Published on May 3, 2009
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 1 The ArtWorkBook Series: 1
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 2 Volume V: Notes on Painting in Watercolor Joan Maresh-Hansen HeArtWorks Publishing Company Copyright © all rights reserved, Revision of 1990 publication: January 2006 2
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 3 Introduction to the ArtWorkBook Series As art educators, we are clear of the value and opportunity that the study of art provides to people. The incentive to express ourselves fully presents itself rarely if ever in other arenas in the educational process. Our challenge continues as art educators to be one of providing art students with an environment offering them opportunities for growth and experimentation. At the same time we intend that they are building their level of skills in the use of various techniques and media that we teach year after year. The intention of the ArtworkBook series is first to share with you the many ways in which the concepts and media can be introduced and explored, and secondly to provide both students and teachers with a tool toward sharing an understanding of art in all of the aspects. The more freedom that we give within the boundaries the more we tap into that resource of creativity. Custom made teaching materials have been created for your use. My commitment lies in having teachers free of the mounds of paperwork in order to be free to teach while at the same time providing clarity for the art student. By having every thing available to present a clear concise lesson the teacher will be more accessible to the art students. Whenever a question, concern, or new ideas come up for discussions, it can be enjoyed and shared to increase the level of excitement and fun in the making of art. With more quality time for interaction, the results could be more successful in whatever process is involved. The positive reinforcement allows students to see their greatness and be more confident in wanting to find their niche in life, to give back to the world whatever talents they possess in order to make their contribution. You as a teacher will have time to get in touch with the greatness inside each of your students. With quality time available, you and your students can discuss the possibility that the practice of art as a livelihood can lead to future- life time commitments. We as teachers do have the ability to alter lives. The student could actually see your commitment to their growth and development, as an acknowledgement to support the way they would like to make their own unique and individual contribution to the world. The ArtWork Book has grown out of the many years of teaching and fulfilling needs of my students and of my own to assist in presenting new materials in such a way that clarity is achieved and we can get on with the business of making art. The size of the publication is so expanded that it has become necessary to present the material by volumes. Each volume available in e-books or in print-on-demand covers a specific area of material in building or maintaining a strong four-year art program. In addition there are hundreds of ideas for projects that have been accumulated from the numerous interactions and relationships with committed art educators from around the state and nation who have been generous enough to share innovative ideas through books they have written or through presentations. The revised ArtWorkBook volumes include; The Teacher's Almanac, Art Class Notes, Art Careers:Living The Life You Love, ArtTestPack, Drawing, Design, Notes on Painting ( Watercolor, Oils and Acrylic),Printmaking, Crafts, and Sculpture, Portfolio Preparation. The latest upcoming addition is a book about teaching art on the computer called, The DigitalDesignBook. The revisions were inspired by a survey taken among educators at the Texas Art Education Association Çonference. Note the different versions of the same e-book. The newly launched virtual artroom on the website @ www.artworkontheweb.com has student art work and many other resources, constantly updated so visit often. If you like what you see tell others about it. Whether you are a first year art educator or are a seasoned art instructor with many years of teaching experience , it is my intention to have the joy of teaching art be a possibility that is present every day. Take the time to enjoy your art students in observing the full expression of themselves. With more time on your hands it is even possible to practice a little more of what you preach in the making of your art. Hopefully you will benefit in the material provided in this series. It is my intention to assist in having teaching be the joyful, and free of stress-filled struggles in lesson preparations. Let me hear from you if you have questions to ask , insights to share, or suggestions on how to do things more effectively. I look forward to hearing from you. For scheduling workshops or a speaking engagement — contact me by e-mail at: firstname.lastname@example.org or my home email at: email@example.com 3
