problem-solving package; you enter with an awareness of some kind of difficulty or challenge, and (hopefully) leave with a final plan of action. Many methods just give you broad steps (e.g. ‘generate ideas’) and let you choose any technique you like that can achieve that step. If you think of a technique as the recipe for a single dish, a method is like the menu for a complete meal. Bk2 – Ch4, p 58 Frameworks: Frameworks Analogy: techniques are the various dishes; methods are the menus; and frameworks are the concept behind the menu (e.g. Christmas dinner, family celebration, romantic dinner etc) Precepts which stimulate and support techniques Frameworks: Frameworks This is the conceptual view of problem solving that underlies a particular method. If a technique is a separate dish, and a method is a menu for a complete meal, then a ‘framework’ is the broad concept behind a given menu – the difference between creating a menu for a ‘fast-food snack’, a ‘family celebration’, a ‘slimmer’s lunch’, a ‘romantic dinner’, or whatever Bk2 – Ch4, p 59-68 Frameworks: Frameworks Six framework metaphors in which problem solving is seen as: Framework 1: answering a pre-set question Framework 2: a process of searching a very large solution space Framework 3: the cultivation and development of selected ideas Framework 4: clarification through mapping and idea generation Framework 5: agreement on action following informed debate Framework 6: reperception of a situation to reveal more possibilities. Bk2 – Ch4, p 59-68 Frameworks: Frameworks Bk2 – Ch4, p 59-68 Frameworks: Frameworks Bk2 – Ch4, p 59-68 Frameworks: Frameworks Bk2 – Ch4, p 59-68 Convergent / Divergent Thinking: Convergent / Divergent Thinking Divergent phase = opening up, idea proliferation and gathering in options Convergent phase = closing down and focusing on options Both are necessary for creative thinking Divergent phases often requires 'out of the box' / 'right brain thinking' / 'intuition' / non-linguistic intelligences - a different kind of thinking. Link to Gordon’s Synectics (Springboard) technique (slide 83) and Isaksen and Treffinger’s Buffalo technique (slide 84) Bk2 – Ch5, p 71 Thought Processes: Thought Processes Jones identified 3 areas of thought process: the conscious region - where logical and algorithmic thought takes place in full consciousness of what is happening. This is where information is received, accepted or discarded; the subconscious region - where thought and idea are not at the forefront but may surface in time; and the unconscious region - where one is not directly aware of their thought activity Jones implies that creative thought processes move between each thought region Bk2 – Ch5, p 73-4 Jones’ Model of Creative Thinking: Jones’ Model of Creative Thinking Imagery, fantasy and dreaming as also rooted in the unconscious. Whatever the theory, many people find imagery and visualisation useful in creative work. Imagery and visualisation can include the stuff of dreams, fantasy stories which are both pleasant and unpleasant. In some cases the image or fantasy can be attitude or perception changing. Bk2 – Ch5, p 73-4 Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP): Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) NLP makes use of different imagery modalities (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, olfactory and gustatory and sub-modalities - associated/dissociated, colour/monochrome, framed/unframed, clear/muffled, hard/soft, etc.), and that the modality a person is using can be detected from external cues such as eye-movement patterns and body language Recognising and working with such differences can be helpful in understanding communication problems, for example, where two people are trying to communicate using different modalities. NLP lends itself to ‘communication’ consulting. Modality relates to how people see, hear, feel their internal imagery. When two people of differing modality engage there is potential for communication problems.  