B1 U10 A

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Published on May 6, 2008

Author: Irvette

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Unit 10 : Text A 21st Century College English: Book 1 Cloning: Good Science or Baaaad Idea Slide2:  Lead-in Activities Text Organization Reading & Writing Skills Language Points Guided Practice Assignment Slide3:  Lead-in Activities Questions for Discussion What is cloning? What achievements have scientists made in cloning? What’s the good of cloning to mankind? What do you think about cloning humans? Slide4:  Text Organization Slide5:  Reading & Writing Skills 1. Scanning for organization 2. Identifying the Support to Main Idea Many paragraphs written in English are arranged in the same way: a Main Idea is expressed in topic sentence and then Support is given to make this idea clear and to convince the reader that it is true. Practice: Review Text A again and find out the support given to each of following main ideas/ topic sentences. Slide6:  3. Prediction + illustration According to the paragraph pattern analyzed in “Reading Analysis”, try to give out as many supports to the topic sentence (main idea) as possible. Topic sentence (general idea): There are many advantages to clone human. Support (detailed) As human organ donor To make copy of someone who has cancer To give child to the couples who have none To make identical-twin of someone Reading & Writing Skills Slide7:  Intensive Study Cloning: Good Science or Baaaad Idea by Chana Freimans Stiefel 1 Just before President Clinton heads to the hospital for knee surgery, he asks another Bill Clinton to meet Russian President Boris Yeltsin at an overseas meeting. Meanwhile, a third Bill Clinton is out playing golf, while a fourth is helping daughter Chelsea with a science project. Slide8:  Intensive Study 2 Sound far-fetched? That day may come. Scientists in Scotland recently announced that, for the first time, they have cloned an exact copy of an adult sheep. The cloned baby lamb, named Dolly, has the exact same genes as the adult sheep from which she was cloned. In other words, the two are identical twins; only Dolly is six years younger. The goal of embryologist Ian Wilmut, the lead scientist, is to develop a way to raise identical sheep that produce medications for humans. Slide9:  Intensive Study 3 A week after Wilmut’s announcement, scientists in Oregon disclosed that they had used a different technique to clone monkeys, close cousins of humans. Faster than you can say “Frankenstein,” these accomplishments triggered a worldwide debate: Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? Will humans be next? Is cloning unethical and dangerous--or is it a valuable research tool? Slide10:  Intensive Study 4 All attempts at cloning were largely unsuccessful until 1984. That’s when a scientist in Denmark separated cells from a sheep’s embryo. An embryo is an early stage of development in which cells are busy dividing and “transforming” into specialized cells like skin, eyes, or muscle cells.   5 Unlike a skin cell, an embryo is on its way to becoming a complete living thing. The Danish scientist combined an embryo cell with an egg cell from another sheep. He implanted the fused cell -- then a newly growing embryo -- into a grown female sheep. To much surprise, the embryo grew into a baby lamb. Since then, other scientists have used embryos to clone cattle, pigs, goats, rabbits-- and, now, even monkeys. Slide11:  Intensive Study 6 So what makes Wilmut’s sheep unique? Instead of using early-stage embryo cells, Wilmut used cells from the udder of an adult sheep. In theory, that’s like using one of your skin cells to clone a new you! 7 Wilmut knew that each cell of the body contains a full set of genetic instructions — a blueprint to grow a complete individual. (The only exceptions are egg and sperm cells, each of which contains half the genes to grow a new individual.) Once cells have specialized, on their way to becoming skin or eye or udder cells, most of the genetic instructions to make a full being are turned off. Until now, scientists believed that specialized cells could not be used to form a complete organism. Slide12:  Intensive Study 8 Wilmut proved them wrong. He found a way to “reprogram” an udder cell and make it grow into a new cloned lamb. An amazing fact: Dolly has no biological father.  