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Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Arkwright26

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The State Methodology for determination of freshwater inflow needs of the Texas bays:  The State Methodology for determination of freshwater inflow needs of the Texas bays The State Methodology for determination of freshwater inflow needs of the Texas bays:  The State Methodology for determination of freshwater inflow needs of the Texas bays George H. Ward Center for Research in Water Resources University of Texas at Austin Overview & Critique Presentation to: Science Advisory Committee Study Commission on Water for Environmental Flows 18 June 2004 Slide3:  Sabine Lake Galveston Bay Matagorda Bay San Antonio Bay Aransas-Copano Bays Corpus Christi Bay Upper Laguna Madre- Baffin Bay Lower Laguna Madre Slide4:  ESTUARY coastal waterbody semi-enclosed free connection to open sea influx of sea water freshwater influx small to intermediate scale ESTUARIES:  ESTUARIES transitional systems, between freshwater and marine hydrography and chemical qualities governed by both terrestrial and marine controls, as well as factors unique to estuary predominance of these factors depends upon position in estuary: pronounced environmental gradients terrestrial controls: freshwater influxes, flooding and inundation, runoff and inflow loads (sediment, nutrients, pollutants), and atmospheric deposition marine controls: tides, waves, non-astronomical sea-level variations, marine storms, salinity, and littoral sediment influx transitional systems, between freshwater and marine hydrography and chemical qualities governed by both terrestrial and marine controls, as well as factors unique to estuary predominance of these factors depends upon position in estuary: pronounced environmental gradients terrestrial controls: freshwater influxes, flooding and inundation, runoff and inflow loads (sediment, nutrients, pollutants), and atmospheric deposition marine controls: tides, waves, non-astronomical sea-level variations, marine storms, salinity, and littoral sediment influx extreme time variability in estuary extreme time variability in estuary Slide9:  cross section view (longitudinal-vertical) plan view (surface horizontal) ESTUARIES:  ESTUARIES wide range in habitats spanning the estuarine zone majority of the larger animals in estuary only temporarily for specific biological purposes ESTUARIES:  ESTUARIES wide range in habitats spanning the estuarine zone majority of the larger animals in estuary only temporarily for specific biological purposes abundance of specific organism depends on: population capable of entering system (i.e., abundance/health of source population, and capability to negotiate entrance into the system) availability of suitable physico-chemical conditions and/or food sources complex and shifting food webs, with frequent overlap between planktonic, pelagic and benthal communities substantial time variations in all of above factors, resulting in marked variability in community make-up and abundance Slide19:  Potential freshwater inflow effects on estuary source of renewal water dilutes seawater carries nutrients, trace constituents, and terrestrial sediments into estuary contributes to gradient of water properties across estuary produces inundation and flushing of important zones, due to short-term flooding variability over time creates fluctuation in estuarine properties, important to ecosystem function       Slide27:  STATE METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING INFLOW REQUIREMENTS OF