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 4 Thanks for your support and for all you do for art education.. Joan Maresh-Hansen ,The ArtWorkBook, Art, Electronic Media, AP, Studio Art, Life Coach 111 Main Street ,Sugar Land,Texas,77478 281-494-2678 COPYRIGHT©, Joan Maresh Hansen ,2006. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, or translated into any language in any form without permission of author. Many Special Thanks! Reflecting upon my teaching life stirs up deep feelings which can best be described as an attitude of gratitude. My life has been laced with incredible interactions among young people in their creative endeavors while making art. Young people can be wonderful creatures. My first round of thanks go to my students each day, each year for more than three decades. The joy from having watched these people grow into young adults is priceless. This revised edition of work done is indicative of engaged learners. These former students are fulfilling their dreams in many walks of life and have contacted me to express their appreciation. Each time I hear from them it is a gift. Thanks you for letting me know. They include art educators: Kelly Muncy, Marilyn McCord, Paul Briggs, a Walt Disney animator, Viet Pham an architect, and brother Vu Pham, Karen Tan, a children’s book illustrator, Sheri Boyd, a children’s clothing designer. Other former students Pam and Jenny Griffin, Ryan Ottea, William Soo, Christian Alfonso, all of these former students who continue to let me know how significant our time together was are very much appreciated. A heartfelt thanks to these and other of my students who continue to make me very proud of their accomplishments. A special thanks to my last bunch of seniors at Carver High School for their remarkable talents, our time together was incredible, they include: Brad Conklin, Hannah Casille, Rebecca Ramirez, Tina Trang, Lauren Neilson, Barbara Keirwicz, Jessica Donalson and Chelsea Coronado. Another group of people for which I am grateful are my colleagues who were constant in their concern for our students and colleagues. The partnerships and the memories with many dedicated professionals stretches across the miles in school rooms in my present and previous districts where I worked, as well as many schools across the nation. My first twenty four years were spent in my alma mata, John Foster Dulles High School, among individuals who helped me survive those first years while developing my class room management strategies. Thanks Dulles family and friends who made teaching such a rich experience Sandra Mansfield, Pam Harper, “Deedy” Karen Germany, Letita Burns, Maynette Davis, the late Bill Shaver, Weldon Klaus, Christi Hooper, Barbara Scott, Judy Matney, Marilyn Munsterman, the late Marla Conley and Brenda Baines and Charles L. Marshall, and many others. You taught me more than you will ever know with such love. At George Washington Carver High School, the art faculty was such a close knit bunch that I dearly loved working alongside: Michael Conley, Dave Renner, Felicia Marshall, and Camille Jesse. It was fun creating new opportunities for our kids. My Critical Friends Group (CFG group) included incredible people: Mary Wright, Mary Braden, Annie Harris, Kim James and Bryan Savant. Thank you Jodi Leckbee, the best borrowed little sister that I ever had and Willie Pickens, thanks for your positive leadership. 4
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 5 A special thanks to those art educators in other schools and school districts who always provided support when it was needed. Thank you to Jana A. Stiffel, my kindred spirit, Margo Thorn in Port Lavaca ISD, Robert Parker in Bellville ISD, Lana Downes Awbrey, now in Dallas ISD, James Clarke ( my former art coordinator), Gloria McCoy, Spring Branch ISD’s art coordinator, Sara Chapman in Alief ISD, Sherry Yazman in San Francisco Unified School District, Sherry White in Clear Creek ISD, and many others committed to the arts. A very special tribute to a person affectionately nicknamed,the grandmother of art education, my hero, Janet Fox, who devoted her life to helping others create quality art programs. Special thanks to my life coach, Gary Glasscock who has supported me in more ways than can be expressed here in this small space. Thanks for my friends in the Intenders Circle, and my mastermind partners ( Evie, Mel,Malcolm, John and Todd) from Unseminar 4, and my OMG group ( Sandy, Steve and Michelle). Thanks to my Eve’s Garden business partner Marla for allowing me to work on my writing and my web sites while opening our beautiful bed and breakfast. To the love of my life and handsome husband who brings me flowers and sets them beside my computer while I work long hours and expresses his love for me in countless ways. My life is so very blessed and I am so grateful to God. Goddess, All that is for all that is in my life and that which is coming. My life has been made richer for having known and crossed paths with these individuals who care about others and express in their quality art programs. Thank you. May you have an infinitely blessed life, Joan Maresh Hansen HeArtworks and Company Publishing 111 Main Street Sugar Land, Texas 77498 281-494-2678 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Visit my sites: http://www.artworkontheweb.com http://www.myvirtualartroom.com http://www.coolartcards.com http://www.evesgardentexas.com http://www.reachingnewrealities.com Follow me on Twitter: http://twitter.com/CreativeSurges Let’s be friends on Facebook: User: Joan Maresh-Hansen Note: All web sites are under construction. Thanks in advance for your patience. 5