9 Wilmut’s success didn’t come easily. He has been studying reproductive science for more than two decades. Last year, he used embryos to successfully clone two sheep. Then he forged ahead to clone an adult sheep. But, of 277 udder cells he fused with egg cells, only 30 began to develop into embryos. He implanted 29 of those into female sheep. Only one adult gave birth to a lamb. Slide13:  Intensive Study 10 Other scientists have jumped in to repeat Wilmut’s experiment with other animals, including cows. And that’s what has scientists, animal-rights activists, politicians — even President Clinton — up in arms. How far, they wonder, will cloning go? 11 Wilmut maintains that cloning animals has tremendous potential for helping people. Cloned sheep, he says, could be used as living drug factories. Scientists could “engineer” sheep that produce drugs in their milk. And by altering the proteins on the surfaces of animal organs to make them more like human organs, scientists believe they may be able to create a plentiful source of organ donors for people. Slide14:  Intensive Study 12 Why not clone humans as organ donors? Theoretically, Wilmut says, there is no reason his techniques couldn’t someday be used to clone people. Think about the possibilities: a whole team of Michael Jordans, a scientific panel of Albert Einsteins, a movie starring and co-starring Brad Pitt. 13 On a more serious note, some fertility specialists argue that couples who have difficulty conceiving a baby could make copies of themselves. And parents whose child has a fatal disease like cancer might be able to clone the child, creating a twin who is an exact match for bone-marrow donation. Slide15:  Intensive Study 14 But even Ian Wilmut draws the line at cloning humans. “All of us would find that offensive,” he says. Several countries including Britain, Denmark, Germany, and Australia, have outlawed all scientific work on cloning humans. The U.S. has no such law, but President Clinton has set up a panel of scientists and ethicists to study the issue. In the meantime, Clinton has imposed a ban on using Federal money to clone humans. Slide16:  Intensive Study 15 Humans are more than the sum of their genes, argues Mark Hanson, an ethicist at an ethics research institute in Briarcliff Manor, New York. Though they look exactly the same, clones are not necessarily carbon copies. The younger twin might grow up with different influences — say, unusual friends or special teachers. A cloned Albert Einstein might flunk physics. A cloned Madonna might sing off-key. 16 Say you were cloned. Would your twin live a shorter life because he or she started out with teenage genes? Scientists aren’t sure. And how could you prevent someone from taking a sample of your hair and making a clone of you? Again, no solutions. Slide17:  Intensive Study 17 Some opponents of cloning also object to the use of animals as research tools. “Next, they’ll be cloning minks and foxes to make more fur coats,” says Cleveland Amory, president and founder of the Fund for Animals, an animal rights group. 18 What do you think? Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? How about humans? Slide18:  Translate the following Faster than you can say “Frankenstein”, these accomplishments triggered a worldwide debate. Key 这些成果立即引发了一场世界范围的争论。 very quickly Cf. before you can/could say Jack Robinson e.g. Before I could say Jack Robinson, he snatched my wallet and dashed out of the store. The author uses the word Frankentein to suggest that by developing the technique of cloning man may be creating something like Frankenstein that might bring evil to himself. Slide19:  Translate the following sentence: Unlike a skin cell, an embryo is on its way to becoming a complete living thing. ___(和大多数女孩不同), Julia has a passion for American football. ___(不象普通无线电波), nuclear radiation is not harmless to human beings and other living things. Unlike most girls Key 与皮肤细胞不同,胚胎正在变为一个完整的生命体. Unlike common radio waves More to learn Fill in the blanks: Slide20:  Unlike pure substances Unlike ancient Greece 3. ___(不象纯净物), mixtures are separable by physical methods. 4. ___(不象古希腊), modern nations have been unwilling to stop wars for the purpose of peaceful and friendly athletic competition Fill in the blanks: Translate the following sentence: Unlike a skin cell, an embryo is on its way to becoming a complete living thing. Slide21:  on one’s/the way — about to obtain (something); in the course of (becoming or doing something). e.g. The song is on its way to enter the top 10 of the charts. Translate 父亲坚信儿子将会成名成家。 Key The father firmly believes that his son is on the way to becoming somebody. Slide22:  instead of — compound preposition used to introduce something which is not done or not true when contrasted with something else which is done or is true. e.g. Instead of idling away her time, the student decided to spend her winter vacation as a voluntary helper in the community. We sometimes eat in the fast food restaurant nearby instead of in the student cafeteria. Combine the following pairs of sentences using instead of: 1. a) I will not go out. b) I think I’d like to stay home this evening. 2. a) They didn’t review their lessons. b) They watched the World Cup all night. 3. a) She doesn’t buy ready-mades in the shops. b) She prefer making her own clothes. I think I’d like to stay home this evening instead of going out . They watched the World Cup instead of reviewing their lessons. She prefers making her own clothes instead of buying ready-mades in the shops. Slide23:  forge ahead — move steadily and purposely forward, advance or progress quickly Key 自新总统上任以来,和周边邻邦的关系有了极大发展。 e.g. Computer science forged ahead in the last decade. Translate The relationship with the neighboring countries has forged ahead ever since the new President came into power. Slide24:  jump in — enter into (something) with vigor or eagerness; interrupt when someone else is speaking. e.g. The boy has an annoying habit of jumping in and finishing a speaker’s sentences all the time. Translate 在你决定卷进来之前,请你再考虑考虑。 