THE TEXAS BAYS An overview & summary Slide28:  San Antonio Bay Slide30:  OPTIMAL INFLOWS FOR SAN ANTONIO BAY Slide31:  OPTIMAL INFLOWS FOR GALVESTON BAY Slide34:  Max H Specification Objective goal: Maximal harvest Species weights: equal Min Q Specification Objective goal: Minimal total annual inflows Species weights: equal Slide36:  Max H Specification Objective goal: Maximal harvest Species weights: equal Constraints: Monthly inflow: >lower decile (10th percentile) <historical monthly median Bimonthly inflows:>specified values (>sum of lower decile values) Salinity: bounded by “consensus” viability limits Min Q Specification Objective goal: Minimal total annual inflows Species weights: equal Constraints: Harvest: >80% of historical mean for each species Monthly inflow: >lower decile (10th percentile) <historical monthly median Bimonthly inflows:>specified values (>sum of lower decile values) Salinity: bounded by “consensus” viability limits Slide37:  FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STATE METHODOLOGY ECOLOGICAL HEALTH IS MEASURED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF 6-10 KEY SPECIES Slide38:  blue crab brown shrimp oyster white shrimp red drum black drum spotted seatrout For San Antonio Bay, the 7 key species are: Slide39:  blue crab brown shrimp oyster white shrimp red drum black drum spotted seatrout flounder For Galveston Bay, the 8 key species are: Slide40:  blue crab brown shrimp menhaden white shrimp red drum croaker spot speckled trout For Sabine Lake, the 8 key species are: Slide41:  FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STATE METHODOLOGY ECOLOGICAL HEALTH IS MEASURED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF 6-10 KEY SPECIES ABUNDANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO, HENCE MEASURED BY, THE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL HARVEST Slide42:  Advantages of harvest as a measure of abundance:  the data are quantitative and consistently measured  the data represent the catch integrated over large aquatic areas, so the effect of spatial variability should be averaged out  a long period of record of annual harvests is available extending back in some cases five decades  the harvest measures one of the direct economic benefits of the resource of an estuary Slide43:  Disadvantage of harvest as a measure of abundance: Harvest is affected by factors having no relation to abundance:  regulation of the fishery  location, catch and processing technology of the fleet  skill of the fisherman  market and economics  external stresses on the species population Slide44:  FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STATE METHODOLOGY ECOLOGICAL HEALTH IS MEASURED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF 6-10 KEY SPECIES ABUNDANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO, HENCE MEASURED BY, THE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL HARVEST ABUNDANCE IS QUANTIFIED ENTIRELY BY 6 BIMONTHLY FLOWS, TOTALLED OVER THE ENTIRE BAY Slide45:  Jan + Feb Mar + Apr May + Jun Jul + Aug Sep + Oct Nov + Dec each computed by: Inflow = Gauged + Ungauged - Diversions + Returns (summed over the entire bay) 6 independent flow variables ( “seasonal” flows): Slide46:  FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STATE METHODOLOGY ECOLOGICAL HEALTH IS MEASURED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF 6-10 KEY SPECIES ABUNDANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO, HENCE MEASURED BY, THE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL HARVEST ABUNDANCE IS QUANTIFIED ENTIRELY BY 6 BIMONTHLY FLOWS, TOTALLED OVER