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 6 About the Author: Joan Maresh-Hansen is a dynamic and entertaining speaker who has presented for nearly three decades keeping her audience intrigued across the state and nation at state (TAEA) and national (NAEA) conferences. She has always believed visual saturation was imperative to getting her artistic point across. She has been invited to present opening day staff development sessions in the following districts around her great state of Texas: Aldine, Alief, Brazosport, Birdsville, Colleyville, Conroe, Diboll, Ector County,Fort Bend, Houston, Huntsville, Texarkanna Independent School Districts. She has provided programs for school districts and regional education centers in other states which include; • Streamwood High School, Chicago Illinois • San Francisco Unified School District, San Francisco, California • Washington DC, New York,New York, Los Angelos, California and others She provided the opening key note address to the: • Washington State Art Education Association She has authored many articles and publications. Her publications include: • Teachers Across Texas, West Publishing, 1990 • The ArtWorkBook, 1990 • The Teacher’s Almanac, 1990 • Discovering Art History: Classroom Connections, 1996 • School Arts Magazine, o October 1996, o August 2004, o September 2004, o October 2004, o November 2004, o December 2004, o January 2005, o February 2005, o March 2005, o April 2005, o May 2005 • Digital Studio Projects, Glencoe,McGraw-Hill,ArtTalk 2005 She is available for speaking and consulting and may be contacted by email at the newly launched web 6
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 7 sites. She is a lifetime resident of Sugar Land, Texas now residing with her new husband (a singer, songwriter: www.hansensongbook.com and www.Thefallguys.com ),and two beautiful cats: Phoebe and Beubaline. She enjoys reading, writing, swimming, gardening, cooking, sewing, travel, and listening to her husband sing. She considers herself a serial re-arranger, a junker extraordinaire, and she has recently retired from thirty four plus wonderful years of teaching art. She now runs several successful home-based businesses. For more information, go online: • Art Work on The Web: http://www.artworkontheweb.com • My Virtual Art Room: http://www.myvirtualartroom.com • Cool Art Cards: http://www.coolartcards.com • Eve’s Garden: www.evesgardentexas.com “The Place Where Heaven & Earth Meet & Memories are Made” A beautiful space for an intimate garden wedding, family holidays, small class reunions, cultural celebrations, girlfriend get-a-ways and more. 406 Kenney Avenue, Brookshire Texas, Bookings 281-934-3569 • Eve’s of El Campo: www.evesjunknstuff.com Merchant Ave, El Campo, Texas 77347 • For saving or making money on electricity. Go to: Ignite: PowerChic: www.powerchic1.igniteinc.biz • For creating wealth and prosperityand living a joy filled life: http://www.reachingnewrealities.com 7
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 8 The ArtWorkBook Series: Notes on Watercolor Painting: Volume V: Table of Contents Part I Introduction to Watercolor 10………………… Introduction to Watercolor 11………………… Watercolor Terminology 12………………… Watercolor, The Transparent Medium 13………………… Watercolor Techniques and Procedures 14………………… Watercolor Techniques with Unusual Tools and Materials 16 ………………… Watercolor in a Dozen Exercises 17………………… Resist-able Images 19………………… Fragmentation 20………………… Watercolor Intensity Painting 22………………… Wearing Your Watercolors Part II Watercolor Worksheets,Tests and Answer Keys 25………………… Watercolor Vocabulary 26………………… Watercolor Worksheet 28………………… Watercolor Worksheet-Answer Key 30………………… Watercolor Test 33………………… Watercolor Test-Answer Key Part III Watercolor Resources and Student samples 36………………… Student Gallery 37………………… The ArtWorkBook SURVEY For FREE gift 39………………… Pass It On-To Other Art Teachers and Home Schoolers 40………………… Notes to Myself 41………………… Notes to Myself Pass- it-on: If you have enjoyed this e-book, tell others, as many as you like about it. You have permission to send this e-book to anyone that you think would enjoy it as long as it stays in its entire form including all contact information. Forward this to your district art coordinator as a GIFT to art teachers across the district. I appreciate your assistance in getting the word out about my site and it’s offerings. Thanks! Blessings, Joan Maresh-Hansen @ email@example.com Joan Maresh-Hansen is the CEO of HeArtWorks and Company, and the founder of The Idea Institutes. She is a dynamic and entertaining speaker. She can be contacted by responding on the web site or by email. You can find out much, much more about what she is doing in her new life beyond public school teaching in her virtual art room web site: http://www.artworkontheweb.com This e-book may be shared in its entirety, including contact information, freely. 8
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 9 Introduction to Watercolor: Watercolor has been explored by many cultures, the Chinese painted on rice paper, and the Egyptians painted in watercolor on papyrus. Renaissance painters used watercolor for sketches prior to more elaborate oil paintings. During the medieval times of the illuminated manuscripts, watercolor was the medium of choice. English watercolorists of the 18th century were recognized for their delicate use of this transparent media. William Blake’s watercolor illustrations are shockingly imaginative and equally innovative is the works of J. W. Turner. Turner was always experimenting he blotted, mottled, and used accidental approaches. French Impressionists utilized the colors of light responding to the discoveries of their era. Before the turn of the century, Winslow Homer’s journalistic illustrations along with John Singer