ayurveda ppt

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Published on December 10, 2007

Author: Denise

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‘Ayur’‘veda’ – ‘Life’‘Science’:  ‘Ayur’‘veda’ – ‘Life’‘Science’ Udai SJC – 3rd March Happy Holi Nikhil Rasiwasia Ayurveda - Origins:  Ayurveda - Origins Accurate dating is uncertain More objectively identifiable after the advent of Buddhism (c. 500 BC) Invasion of Darius, Alexander brought exchange Significant medical content can be found in Rig-Veda (presumed origin c. 1500 BC) Early writings on perishable bhojpatra Vedas:  Vedas It is the bedrock upon which Ayurveda rests Considered to be composed around 1500-2000 BC Four veda Rig-veda : lots of stuff Sam-veda : Soma sacrifice Yajur-veda : entire sacrificial rite Athar-veda : non-relegious (1200 BC), lots of medical text (fever, diarrhes, heart disease, jaundice, cough, leprosy) Authoritative supplements Brahmanas Aranyakas (“the forest books", meaning treatises for sadhus living in the wilderness.) Upnishads (self development spiritual text, philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God ) End of Vedic Period (500 BC):  End of Vedic Period (500 BC) Subsequent text deriving from primary vedic samhitas Laid more emphasis on the dharma of self-development with explicit spiritual and philosophical content Vedanta – derived from Upnishads Ramayana Mahabharat, Bhagavad Gita Puranas – AD 320 to 520 - "tales of ancient times" Ayurveda and Buddhism:  Ayurveda and Buddhism Buddhism attempt to purify, restructure and reform older vedic traditions. Comfortable adopting Ayurveda Jivaka, - Taxila’s outstanding Ayurvedic physician, buddha’s personal physicin Ashoka (convert to buddhism established many charitable hospitals) Spread of Buddhism == spread of Ayurveda Nagarjuna – AD 100, brought about significant advances in Ayurveda – father of iatrochemistry – preparation of medicinal mineral substances Westerm Medicine and Aurveda:  Westerm Medicine and Aurveda Hippocrates : Father of western medicine Humoral theory – blood, phelgm, yellow bile, black bile Dietary therapy, influence of seasons on health Aristotle Relied heavily on empirical observation and naturalistic classification Four prime qualities: hot, cold, wet, dry Four fundamental essence: air, water, fire, earth Chinese medicine and ayurveda:  Chinese medicine and ayurveda Oldest extant chinese medical text – Huang-di Nei-jing or Inner classic of the Yellow Emperor (300 BC) Similarities – because of exchange of ideas via Buddhism and trade. Ayurveda and Arab Medicine (Unani Tibb) :  Ayurveda and Arab Medicine (Unani Tibb) Arab medicine by Avicenna (AD 980) Produced Canon of Medicine, a compendium of the previous works of Hippocrates and Galen Mostly based on Greek medicine (Unani) Reports of exchange of ideas – Ayurvedic physicians were invited to baghdad to teach and organize hospitals Earliest Texts:  Earliest Texts 760 BC: Charaka Samhita – herbal or plant based pharmacopoeia 660 BC: Sushruta Samhita – Surgival approaches 7th Century : Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata of Sindh – summary of previous two AD 100: Nagarjuna – iatrochemistry 1331: Madhava Nidana by Madhava of Kishkindha – Ayurvedic Diagnosis 14th Century - Sarangadhara Samhita – Pulse Diagnosis Ayurveda in 19th Century:  Ayurveda in 19th Century Ayurveda flourished till 12th century, till the Muslim invasion Not much progress from 12th to 17th century British invasion : 1833 virtually all ayurveda schools closed, opening of British medical schools 1920: a national revival and resurgence of interest in traditional Indian culture and practices 1946: Formal govt. recognition and reacceptance of Ayurveda and resurgence of research. Currently, however it holds a secondary place in medicine in India Indian govt. officially recognizes as legitimate: Allopathy, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Unani Tibb, Ayurveda, and its cousins Siddha and Yoga. Ayurveda vs Western Science:  Ayurveda vs Western Science Philosophy W: treats discrete disease entities A : treats subtle dysphoria, whose disruptive trends may later develop into discrete disease. Diagnostic W: scientific objectivity and verifiability (accumulating statistically significant data) – “experience-distant” A : pratyaksha (perceptive understanding of each individual) – “experience-near” Treatment W: Linear logic, categorical and uses a classification