THE ENTIRE BAY ABUNDANCE VARIES IN PROPORTION TO THE BIMONTHLY BAY-TOTAL FLOWS (perhaps log transformed) Slide47:   the relationship can be extracted by linear regression  harvest is completely determined by the levels of inflow for a given year (apart from perhaps lagging harvest behind inflow based upon the grow-out time of the species): there is no memory  there is no substantial effect of recruitment or dynamics of the Gulf stock  recreational harvest is irrelevant Slide48:  HARVEST REGRESSIONS FOR SAN ANTONIO BAY H = annual commercial landings, thousands of pounds Qab = total bimonthly inflow, ac-ft, for sequential months a and b Crab: H = 110.64 – 145.3 ln(QJF) + 332.5 ln (QJA) – 141.4 ln(QSO)   Oyster: H = 3000.7 + 180.4 ln(QMA) – 963.3 ln(QMJ) + 710.0 ln(QJA) – 231.5 ln(QSO)    R.drum: H = 32.786 + 0.0797 QMJ + 0.2750 QJA - 0.2010 QND    B.drum: H = -18.087 + 0.2411 QJF - 0.1734 QMA + 0.0850 QND    Trout: ln(H) = 2.6915 – 0.7185 ln(QMA) + 1.860 ln(QMJ) – 1.086 *ln(QND)    B. shr: ln(H)= 6.5679 + 0.6707 ln(QJA) – 0.7486 ln(QSO)    W. shr: H = 545.59 + 160.9 ln(QJF) + 279.1 ln(QMJ) – 155.1 ln(QJA) – 277.9 *ln(QND) Slide49:  H = annual commercial landings, thousands of pounds Qab = total bimonthly inflow, ac-ft, for sequential months a and b   Crab: H = 751.23 - 0.2756 QJF + 0.8464 QMA - 0.139 QMJ - 0.4747 QSO + 0.6001 QND   Oyster: H = 4169.8 - 0.9397 QJF +0.2838 QMJ - 0.9445 QJA   Brown shrimp: H = 1019.8 - 0.5779 QJF + 0.4192 QJA + 0.4060 QSO + 0.3533 QND   White shrimp: H = 3212 - 0.6905 QJF + 0.2734 QMA - 0.3254 QJA + 0.5046 QND   Flounder: H = -12.122 - 0.0309 QJF + 0.0541 QJA + 0.0494 QND Red drum: ln H = 3.1548 + 3.92E-4 QMJ - 2.04E-3 QJA + 6.98E-4 QSO   Black drum: H = 50.225 - 0.02985 QJF + 0.1040 QJA - 0.0639 QSO + 0.0329 QND   Seatrout: ln H = 8.2764 - 1.8241 ln QJF +1.425 ln QND HARVEST REGRESSIONS FOR GALVESTON BAY Slide50:  FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STATE METHODOLOGY ECOLOGICAL HEALTH IS MEASURED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF 6-10 KEY SPECIES ABUNDANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO, HENCE MEASURED BY, THE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL HARVEST ABUNDANCE IS QUANTIFIED ENTIRELY BY 6 BIMONTHLY FLOWS, TOTALLED OVER THE ENTIRE BAY OPTIMUM FLOWS ARE NECESSARY FOR MAINTENANCE OF ECOLOGICAL HEALTH ABUNDANCE VARIES IN PROPORTION TO THE BIMONTHLY BAY-TOTAL FLOWS (perhaps log transformed) Slide51:  TxEMP MinQ and MaxH Solutions Slide52:  OPTIMAL INFLOWS FOR GALVESTON BAY Slide54:  Mid-Galveston Bay salinity versus Trinity River flow Slide55:  LOWER NUECES BAY Slide56:  Regressions of salinity versus monthly inflows for Galveston Bay regions SN = salinity in ppt for month N QM = monthly combined inflow in ac-ft for month M Trinity Bay SN = 49.109 - 3.221 * log(QN-1) - 3.039 * log(QN-2) Red Bluff SN = 42.438 - 3.567 * log(QN-1) - 1.179 * log(QN-2) Dollar Point SN = 48.803 - 4.316 * log(QN-1) - 0.757 * log(QN-2) Slide57:  SALINITY VIABILITY LIMITS (ppt) FOR GALVESTON BAY Slide58:  Sabine Lake Slide59:  HERE BEGINS CRITICISM Slide60:  Disaggregated relative contributions of species and bimonthly flow to total computed harvest Galveston Bay MaxH flows const QJF QMA QMJ QJA QSO QND ratio to total harvest Flow (MaxH) 0.0586 0.2464 0.4052 0.0674 0.0348 0.1876   Blue crab 0.0643 -0.0072 0.0932 -0.0333 -0.0074 0.0503 0.160 Oyster 0.3571 -0.0246 0.0514 -0.0284 0.355 Red drum 0.0020 0.0018 -0.0016 0.0003 0.003 Black drum 0.0043 -0.0008 0.0031 -0.0010 0.0028 0.008 Spotted seatrout 0.029 Brown shrimp 0.0873 -0.0151 0.0126 0.0063 0.0296 0.121 White shrimp 0.2751 -0.0181 0.0301 -0.0098 0.0423 0.320 Flounder -0.0010 -0.0008 0.0016 0.0041 0.004  TOTAL 0.7891 -0.0666 0.1233 0.0199 -0.0224 -0.0018 0.1290 1.000 Slide61:  Galveston Bay Slide62:  Galveston Bay Slide63:  San Antonio Bay oyster harvest Slide64:  Galveston Bay H = 1020 -0.58 QJF + 0.42 QJA + 0.41 QSO +0.35 QND San Antonio Bay log H = 6.57 + 0.67 log QJA -0.75 log QSO Corpus Christi Bay log H = 7.94 +0.30 log QMA -0.52 log QSO Galveston Bay H = 50.22 -0.03 log QJF +0.10 log QJA -0.06 log QSO +0.03 log QND San Antonio Bay H = -18.09 +0.24 QJF -0.17 QMA +0.09 QND Corpus Christi Bay H = -47.74 +44.5 +25.6 log QJA +15.6 log QND Brown shrimp regression equations Black drum regression equations variables: const JF MA MJ JA SO ND Slide65:  Black drum 31 2 0.79 57 Flounder 23 10 0.52 0.62 Blue crab 27 6 0.37 0.97 Red drum 20 0 0.85 0.58 Spotted seatrout 20 0 0.93 0.29 Brown shrimp 22 14 0.62 0.26 White shrimp 16 20 0.64 0.26 Species Data points R2 S.E used deleted Statistical data for Corpus Christi Bay regressions Slide66:  HOW WELL DOES A BAY-TOTAL INFLOW DEPICT THE BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE? Slide68:  HOW ACCURATELY DO TWO-MONTH BINS DEPICT THE TIME-VARIATION OF INFLOW TO A TEXAS BAY? Slide69:  Spring freshet on the Guadalupe at Victoria Slide70:  Fall freshet on the Trinity at Romayor Slide71:  HOW SENSITIVE IS THE OPTIMIZATION SOLUTION, ANYWAY? Slide72:  Max H Specification Objective goal: Maximal harvest Species weights: equal Constraints: Monthly inflow: >lower decile (10th percentile) <historical monthly median Bimonthly inflows:>specified values (>sum of lower decile values) Salinity: bounded by “consensus” viability limits Min Q Specification Objective goal: Minimal total annual inflows Species weights: equal Constraints: Harvest: >80% of historical mean for each species Monthly inflow: >lower decile (10th percentile) <historical monthly median Bimonthly inflows:>specified values (>sum of lower decile values) Salinity: bounded by “consensus” viability limits Slide76:  DOES NATURE EXHIBIT AN OPTIMUM CONSISTENT WITH THE MODEL PREDICTION? Slide77:  0.45 0.45 0.47 0.53 1.79 Slide78:  .27 .07 .05 .02 .03 .05 .05 Slide79:  Galveston Bay Slide80:  San Antonio Bay Slide81:  DOES AN OPTIMAL INFLOW OCCUR IN NATURE? Slide82:  San Antonio Bay monthly flows within 10% of maxH Slide83:  San Antonio Bay monthly flows within 10% of maxH (continued) Slide84:  San Antonio Bay monthly flows within 20% of maxH Slide85:  San Antonio Bay monthly flows within 20% of maxH Slide86:  FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STATE METHODOLOGY ECOLOGICAL HEALTH IS MEASURED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF 6-10 KEY SPECIES ABUNDANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO, HENCE MEASURED BY, THE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL HARVEST ABUNDANCE IS QUANTIFIED ENTIRELY BY 6 BIMONTHLY FLOWS, TOTALLED OVER THE ENTIRE BAY OPTIMUM FLOWS ARE NECESSARY FOR MAINTENANCE OF ECOLOGICAL HEALTH ABUNDANCE VARIES IN PROPORTION TO THE BIMONTHLY BAY-TOTAL FLOWS (perhaps log transformed) sufficient Slide87:  CONCLUDING CONCERNS Slide88:  Should more species, or other ecological variables, be addressed? Should other factors, in addition to inflows, be considered in the prediction problem? Are the analytical methods sufficiently sophisticated for the complexity of the problem? Slide89:  Is this an optimization problem? Are optimal average conditions even relevant? Is it necessary to take account of year-to-year variation in estuary conditions? I.e., does a Texas bay have “memory”?

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