Sargent’s watercolors matured into genuine American art contributions. Investigate these artists and many others who worked a lifetime using watercolor to interpret their world. Edgar Degas said,” Only when he no longer knows what he is doing does the painter do good things.” This could also ring true with people getting started in watercolor. Sometimes the best part of watercolor can be the “happy accidents” that happen unexpectedly giving results better than imagined. This kind of playful approach is encouraged by tilting the paper to force the paint to run. Here are a few hints for working with this very wet medium. It is best to work from light to dark using transparent washes and building the darks in your pictures gradually. If the colors are too dark, it is possible to wet and blot the page, therefore removing some of the pigment. Try to move toward the darks gradually, always thinking before a stroke of color is applied. Consider the results of mixed colors. If yellow is already down, an application of red will create orange where the colors overlap. I like to think of watercolor as overlays of transparent colors, like sheets of colored glass or colored cellophane. Keep in mind there is no white in watercolor, so the page must be left white in areas where white is the desire. Good work habits are encouraged by asking students to mix paint with water on a palette. Also avoid dipping a dirty brush into the clean pigment. Keep plenty of water on hand and always rinse your brushes often. Two water containers are a good idea with dirty water in one container and the other container holding your clean water. Have fun, experiment, and investigate different techniques with varied approaches to your subject matter. Landscapes, still lives, and portraiture, all can provide endless hours of enjoyment leading to mastery of a very inexpensive and portable media that has been used successfully by artists for centuries. “In the brush doing what it’s doing, it will stumble on what one couldn’t do by oneself.” Robert Motherwell WATERCOLOR TERMINOLOGY: 9
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 10 Transparent Medium-color that is applied in thin washes that allow the paper and underlying colors to show through. Wash-a thin layer of color suspended in water until it is dissolved. Pigment does not have the ability to hide that which is beneath. Flat wash- a technique which will give you an area of color that appears to have the same value. Graded wash- approach used to achieve an area that shows a gradation from dark to light by dipping into a wash and then into water as you pull the paint down the paper. Wet-in-wet-applying a fully charged brush to a wet surface.With this approach very little control can be expected.(useful in atmosphere studies) Wet-in-dry-applying a fully charged brush to a dry surface.This is the approach for the timid painter who desires and enjoys more control. Dry brush-a partially dried brush used in order to achieve fine lines for hair,grass texture on wood,etc. Gouache-(pronounced ga-waash)watercolor pigment with white added to make it opaque. This opaque medium covers the colors beneath it. Incising-a method of scratching into the surface of the paper to form dents or canals whereby the color will be more or less concentrated. Resist- is the use of a water resistant material that will repel the watercolor.Some examples include:crayons,rubber cement,liquid masks,(the latter can be removed and the areas reworked with additional colors.) Blossoms-dropping clean water into an area with a lot of pigment to create a bleeding of colors-most often a diluted color. Backwash-pushing clean water into areas with a lot of pigment in a similar manner as to create long passages of blossoms. Alla-prima- (quot;into the firstquot; or quot;into the primequot; is it's meaning) this is an approach to painting that allows the artists to mix his paint on his painting surface. Technique-a method of accomplishing a desired aim. Watercolor paper-is available in many different weights from 20 lbs. to 400 lbs. It is very absorbent and capable of being reworked many times. Watercolor brushes-are available in many soft hair sizes and price ranges.They must be capable of holding lots of water and must have the ability to spring back without going limp when pressed to paper. Watercolor paints-are available in tubes,cakes,and pans.Many colors are available in a range of prices.Try them all,mixing your own colors. 10
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 11 Watercolor-the Transparent Medium Watercolor is a transparent medium in which the white paper shows through applied color. Pigment is transported by water and color and is manipulated by soft hair brushes. The idea in watercolor painting is to create a fresh, spontaneous, sparkling, and transparent looking painting. HISTORY: • Water based media is one of the oldest painting substances. • Egyptians used watercolor for wall illustrations, Eutruscans decorated with watercolor, • and Roman and Byzantines also painted with watercolor. • The greatest use and contributions came from the Orient. In the 8th century, the Japanese, Chinese, Indians, and Koreans were painting with watercolor. • Renaissance artists used watercolor as a sketching medium before painting in oils. It was a spontaneous colored extension of drawing. • In England, Paul Sandby was credited with the development of the pure watercolor technique where the white of the paper became part of the medium and transparent watercolor