the perception or sensing of the motion, weight, or position of the body as muscles, tendons, and joints move  related to smelling  relating to the sense of taste Bk2 – Ch5, p 81-2 Precepts: The Four Concepts: Precepts: The Four Concepts Precepts in B822 (therefore not exhaustive) are based on four concepts which have been drawn from James Adams’ book ‘Conceptual Blockbusting’ and Handy’s important elements for a creative climate: Curiosity - to fuel a continual desire to explore, enquire, experiment, probe, challenge and try to understand (Handy) Forgiveness - because curiosity will be stifled unless there is acceptance of the blind alleys that are part of all exploration (Handy) Love - genuinely valuing the people around you, and the context you work in, so as to provide the emotional space and security for confident exploration and learning (Handy). A sense of direction - Though curiosity must be free to play, at a higher level, there needs to be a sense that the totality of the work is moving in a constructive direction Bk2 – Ch6, p 93-94 Precepts: Precepts These are the guiding values or principles that underlie practical creative-thinking generally. The are 12 precepts within 4 overarching concepts: Curiosity 1 : adopt a ‘set to break sets’ – always challenge mindsets 2 : explore the givens – question terms of reference 3 : broad picture local detail – stand back to reorientate Forgiveness 4 : value play – children learn through play / value playfulness 5 : build up don’t knock down – value one another’s ideas 6 : live with looseness – value new ideas in spite they are not tested Love 7 : it is already there, nurture it – value, support and give space 8 : involve others – interested people can be the best source of ideas 8 : connect and be receptive – even plain environments can offer stimulation A sense of Direction 10 : know what you really want – and be sure you want it 11 : cycle often and close late – the best route from A to B not always in straight line 12 : manage the process – many aspects of the process will run better if carefully managed Bk2 – Ch6, p 93-119 Being a ‘Reflective Practitioner’: Being a ‘Reflective Practitioner’ Rickards (1988) offers the following simple advice about planning and monitoring creative work (reflect before and after): Plan Keep creative exercises and analysis apart Keep records Understand what you are doing and why Learn from the experiences of others Bk2 – Ch6, p 120 Rickards Techniques: Techniques These are clearly defined procedures designed to achieve a particular kind of outcome. Some techniques are used individually or in groups for: Exploring; Defining; Gathering; Generating; see the ‘Technique Library’ Grouping; Screening; Prioritising; and Planning One technique on its own is not usually enough to solve a problem – but it may play a vital role within an overall problem-solving package. Bk2 – Ch7, p 123 Using Techniques: Using Techniques The techniques are a guide and are like a cookery book. The step by step options can, over time be changed to suit need or taste The danger about adopting a particular technique and using it ritually without reflecting on it or changing it to suit needs, environment or audience may result in a loss of ‘freshness’ or creativity Practice of techniques will move a user from stages of: The latter stage is almost undertaken on ‘auto-pilot’ and with little effort. Bk2 – Ch7, p 132 Using Techniques: Using Techniques In using techniques it is important to remember the four Ps: Place People Process Product Bk2 – Ch7, p 133 - 135 Other Techniques: Other Techniques Cartoon Story Board (Henry) – good for play and target setting; Fishbone (Ishikawa) – mapping technique used for identifying possible causes of problems; Mind mapping (Buzan) - idea generation, notes, concepts, information (aka ‘spider diagram’); Five Ws and H (Kipling) – idea generation; Stakeholder impact analysis (Mason & Mitroff) Techniques Library Refer to TMA02 TMA Structure of Methods, Frameworks, Techniques & Precepts: TMA Structure of Methods, Frameworks, Techniques & Precepts Facilitation Skills: Facilitation Skills Bk2 – Ch7, p 135-8 Isaksen Facilitation Skills: Facilitation Skills Bk2 – Ch7, p 135-8 Isaksen Facilitators: Interpersonal Intelligence: Facilitators: Interpersonal Intelligence Facilitators are likely to be required to have a good range of intelligences: linguistic for clear explanation; logical-mathematical to understand argument and manage convergence; spatial for the use of diagrams and spatial imagery; intrapersonal for sensitivity to their own intuitions and reactions; and interpersonal for dealing with difficult participants, inter-team member issues and building trust Bk2 – Ch5 p 85 & Ch7 p135 Gardner Book 3: Changing Organisations: Book 3: Changing Organisations Innovation: Innovation DTI Definition – the successful exploitation of new ideas – incorporating new technologies, design and best practice is the key business process that enables UK businesses to compete effectively in the global environment. Bk3 – Ch1, p 9 Iceberg of Change: Iceberg of Change Kirton (block 1, p 130) argues that continuous improvement is not innovation. This, he argues, is 'adaption' (Adaption - Innovation theory) Some argue that most innovative ideas happen because of continuous incremental improvement Bk3 – Ch1, p 