system of disease. A : Maintenance of optimal health by daily proactive care, continually modified according to seasonal changes Belief A : Individual has the innate capacity for potential self-correction and primary self healing Why Ayurveda? :  Why Ayurveda? Health maintenance rather than disease treatment System of diet and lifestyle enhance the quality of life by dealing with subtle trends that might lead to actual disease Compatible with those whose beliefs include naturalistic, spiritual and consciousness-oriented approaches Often require intentional and sustained self-discipline, perseverance and active personal role. Ashtanga Ayurveda :  Ashtanga Ayurveda Kayachikitsa Internal Medicine Shalyatantra Surgery Shalakya Tantra Otolaryngology(ENT), Ophthalmology Kaumarabhiritya Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics Agadatantra Toxicology Bhutavidya Psychiatry Rasayana Antiaging and rejuvenation Vajikarana Reproductive and aphrodisiac medicine Theoretical Foundations:  Theoretical Foundations Darshanas – ideological systems Astika Sankhya – nontheistic creation sequence - by Kapila Yoga – Gradual liberation of human spirit to attain Samadhi – by Patanjali Nyaya Darshana – monotheistic system, logical approach of apprehending the world using reason Vaisheshika - postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms by Kanada Purva Mimamsa (inquiry) – emphsis on discipline, ritual and service Uttara Mimamsa or Advita Vedanta – spiritually oriented, emphasizes the spiritual base of reality, human misperception by Shankara (AD 780) Nastika Buddhism Jainism Lokayata Epistemology:  Epistemology Knowledge Process From Nyaya Dharshana philosophy Four cognitive faculties Manas – mind as it experiences sensations Chitta – transmitter from manas to higher cognitive functions Ahamkara – self-identity that provides the individual with the experience of relative constancy. Buddhi – most refined, discerning ability, intellect, wisdom Four techniques of knowing Pratyaksha – direct sensory perception Anumana – inference Sabda – authoritative statement Upmana - Analogy World View:  World View Essentially unitary and dynamic, integrated coherence with actively interdependent aspects Dynamic aspect is fueled by constant interaction amongst three doshas – Vata : movement Pitta : transformation Kapha : consolidation the fundamental regulatory principles of the body’s physiological functioning Interplay between them modulates the interaction of the Gurvadi Gunas (10 pairs of opposite qualities) Characterize all perceptible substances Gurvadi Gunas:  Gurvadi Gunas Shita/ushna Snigdha/ruksha Guru/laghu Sthula/sukshma Sandra/drava Sthira/chala Manda/tikshna Mridu/kathina Slaksha/khara Picchila/sishada English please. :  English please. Shita/ushna - cold/hot Snigdha/ruksha - wet,oily/dry Guru/laghu - heavy/light Sthula/sukshma - gross/subtle Sandra/drava - dense/liquid Sthira/chala - stable/mobile Manda/tikshna - dull/sharp Mridu/kathina - soft/hard Slaksha/khara - smooth/rough Picchila/sishada - sticky/clear Vedic Standards:  Vedic Standards Four basic life goals (purushartha) Dharma – individual's abidance with the inherent lawfulness in universe – purpose, duty, justice Artha – possessions Kama – Pleasure Moksha – liberation Sankhya Model of Creation:  Sankhya Model of Creation Avayakta pure existence in its unmanifest state Absolutely transcendental, indescribable Essence Satyam – essential truth Ritam – deep structure, self-correcting Brihat – vast breath of its being Two components Purusha – primal immaterial matrix out of which all else emerge, pristine consciousness Prakriti – when ‘purusha’ spontaneously moves, then at that moment the first material energy, prakriti, comes into being. Maha Gunas:  Maha Gunas Three axiomatic attributes that are inherent to maha gunas (subtle) Sattva – pure, clear, harmony Rajas – dynamic movement, agitation Tamas – interita, dullness Highly rarefied potentials that impart direction and create a unique character. Ahamkara:  Ahamkara Next step in the developmental process of prakriti A giant leap which eventually becomes most characteristically individualized in human experience Experience of personal sense of self. Next all steps are material Pancha Mahabhuti:  Pancha Mahabhuti Ether/Space Air Fire Water Earth Birth of Doshas - Vata:  Birth of Doshas - Vata Pitta:  Pitta Kapha:  Kapha

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