Key Please think about it once again before you decide to jump into this business. Slide25:  be up in arms (about/over something) — be angry and protest strongly about something. e.g. The students were up in arms about the decision to cut power in dormitory buildings from mid-night to early morning. Translate 动物权利保护者们强烈反对这一周的时装展示中使用真皮 服装。 Key Animal-rights activists are up in arms over the using of fur in the fashion display this week. Slide26:  on a more serious note — in a more serous way e.g. On a more serious note, the pollution of air has threatened the living of the people in this area. Translate Your cheating on the tax, on a more serious note, has already destroyed your business credit in this circle. Key 更为严重的是,你偷税的行为已经毁掉了你在这个圈子 里的商业信用. Slide27:  draw the/a line at something/doing something — refuse to do or to tolerate something Translate According to the old-fashioned moral teaching, a woman are supposed to draw a line at speaking to any male out of her family face to face. Key 根据传统礼教,妇女应避免与家庭以外的男性正面交谈。 Slide28:  impose something on somebody/something — 1) place officially on somebody/something e.g. The government is to impose a further tax on cigarettes. — 2) place (something unwelcome or unpleasant) on something/somebody, inflict something. e.g. No independent country would be willing to accept any unequal treaty imposed on her. Translate The authority concerned will impose a fine on any store selling fake or shoddy goods. Translate 不少父母企图把自己的个人观念强加于孩子,结果反而 使得亲子关系变得紧张。 Key 有关部门将对任何出售假冒伪劣商品的商店处以罚款。 Key Quite a few of parents try to impose their own ideas on their children, which always intensifies the parent-kid relationship. Slide29:  start out on something/to do something — take the first steps, intend when starting e.g. You will always feel helpless when you start out on a new career. Translate The witness started out by saying that this was the weapon the accused used. Key 证人首先作证说,这正是被告使用的武器. Slide30:  Do you know how cloning is done? Cells of donor embryo are separated. Chromosomes are moved from a unfertilized egg. Donor cell is placed next to oocyte and fused with it by an electrical current. Embryo develops as though a newly fertilized egg. It’s probably incredible to us non-professionals, but this diagram may be of help for us to understand cloning process. Text-related information Slide31:  Frankenstein is the name of the young scientist in Mary W. Shelly’s novel by that title published in 1818, who created a soulless monster out of graveyard corpses. Frankenstein was at first delighted at his achievement in creating the monster, but soon horrified to learn that he could not control it. In figurative use, the word refers to anything that causes the ruin of its creator. Text-related information Frankenstein (弗兰肯斯坦) Slide32:  The first cloning baby in the world: Dolly (left), with her surrogate (代理,替身) mother The Grown-up Dolly Text-related Information Slide33:  Guided Practice Vocabulary Cloze Translation Structure Writing Slide34:  Vocabulary 《读写教程 I》: Ex. IV, p. 277 Slide35:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 1. At school they always tried to ___________ Bill and me because we were considered trouble-makers. 2. Nowadays it is understood that a diet which ___________ nothing harmful may yet result in serious disease if certain important elements are missing. separate contains Slide36:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 3. Olympic athletes often have to give a urine __________ to prove that they have not been taking drugs. 4. The Ministry of Transport claims that when the speed limit was introduced in the late sixties, __________ accidents were reduced by 15 percent. sample fatal Slide37:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 5. The region has enormous __________ for economic development but a lot of investment is needed to achieve this. 6. Until __________, people who were left-handed were considered strange, and left-handed children were encouraged to use their right hand. potential recently Slide38:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 7. The trouble with English grammar is that there are too many _________ to the rules. 8. We are trying to build up _________ markets for our products because the domestic demand is not likely to go on increasing in the next few years. exceptions overseas Slide39:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 9. The city government has __________ a ban on smoking in public places. 10. It was said at the start of the broadcast that the interview contained language that some viewers might find ___________. imposed offensive Slide40:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 11. The child had gone into the park. ___________, his mother was searching for him in the street. 12. She’s been a ___________ help to me over the last few months. Meanwhile tremendous Slide41:  Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 13. None of our __________ at contacting Prof. Smith was successful. 