11 Kirton Types of Innovation: Types of Innovation Evolutionary innovation e.g. development of the QWERTY board to ‘golf ball’ type writer to PC and software Technology fusion e.g. combination of ideas – mobile phones with camera facilities Product innovation – product enhancement and functionality Bk3 – Ch1, p 12-14 Sources of Industrial Innovation: Sources of Industrial Innovation Drucker suggested the following sources of industrial innovation: new knowledge (e.g. electricity); industry and market changes (e.g. health care); changes in perception (e.g. health consciousness); process needs (e.g. Linotype1 and advertising coming together to enable modern newspapers); incongruities (e.g. container ships saving loading and unloading costs); the unexpected (e.g. the catastrophic market failure of the Ford Edsel car providing the impetus for the launch of the hugely successful Mustang). In innovation as in any other endeavour there is talent, there is ingenuity, and there is knowledge. But when all is said and done, what innovation requires is hard, focused, purposeful work (Drucker). Bk3 – Ch1, p 16-17 Drucker Technology Push and Market Pull: Technology Push and Market Pull In technology push, the technologist (or domain expert) discovered that something was possible and used this to drive the evolution of a product that would (hopefully) prove popular (Rothwell and Gardiner). In market pull, potential customers are asked what they want, and the ‘technologists’ are charged with producing it. Both alone have major limitations and the key is to exploit both aspects (Rothwell and Gardiner). Akio Morita (1988) suggested that the Walkman was entirely the result of technology push, claiming that no amount of market research would have come up with the concept. Bk3 – Ch1, p 18 Rothwell and Gardiner Technology Push and Market Pull: Technology Push and Market Pull Technology Push Model of Innovation Market Pull Model of Innovation Cooper and Kleinschmidt argued that over 80% of products derive from market pull rather than technology push Bk3 – Ch1, p 19-20 Innovation and Unarticulated Demand: Innovation and Unarticulated Demand Asking the customers what they would like ignores the other 3 quadrants Market pull (customer needs) is limited to the shaded area Bk3 – Ch1, p 18 Hamel & Prahalad Coupling Model – combination of Technology Push & Market Pull: Coupling Model – combination of Technology Push & Market Pull It is considered that both the technology push and market pull models are overly simplistic and so the two models were linked to incorporate iteration and feedback; this model also recognises the need for complex communications and the key roles of entrepreneurial people; high-risk and radical innovations such as the mobile phone can be linked to this model Bk3 – Ch1, p 20 Rothwell and Gardiner Integrated Model: Integrated Model This model is complex and includes a number of combined approaches and the use of medium to high technology in new products e.g. internal and external networking with suppliers and customers; JIT; or TQM Bk3 – Ch1, p 21 Rothwell and Gardiner Foster’s Innovation Life Cycle: Foster’s Innovation Life Cycle radical innovation initially progress is slow but subsequent development produces rapid improvements in the performance (curve A) another radical innovation comes along that eventually replaces the existing technology (curve B) E.g. when steamships replaced sailing ships, ballpoints replaced fountain pens, or aluminium replaced steel beverage cans Bk3 – Ch1, p 23 Foster Disruptive Innovation: Disruptive Innovation Disruptive innovation (Clayton Christensen) is where large organisations tend to have a culture of its own and are very good at what they do but provide 'more of the same' in terms of innovative ideas and are vulnerable to radical change Ideas that are generated and do not 'fit' with the model of previous success tend to be ignored, misunderstood or strangled by a system that is trying hard to turn it into something else. Innovation history should be examined if only to ensure the same mistakes are not made. 'the way we do things around here' may be an ingredient in current success but can lead to blinkered vision. 