was born. Other artists were Cozens, Gertin, and Turner. • The French Impressionist also contributed to the use of watercolor. • The naturalists,Winslow Homer is considered the Master of the medium of watercolor. His favorite subject was the sea.He did a beautiful Bahama series with vibrant rich colors of the water shimmering. • The American painters of the 19th century used watercolor in a transparent technique and also to create impressionism. In addition, watercolor clubs and societies were formed, but it still was not considered an important medium. • John Marin was a 20th century artist who began painting abstractly structured city scenes and landscapes. • Today watercolor is an exciting and a popular medium used all over the world by all kinds of artists. Watercolor Tools and Materials: Watercolor paints are available in tubes,pans and cakes. Watercolor pencils and payons (crayons) are also available. Watercolor paper has a higher degree of absorbency. It may be purchased in light medium and rough textures. It is available in different weights from 30 lbs.-400 lb. The best paper is made from 100% linen rag. Paper is the most important part of watercolor.The correct paper will allow texture and sparkle in your work. Watercolor paper is prepared and can be stretched to a board and then wet in order to prevent buckling. It can also be soaked for five (5) minutes or more and then stretched on a board by taping all four sides,again to prevent the paper from buckling. Watercolor brushes must have the capability of holding lots of water and yet will not go limp when pressed to the paper. It must spring back. Sable brushes are the best quality available. They are soft-haired in a variety of flat and round.The bigger the better. Mixing Pan or Palettes must have a lot of room for mixing. Anything will do such as a large plate or platter. Optional supplies include the following;razor blades or an X-acto knives, toothbrush,crayons,salt,pencils,ink,sponge,masking tape,mask,rubber cement,blotting kleenex tissue,sandpaper,palette knives,water containers, or anything that your imagination can think of to produce a special effect. 11
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 12 WATERCOLOR TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES: Working with watercolor often produces fear because of the feeling of not being able to control the paint. There are many ways to create texture and interesting effects in a painting. The best way to learn is to experiment. Practice and use of the many exciting techniques will help overcome the fears of this most exciting medium.Some of the most common techniques include: 1.Transparent wash 3.Wet-in-wet 5.Glazing 7.Incising 9.Graded Wash 11.Alla-prima 2.Flat Wash 4.Wet-in-dry 6.Gouache 8.Resist 10.Dry brush 12.Blotting PROCEDURE FOR WATERCOLOR: Remember: Watercolor is lightened by diluting the paints by adding more water. 1.Find some interesting subject matter that is inspiring to you.Your own photographs may provide ideas,however keep them simple,do not include everything.Sketchbooks are another place to look for good ideas.This will encourage the artist to put their own feelings into the painting. Nature is another good source of ideas.You might even think up a picture from your imagination that represents a story or poem, a fantasy or just something wild and creative from your own thoughts. 2. Do thumbnail sketches of your subject matter to decide on the best composition. 3.Tranfer the best thumbnail composition to your watercolor paper. Draw very lightly with a hard pencil.Keep it simple,be careful not to erase as this may damage the paper. 4. Begin to lay in light washes of color. Work from light to dark.Use a large brush to place these colors in their proper position. Allow this layer of color to dry. 5. Continue to place colors in their proper place working from light to darker values. Keep it simple at this point avoid details.Shapes only-no details.Add details last of all such as leaves,textures,line ,features,shadows,etc. Do not overwork, try to stop at three layers of color in each area. Avoid scrubbing as this may damage the paper. The general rule for working in watercolor is to work from light to dark. It is also a very good habit to leave whites throughout the phases of your work. 12
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 13 WATERCOLOR TECHNIQUES WITH UNUSUAL TOOLS AND MATERIALS: Experiment with some of the following techniques before trying them in a painting. Learn how to create a variety of effects in color and texture. Experimentation can be fun and can add interest to your paintings as well. 1. To block out an area you wish to remain unpainted, first cut a piece of masking tape to fit the area and press it into place. Run your washes over the area and when the wash has dried carefully peel away the tape. 2. After peeling away the masking tape,add to the area any needed details or color . 3.Using one of the commercial masking materials, such as Maskoid or Maskit, or rubber cement , block out areas to remain light. Use an old brush, after the overlying paint has dried, rub away the masking material and add details. 4.A wax crayon, white or yellow; can be used to do lettering or drawing any detail that requires careful drawing. When a wash is run over this area, the wax resists the paint and the lettering or drawing stands out clearly. 5.Before washes dry,use an X-acto knife to scrape out certain values which you wish to be lighter. When the wash has dried,add details. 