14. The system has its zealous supporters and equally zealous ___________. attempts opponents Slide42:  Cloze 《读写教程 I》: Ex. X, p. 281 Slide43:  Recently, a Scottish scientist _____ that he had cloned a baby lamb from the udder _____ of an adult sheep. The two sheep are _____ twins, as they share exactly the same genes, but this is the first time there have _____ been twins of such different ages. This new _____ technique has many applications which could help humans. In _____, cloned animals could be used to produce medicines or to grow _____ specially designed so that they are easier to transplant into people. announced cells identical ever cloning theory organs Cloze XIII. Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word. Slide44:  Although this cloning breakthrough was a great technological _____ , it has also _____ a great debate. For _____ thing, some animal-rights activists are _____ in arms because they think it is wrong to treat animals like machines. Even more so, cloning _____ the way we think about reproduction. We have always considered each human as an individual, unique _____. No one knows how life _____ be different for the first human clone. For this reason, many scientists draw the _____ at doing research on the cloning of human beings. Cloze XIII. Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word. accomplishment triggered one up alters organism would line Slide45:  《读写教程 I》: Ex. XI, p. 282 Translation XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. Slide46:  1. 1984年,一位丹麦科学家宣布,他已首次从羊的胚胎中分 离出了细胞 。 announce for the first time A scientist in Denmark announced in 1984 that, for the first time, he had separated cells from a sheep’s embryo. separate Translation Slide47:  2. 汤姆坚持认为这一地区具有开采黄金的巨大潜力,但要实 现这一潜力需要大量投资。 maintain have potential for investment is needed Translation Tom maintains that this area has tremendous potential for mining gold, but a lot of investment Is needed to achieve this. Slide48:  3. 与英国和德国不同,美国还没有宣布克隆人为非法,但克 林顿总统已建立了一个由科学家和伦理学家组成的专门小 组研究这一问题。 Unlike to outlaw to set up a panel Translation Unlike Britain or Germany, the U.S. hasn’t outlawed the cloning of humans, but President Clinton has set up a panel of scientists and ethicists to study the issue.. Slide49:  4. 理论上说,你的计划听上去不错,但实际上行得通吗? in theory work in practice sound fine/good Translation Your plan sounds fine/good in theory, but will it work in practice? Slide50:  5. 新政府的目标是找到一个办法把逐步的工业改革与快速的经济增长结合起来。 to combine… with … economical growth industrial reform Translation The goal of the new government is to find a way to combine gradual industrial reform with fast economic growth. Slide51:  6. 威尔莫特博士和他的同事们没有满足于他们的成就,他 们正向着新的目标前进。 instead of resting content with … forge ahead Translation Instead of resting content with their achievements/ accomplishments, Dr. Wilmut and his colleagues are forging ahead to new goals. Slide52:  7. 二十多年前他开始做推销员,现在是纽约一家大百货公司 的总经理。他的朋友们都说他的成功来之不易。 start out as not come easily Translation He started out as a salesman more than two decades ago and now he is the general manager of a big department store in New York. All his friends say that his success didn’t come easily. Slide53:  8. 动物权利积极分子反对用动物作为研究工具。他们坚持认 为不应允许科学家克隆动物。 object to maintain Translation Animal-rights activists object to the use of animals as research tools. They maintain that scientists should not be allowed to clone animals. Slide54:  Structured Writing 《读写教程 I》: Ex. XII, p. 282 According to the paragraph pattern analyzed in “Reading Analysis”, try to give out as many supports to the topic sentence (main idea) as possible. Slide55:  Topic sentence (general idea): There are many advantages to clone human. Support (detailed) ? ? ? ? ? As human organ donor To give rebirth to someone dead To make copy of someone who has cancer To give child to the couples who have none To make identical-twin of someone Structured Writing Slide56:  Practice One: Topic sentence (general idea): The entry to WTO won’t destroy domestic industries Support (suggested) ? ? ? ? ? Foreign advanced technology imported Foreign modern management introduced Unemployment tension released New industries built up Domestic industries adjust to competition … Structured Writing Slide57:  Support (suggested) ? ? ? ? ? Insufficient funds and teachers Unqualified teaching personnel Backward equipments and old-fashioned materials Old-fashioned teaching methods Unscientifically planned exam-system … Practice Two: Topic sentence (general idea): Chinese education needs radical reform Structured Writing Slide58:  After-class Activity Write a paragraph with a topic sentence and some supporting details, whose main idea could be one of the following: English is a universal language. Education in China has gone through great changes in recent years. Sexism(性别歧视)has done a great deal of harm to our society. Structured Writing Slide59:  Assignment Revision of Text A: Vocabulary Ex. IV. p. 277 Ex. V. p. 278 Cloze Ex. X. p. 281 Translation Ex. XI. P. 282 2. Preview Text B

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