'Core competencies' are often linked with 'core rigidities' (Leonard-Barton). Bk3 – Ch1, p 24-26 Clayton Christensen Open and Closed Innovation: Open and Closed Innovation Henry Chesbrough Open Innovation arguably starts with the plausible premise that ‘not all the smart people work for us’. Given this realisation, the intrinsic value of an idea becomes a lot more interesting than where it came from (thus tackling the ‘NIH-syndrome’ (Not Invented Here) head-on). Bk3 – Ch1, p 26-27 Efficient Production: Efficient Production Some aspects of more efficient production (concurrent engineering) as adopted in Eastern, and more progressively, Western countries include: Multi-disciplinary, cross-functional team working Concurrent Engineering* (Clark & Fujimoto) shortening lead times (JIT); parallel development (working on various aspects of the products at the same time as opposed to a production line / conveyor belt approach); supplier control; and right first time Partnership Sourcing (‘Kaizen’) (Imai) Bk3 – Ch1, p 32-33 * Focused on study of world automobile industry Partnership Sourcing & “Kaizen”: Partnership Sourcing & “Kaizen” Partnership sourcing involves the development of long-term working relationships with suppliers and other stakeholders to improve supply chain efficiencies – also known as “Kaizen” (continuing commitment involving everyone) (Imai). Differences between Traditional & Partnership sourcing Bk3 – Ch2, p 32-33 Imai Idea Screening : Idea Screening A good idea is not enough; it needs some degree of fit with the organisation in terms of resources, capabilities, finances, structure and values. It must also fit with the external environment – the market, the needs of customers, relevant regulations and sundry other stakeholders. Ideas need screening to ensure resources, finance, people structure, market demand and policies are existent Bk3 – Ch2, p 37-38 Idea Screening: Offices of Innovation: Idea Screening: Offices of Innovation They tend to be established in order to stimulate innovative ideas and are created in large organisations. They are sometimes known as aviary, discovery or innovation networks An Office of Innovation usually comprises a decentralised network of innovation facilitators who seek out and attract other employees to offer ideas for innovations. Bk3 – Ch2, p 38 Idea Screening: Patents and Suggestion Schemes: Idea Screening: Patents and Suggestion Schemes Patents / Intellectual Property Rights Used to protect innovative ideas so that there is no commercial loss for the innovator. Used to 'ward off' competitors Suggestion Schemes & Customer Involvement Means of tapping employers' ideas Customer involvement and feedback Incentive schemes (3M) Bk3 – Ch2, p 39-41 Stage Specific Processes (Pearson) : Stage Specific Processes (Pearson) Pearson identifies four different types of innovation according to the degree of certainty of the ends and means exploratory research (unclear ends and means) - pharmaceutical organisations seeking new products; development and engineering (clear ends but unclear means) - Microsoft developing a new operating system / Airbus developing the new A380; application seeking (clear means but unclear ends) - focus on new applications of existing technologies; and technical and market combination (clear ends and means). Bk3 – Ch2, p 48 *See slide 50 Pearson Key Features of Innovative Organisations: Key Features of Innovative Organisations flatter in structure and make use of multi-disciplinary workforce / project teams; faster and more flexible in terms of its responsiveness to business and change; constantly looking for incremental improvement; actively developing partnerships with customers, suppliers and competitors; advocates of parallel product development; patience with failure; keen to promote systems of incentives; advocates of R&D investment Bk3 – Ch2, p 54-56 See slide 10 Key Features of Innovative Organisations: Key Features of Innovative Organisations Berger - emphasis on the importance of human capital; Pfeffer - also advocates the development of human capital and the importance of nurturing and involving people; Somerville and Mroz - also identify the importance of the workforce. knowledge sharing and embracing change but highlight the qualities required of the manager. They focus on the following seven: higher purpose, responsible leadership, Multi-disciplinary team working, partnership, knowledge networking, global search (for staff with the right skills); and change. Quinn et al - focus on the importance of retaining the best managers (whilst weeding out those who do not make the grade) and their ability to lead and share knowledge. Bk3 – Ch2, p 57 Benchmarking: Benchmarking Can be described as: Anything taken or used as a point of reference or comparison Something that serves as a standard by which others may be served Anything or something that is comparatively measurable A physiological or biological reference value against which performance is compared, Bk3 – Ch3, p 67 Zairi Benchmarking: Benchmarking Benchmarking is used in the following ways: As an enabler for achieving and maintaining high