6.A soft facial tissue can be used to blot out large cloud areas.The soft edges can be allowed to dry and details painted over them. 7.Textures created by scratching with a point of a single edge razor or an x-acto knife can be effective;it can give the effect of rain or sleet. 8.A balled up paper towel can give soft and rather sharp edges in combination, when blotted into a wet wash. 9.A hard ink eraser can be used to remove an area of color and can be used to produce a soft foggy effect.Be sure the washes are dry before erasing. 10.After laying a wash,you can drop salt on the wet paint to create an interesting texture. When the paint is dry,wipe away the salt. 11.A soft cosmetic sponge can be used to create a random texture effect often useful in painting leaves or ground areas.This should be done over a dry wash area. 12.Dry brush is interesting and is useful in creating a field of grass very quickly.(an old oil brush is good for this purpose)Start at the bottom of the area and pull the brush up in single strokes.Do not use too much water with the paint; it should not run. 13.After a wash has dried, a light rub with some medium sandpaper will create a texture by removing some of the paint. 14.For a fairly uniform spatter effect, dip an old tooth brush in paint and scrape it across your finger,pulling the tooth brush toward you. 13
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 14 15.For a different kind of spatter,fill the tooth brush with paint and tap the color on by hitting the brush with your finger. 16.Wet drops of paint squeezed from the brush and allowed to run into the still wet surfaces will create interesting effects. In watercolor, you always dilute your colors into washes.A wash is a thin and highly fluid application of color.Two of the most common techniques used in watercolor are the flat and graded wash. Practice both methods until you feel comfortable and have gained an understanding of the uses of each. How to Lay a Flat wash: To lay a flat wash: 1. prepare enough color in a small pan or jar to cover the whole area to be painted. 2. With a large brush, apply the color in a band across the paper in a single even stroke,moving from left to right. 3. Pick up another brushful of color and, touching the first band of color,sweep it evenly across the paper. 4. Do not stop or go over any areas of color. Continue this until the whole area is covered.The area should be even,without definite lines appearing anywhere,and the color should be uniform. 5. Try again until you have a flat wash. How to Lay a Graded Wash Laying a graded wash is a bit more difficult. 1. Load your brush with evenly mixed dark pigment and water and then apply it to the top of the paper in a single horizontal stroke. 2. In the strokes that follow,add more clear water to dillute the paint,making it lighter.In the second stroke and those that follow. 3. Touch the edge or quot;beadquot; of water of the preceding stroke. 4. Practice laying a graded wash until you know the right amount of clear water to add after the flat brush stroke. 5. Tilt the paper so that the paint will flow easily down the paper; but not so freely that it puddles at the bottom. 6. As in the flat wash, there should be no hard lines dividing the values WATERCOLOR-In A DOZEN EXERCISES: 14
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 15 1.Watercolor with dots and dashes of color as the Impressionist did. .Watercolor Make an 18quot;X24quot; study using only dots and dashes of color that are varying in size and color. The dots can be organic and irregular rather than geometric. Let the painting be recognizable rather than abstract. 2.Alla-prima-direct painting-which involves an all at once approach to mixing the paint on your paper, Alla-prima-direct painting rather than on your palette. Try a familiar object from an unusual perspective. Use the alla-prima technique with a bird's eye view or an ant's eye view. 3.Watercolor with incising-Paint a group of three or more highly textural objects. Incorporate incising Watercolor incising into your picture and allow it to dominate in order to become the major visual experience in your painting. 4.Abstraction in Watercolor-Create an abstraction from the painting you made in class. Keep the colors of Abstraction Watercolor the first painting but change any or all of the other elements of design ( line, shape,form, texture,etc.) in order to create an abstract form. From your study, the painting may be semi-abstract or totally non- objective. 5.Watercolor with two brushes-Painting with two kinds of brushes a bamboo and a round watercolor Watercolor brushes brush. Make a stroke of color and then follow it with a brush charged with clean color. Leave white areas as well as overlapping areas of color. 6. Negative Space Watercolor- Sketch lightly the still life in front of you. Paint the negative areas around Watercolor the objects.Leave the objects unpainted until you are near completion,then add as many light tints as desirable. 7.Crayon-resisting and watercolor-Use a crayon to draw two objects that ordinarily are not thought Crayon-resisting watercolor of as being compatible for example, an oceanliner on top of an umbrella,or a horse galloping across a table. Your objective is to bring two contrasting unlikely objects together.The crayon and the watercolor will resist one another to create interesting effects. 8. Wet-in-wet Watercolor-Paint a wet-in-wet study with or without crayon resist. Try the most Watercolor interesting view out the window. Wet-in-wet is similar to stop action photography-whereas we watch the phenomenon as it unveils. 