B1 poster summary_

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Science

Published on June 27, 2014

Author: beaconscience

Source: slideshare.net

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AQA B1 revision summary powerpoint

slit-like nostrils and two rows of eyelashes thin fur to allow easy heat loss a large surface area to volume ratio to maximise heat loss Hump which stores fat large, flat feet to spread weight white appearance for camouflage thick layers of fat and fur for insulation a small surface area to volume ratio, to minimise heat loss a greasy waterproof coat large furry feet to distribute weight Keywords:Adaptation,Competition,Inherit,AsexualReproduction,Dominant,Recessive,Allele A cell nucleus contains 46 Chromosomes, which carry genes and are made of DNA. Different versions of genes are called alleles. Extinction, Evolution, Darwin, Natural Selection, Mutation, Vertebrate, Pollution, Acid Rain, FSH, LH, Hormone, Oestrogen, Mutualist Competition Animals -food -water -territory -mates Plants -light -water -space -nutrients Sexual Asexual 2 Parents; fusion of gametes 1 Parent Lots of Variation No Variation; clones Cacti adaptations: Stems that can store water. Widespread root systems = collect water from a large area; support/anchor the plant. Spines not leaves = reduced water loss & protection. Fewer stomata = less water lossTemperature Monitored by thermoregulator y centre in brain and receptors in skin. Too Hot -hair lies flat -blood vessels dilate so heat lost through skin -sweat produced Too Cold -goosebumps & hairs trap air -blood vessels constrict -no sweat -shiver, respiration releases heat Scientific names (binomials) provide info. on evolutionary relatedness Genus Species Pan paniscus Survival of the fittest! Reproduction Stimuli/Receptor Sense Organ Touch/pressure Skin Sound Ears Light Eyes A Motor Neuron Reflex Arc Plant Hormones: Auxin controls growth. Diffuses away from light. Promotes growth in shoots. Inhibits growth in roots. Shoots = +ively phototropic (grow towards light); -ively gravitropic (grow against gravity). Roots = opposite. Hormones Gland > Secretion > Target organ

Theories of Evolution Evolution = random progressive change over long period of time Lamarck- inheritance of acquired characteristics Darwin- natural selection & survival of the fittest Fossils show how organisms have changed, but don’t often form and are usually fragmented Extinction due to…. •Changes in environment •New predators •New competitors •Disease Owls Blackbirds Caterpillars Oak tree Pyramids of Biomass Show amount of material at each stage Always a pyramid shape because energy & carbon is lost…. - Respiration: releases CO2, energy used in movement + heat production (mammals/birds) - Not all organisms eaten - Waste: faeces + urine The Carbon Cycle -Stored as CO2, or fats/proteins/carbs -Decay carried out by decomposers Food Chains Pyramids of numbers show the number of organisms at each level; not always a pyramid shape What is the source of all energy? 1. Mutation causes… 2. Variation, with 3. Some individuals better adapted 4. Better adapted survive and reproduce 5. Offspring inherit adaptation and also benefit E.g. Believed that the offspring of mice who had their tails chopped off would also have no tails…WRONG Electric shock to stimulate cell division Adult Cell CloningAdult cell cloning: new individual is an exact replica of just one parent Embryo transplant: two parents’ gametes, artificial insemination, embryo formed, split into several and each placed in a surrogate uterus What are the concerns with these procedures? Genetic Engineering Immune Response (1 of 3) White blood cells > produce antibodies > recognise foreign pathogens > faster response next time

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