levels of competitiveness As a measurement of business performance against the best of the best, through a continuous effort of constantly reviewing processes, practices and methods As a process which can be characterised by a standard (an excellence point obtained) and variables (expectations, performance and measurements) As ‘a continuous process of measuring products, services and business practices against the toughest competitors and those companies recognised as industry leaders’ (Xerox definition) To emulate the best by continuously implementing change and measuring performance. Zairi Bk3 – Ch3, p 67 Benchmarking: Benchmarking There are four types of benchmarking: Internal (comparing similar functions within different areas of the organisation) Competitive (comparing a large number of functions within an industry) Functional (comparison of similar functions within other organisations); and Generic (comparing many functions across many organisations). Two lessons from benchmarking are: Strict comparability of metrics* is seldom achievable, so aim for idea benchmarking (you’ll get there in the end, anyway). Always benchmark the best even if they are in a different sector. (This also means that they are less likely to see you as a competitive threat and more likely to share good practice). * Metrics are short-term measures which have to be continually calculated and reviewed. Metrics can be: A financial performance indicator (e.g. business performance). A technical performance indicator (e.g. productivity measurement). An efficiency indicator (e.g. human contribution measurement). Bk3 – Ch3, p 67-74 Zairi Creative Swiping : Creative Swiping Creative swiping is concerned with adopting and copying the best features and aspects of competitor products or services. Peters argues that the first stage in successful creative swiping is to determine who the competition actually is. He identifies five major categories of potential competitive threat: 1. Foreign firms - especially those newly entering into a small niche within your market. 2. Tiny domestic operations which also start by concentrating on small niche markets - These people are unlikely to be able to afford some of your more bureaucratic systems. 3. Major players diversifying into your market - These will have a rather different mindset to you. 4. Local players who confine themselves to particular geographical territories - These may be spectacularly successful in their own locale but too small to appear on your corporate radar. 5. New entrants using different business models - This is where even world-class operations can get blind-sided. Think not just Amazon as an alternative to your local bookstore, but Apple’s iTunes Music Store as an alternative to your local record store. Also of note would be Direct Line Insurance’s reengineering of the domestic insurance market by initially dealing solely by phone Bk3 – Ch3, p 74-77 Peters Scenarios: Scenarios This is concerned with the identification and exploration of particular outcomes or potential business activities. For example, Shell, the petroleum company, developed and planned for scenarios relating to: loss of exploration concessions; low growth; decentralisation; and simulations of downturn. Scenario planning tends not to impact on strategies not because they are poorly constructed but because they are not carried through and implemented Scenario planning is also dependent on transformation of corporate culture Bk3 – Ch3, p 77 - (Ch 4 Reader) Wilson Scenarios: Scenarios The use of scenarios can provide a number of advantages in that it can: challenge conventional thinking and prepare for unexpected changes; aid forecasting processes and can test strategies; be applied to the whole organisation and not just part of the workforce or senior management; and assist in changing perceptions about adopting different approaches or developing new products and services Wilson Bk3 – Ch3, p 77 - (Ch 4 Reader) Futures: Futures Futures is concerned with visions, strategic planning and foresight. Strategic Planning Mintzberg argues that strategic planning does not allow for change and innovation. He also states that strategic planning has three major fallacies: fallacy of predetermination - a reliance on forecasts which, are frequently inaccurate and do not take into account change of direction or 'discontinuities'. Mintzberg also argues that organisations need scenarios instead of forecasts and contingency planning instead of 'deterministic planning'; fallacy of detachment - a reliance on 'hard data' and performance reports etc rather than and in addition to the 'soft data' (intuition and local knowledge) often