9. Partial wet-in-wet.Try partially wetting your paper. You select the content of this piece. As you wet-in-wet work,observe the difference between the wet and dry areas. You will establish preferences and have reasons to try one or the other or sometimes both . 10.Watercolors with resist-Create a painting that has a sense of deep space. Use tape,rubber .Watercolors resist cement,and frisket to block out white areas and shapes. In some areas, paint a light value,allow it to dry,then mask it off to protect it from the next color. 11.Watercolor pencils and payons-Create a composition of a still life object or of plants or flowers. payons Use the watercolor pencils and payons.Use no primary colors, only secondary and tertiary (blue- green) Strive for a very low key picture. 12.Watercolor and transluscent paper-Paint a simple landscape with three colors-a triad harmony .Watercolor paper on tracing paper.Work for a delicate balance of colors and values with transparent washes on semi-transparent paper. Work to control your light tones. Upon completion, paint the same painting on regular watercolor paper “ Resist- able Images ”(excerpt from The ArtWorkBook: Art Class Notes) (Crayon and Watercolor Resist) Objectives: Learn to express yourself in the crayon resist process. Time Line: 5 hours Tools and Materials: Crayons, white drawing or construction paper, brushes, watercolor or tempera paint or ink 15
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 16 Procedures: 1. Observe their natural subject (leaves, shells, insects, birds, etc.) 2. Sketch subject with a light colored crayon rather than pencil to produce a contour line. Go over with other crayons applied heavily. Do not fill in subjects with colored crayons. The more detail incorporated into the composition, the richer and more complex the design will become. Background embellishment may be included with the addition of leaves, flowers, rocks, clouds, to help tie the composition together. 3. Using watercolor or tempera apply the transparent colors over and between the lines. Continuation/Variation: Limit yourself to one color or use a variety of colors. A wet-on-wet or wet-on-dry paper approach may be employed. Tempera-india ink resist is another challenging alternative replete with surprises. A preliminary drawing is made in school chalk on white or light colored construction paper. Paint is applied up to the chalk outline but not covering it. Allow the paint to dry completely. India ink undiluted is applied generously over the tempera surface, allowed to dry thoroughly, and then rinsed off at sink. Note: the tempera paint used should be a good quality liquid tempera. Powdered tempera has worked for some teachers mixed with a small amount of glue. The paint should be a creamy consistency. Watery paint will absorb the final layer of ink rather than resist it. Consider the importance of using bright intense hues to contrast the black india ink. Paper is also an important consideration; white drawing paper or gray bogus works well. Terminology/Techniques: resist contrast intensity tints values hue Motivation/Resource Material: • Illustrated books, periodicals featuring wildlife, color slides, films of the same will increase student awareness. • Subject matter that is full of patterns and natural designs are recommended for this process such as; fish, birds, reptiles, and insects. • Additional themes might include: Hot air balloons, underwater scenes, fireworks, the circus, a parade, umbrellas in the rain, Halloween, falling autumn leaves, flower gardens, jungle birds, party favors, gourds, squash and dried flowers, Indian kachina dolls, Japanese kikeshi dolls, sail boat races. See more examples in The ArtWorkBook at www.artworkontheweb.com ) Questioning Strategies: • Has pressure been used in applying the crayons to achieve rich, glowing colors? • What happens when the wet media is juxtaposed next to the wax media? Variation: • Did I use light bright values of color to provide contrast against the black ink? 16
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 17 Fragmentation Often times beginning artists are not concerned enough about the relationship between the positive and negative parts in their picture. The following exercise forces them to interact between these related areas. Objectives: Draw an object in a blind contour line drawing emphasizing the positive and negative areas in order to gain an understanding of figure-ground relationships. Investigate and develop form with cross contour lines. Time line: 5 hours (more time if using fine point drawing tools.) Tools and Materials: 18” X 24” Manila paper or white drawing paper, fine point markers or pen staffs and assorted nibs or rapidograph pens. Procedures: 1. Place the still life object in front of you. Discuss and review positive and negative space. Draw the object in blind contour. 2. Dissect the page with lines ( straight or curved) to break up the space into three or more areas. 3. Focus on negative space in one or more areas. The negative space will be emphasized with a massing of lines or words or patterns. 4. In the other areas, the emphasis will be placed on the positive areas with cross-contour (wrap- around) lines. 5. Consider the importance of balancing the areas of light and dark. The weight of the dark areas created by massing of lines should be studied. Terminology: blind contour cross-contour value positive negative figure ground ambiguity Motivation/Resources: • The Drawing Handbook, • Arttalk, Ragans Page 101-103, • Drawing: Ideas, Materials and Techniques, Brommer,G. 17