held by line managers; and fallacy of formalisation - analysis is not necessarily synthesis i.e. a sum of the individual parts. Foresight This is the anticipation of change on a number of business and environmental fronts Hamel & Prahalad. Bk3 – Ch3, p 80 The Quality Movement: The Quality Movement Suppliers – choose the most reliable not the cheapest, reduce number Training – train on the job, train employees in simple statistics, continuously retrain Quality – provide statistical evidence of process control, look for faults in the system not in individual performance, eliminate numerical production goals Culture – drive out fear, break down barriers across departments, think long term. W Edwards Deming was credited as the 'father of the quality movement' in Japan. Deming (1982) stated to increase productivity through quality improvement the following factors relating to suppliers, subtle statistical control, training and culture need to be addressed: Bk3 – Ch5, p 104 Deming Quality Movement Processes: Quality Movement Processes Continuous Improvement; Total Quality Management; Business Process Reengineering; Lean Thinking, learning organisations; Six Sigma; and Knowledge management. Bk3 – Ch5, p 104 The Quality Movement: The Quality Movement All improvement methods start with an initial position e.g. Business Process Reengineering springs from the realisation that ‘if we’d known then what we know now, we’d probably never have done it that way’ and hence argues for radical redesign employing state-of-the-art technology; Six Sigma starts with the premise that errors are avoidable; Total Quality Management argues that many small improvements, derived from all levels in the organisation, can offer a major strategic asset. Bk3 – Ch5, p 104 Evolution of Quality: Evolution of Quality Dale and Cooper suggested a four stage model which reflects the evolution of quality Quality inspection - concerned with the inspection of outputs by, say, the 'Quality Department'; Quality control - this is inspection plus feedback to ensure specifications are met; Quality assurance - this is 'doing it by the book‘ like, ISO 9000, which reflects 'saying what you do, doing what you say and proving it'. Critics of ISO 9000 state that the process is bureaucratic, expensive and merely demands that the quality of products is consistent, even if they are consistently poor; and Total Quality Management (TQM) - TQM is essentially about empowering staff to improve not just the efficiency of individual processes, but the effectiveness of the overall process. If a QMS is about achieving quality, TQM is about continuously improving quality. Bk3 – Ch5, p 106 Dale and Cooper ISO 9001:2000: ISO 9001:2000 ISO 9001-2000 specifies requirements for a quality management system for any organisation that needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements and aims to enhance customer satisfaction Usually adopted by large, safety critical organisations like the nuclear industry and aerospace The standards, because of cost and associated bureaucracy where not often taken up by small or medium sized organisations In many cases suppliers where not considered if they did not conform to ISO 9000. Bk3 – Ch5, p 113 EFQM: EFQM EFQM is a non-prescriptive approach that recognises there are many approaches to achieving sustainable excellence. Fundamental concepts which underpin EFQM: Results Orientation - Excellence is achieving results that delight all the organisation's stakeholders Customer Focus - Excellence is creating sustainable customer value Leadership and Constancy of Purpose - Excellence is visionary and inspirational leadership, coupled with constancy of purpose Management by Processes and Facts - Excellence is managing the organisation through a set of interdependent and interrelated systems, processes and facts Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 EFQM (cont’d): EFQM (cont’d) People Development and Involvement - Excellence is maximising the contribution of employees through their development and involvement Continuous Learning, Innovation and Improvement - Excellence is challenging the status quo and effecting change by utilising learning to create innovation and improvement opportunities Partnership Development - Excellence is developing and maintaining value-adding partnerships Corporate Social Responsibility - Excellence is exceeding the minimum regulatory framework in which the organisation operates and to strive to understand and respond to the expectations of their stakeholders in society. Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 8 Principles of EFQM: 8 Principles of EFQM EFQM Results Orientation Customer Focus Leadership & Constancy of Purpose Management by Processes & Facts People Development & Involvement Continuous Learning, Innovation & Improvement Partnership Development Corporate Social Responsibility Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 EFQM Cont’d: EFQM Cont’d The Business Excellence model, devised by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) more holistic approach to quality management like benchmarking simply identifies areas of weakness or opportunities for improvement EFQM requires constant performance management Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 6 Stages EFQM Self Assessment: 6 Stages EFQM Self Assessment Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 6 Stages EFQM Self Assessment: Stage 3 Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 6 Stages EFQM Self Assessment Slide146: assignment of a score is an essential (and sometimes subjective) element of the self-assessment methodology in spite of the guidance the EFQM provides to achieve consistency of scoring the greater the percentage the more positive the trend and likelihood of sustained excellence. 0% is 'no data / anecdotal evidence' and 100% is 'Strongly positive trends/sustained excellent results over 5 years or more; ‘best in class’ in many areas; all results caused by approach taken so that leading position will be maintained; all areas addressed'. advocates of the EFQM model argue that the framework provides a comprehensive template for organisations to employ in pursuit of ‘World Class’ performance, but the whole concept of Business Excellence has also attracted criticism for favouring a points scoring exercise over the fundamental disciplines and tools of TQM. EFQM (cont’d) Bk3 – Ch5, p 114-119 Sigma Six: Sigma Six Six Sigma can also be captured in the five stage DMAIC cycle: Bk3 – Ch5, p 119-122 Six Sigma is almost overtly complex and this complexity, together with its associated rigour and a major requirement for training, can be expensive, especially for small companies. Advocates of Six Sigma usually respond by referring back into the history of the quality movement and invoking the ‘Cost of Quality’ argument Business Process Re-engineering (BPR): Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) BPR takes a ‘if we’d known then what we know now, we’d probably never have done it that way’ attitude, and proceeds to redesign business activities starting with a clean sheet of paper. BPR relies heavily on an organisations IT capabilities, technical integration and organisational integration. It is broken down into five levels as identified in figure Bk3 – Ch5, p 127 Project Management: Project Management Nonaka and Takeuchi identify five types of project team: basic relay structure - various stages of the project are worked on by different departments (e.g. design, engineering, manufacturing) – does not encourage teamwork; matrix organisation - input from one department across a number of projects and where contribution is expected from a variety of sources – tends to create tension of priority or allegiance; independent projects - normally created in large organisations where the whole team is located in the same vicinity until the project is complete – can be difficult to re-assimilate individuals into the existing; venture teams - small project team is created from various parts of the organisation to manage a project outside of normal day-to-day management structures - popular structure if supported by senior management; and dual structure - sometimes known as the 'hypertext organisation‘. Combination of hierarchical structures working with network of project teams Bk3 – Ch6, p 133-134 Nonaka and Takeuchi Film Crew Model: Film Crew Model This is where project teams are created using short-term contracted staff with the desired expertise and knowledge base. This type of project team both allows individuals to build on existing skills / CVs and is becoming more common place. Teams of this type have been in existence in the film industry for some time (DeFillipi and Arthur). Rehiring relies on reputation and is dependent on which network you belong (Kanter). Bk3 – Ch6, p 135 Alliances: Mergers and Acquisitions: Alliances: Mergers and Acquisitions Merger - this involves the decision of two organisations to integrate their operations on a relatively equal basis Acquisition - involves one organisation buying and controlling an interest in another organisation. The acquisition often becomes a subsidiary of the acquiring organisation which operates within the portfolio of the organisation's SBUs. If the acquis
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