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 18 Watercolor Intensity Painting Objectives: Complete paintings showing your interpretations of an environment. Create an area of visual emphasis with an area of greater color intensity. Tools and Materials: watercolor paper, watercolor brushes, pencils, watercolor tubes, palettes, water containers, paper towels, masking tape, etc. Procedure: 1. Acquire resource material of images that you would like to interpret. 2. Sketch lightly in pencil, indicate the areas of lightness and darkness. The better the drawing, the better to insure that the painting will be better. 3. Paint from light to dark-laying in transparent washes. Glaze the complimentary colors into the areas to dull the intensity of areas that you do not wish to be bright. 4. Discuss: How can emphasis be created? • Location-an off center or or informal composition can be more interesting rather than a central one. • Intensity and Value-the main center of interest may be the brightest or the most intense area; the main center of interest may be the darkest area or lightest area. • Amount-equal amounts of too many colors may be confusing in comparison to a color arrangement in which one color or value dominates. Terminology: • Color-how we see light reflected from a surface. Different wave lengths of light as seen as different colors. • Intensity-the brightness or dullness of a color; to change or dull the intensity of a color, add its compliment. • Complimentary colors-colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel: red and green, blue and orange, and violet and yellow. • Pigment-chemical or natural material used to give color to a surface. • Emphasis-the main center of interest, or the most important part of a piece of artwork. This dominant area can create variety and interest in your picture while unifying the composition. Motivational Materials: • Examples of watercolor paintings (teacher and student work) • See web site at: www.artworkontheweb.com • Watercolor Books or other reference material on watercolor painting; including works of famous artists. • Color wheel Questioning strategy: • Are the intensities of the colors varied for compositional diversity and subtle? • Are bright, high-intensity colors employed for emphasis wherever such emphasis is needed? Wearing My Watercolors: Objectives: Investigate watercolor techniques on a piece of clothing or on jewelry on a smaller scale to 18
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 19 create another version of personal adornment and wearable art. Time Line: 1-3 hours depending upon how many pieces are made. Tools and Materials: Selected papers (watercolor papers, cardboard, typing paper, drawing paper, poster board, illustration board, foam board) watercolors, watercolor pencils, earring posts or pin backs, glue gun, acrylic gloss or Resin. Option: 100% Cotton shirt or denim jacket Procedures: 1. Select paper for your earrings. Cut or tear this into the desired shape. Paper must be sturdy and secure enough to hold the base for the earring. 2. Secondly, the watercolors need to be selected for the earrings. Apply the colors in numerous watercolor techniques experimenting on the smaller works. Consider that cloth, puffy paint, and colored rhinestones can be incorporated into the designs at any point to add texture and variety to your designs. 3. After the earrings are painted and decorated. Allow them to dry. Watercolors dry quickly. Consider folding, tearing, overlapping, collaging other sheets together for a sculptural effect. Portions of beads, parts of other pieces of costume jewelry or leather can dangle off of the earring. Be imaginative. 4. An acrylic gloss or resin can be applied over the surface to waterproof and protect the earring to prevent the paint from rubbing off. 5. Finally an earring post needs to be glued to the back of the earring and left to dry. A glue gun or super glue works well to secure this. 6. Now the earrings are ready to wear. Continuation/Variation: • Preface this lesson with an introduction to watercolor and explore techniques on small pieces of paper to be made into earrings. • Limit your experiment with various techniques onto separate pairs of earrings. (Wet-on-wet wearables, Wet-on-dry Designs) • Make pins to match • Make T-shirts, clothes, painted denim jackets or sweats to match. Terminology/Techniques: Watercolor resin collage mixed media Motivation/Resource Material: • Show contemporary designs of jewelry and wearable art • Books on jewelry: Paper Fancy , Fashion Jewelry by Kay Burdette, Book #238 • More ideas: http://www.artworkontheweb.com Questioning Strategies: • Are the colors repetitious to have the design unified? • Have I effectively embellished the shape? • Could anything else be added to further enhance the design? 19
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 20 Part II: Watercolor Worksheets, Tests and Answer Keys 20
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 21 WATERCOLOR TECHNIQUES Vocabulary: 1.Transparent wash 2.Flat Wash 3.Graded Wash 4.Wet- in-wet 5.Wet- in-dry 6.Dry brush 7.Glazing 8.Gouache 9.Alla- prima 10.Incising 11.Resist 12.Blotting 21
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 22 Watercolor Worksheet: PAINTING WITH TRANSPARENT WATERCOLOR: 1.In what ways did the European and English watercolorists techniques vary? 2. Who was the English watercolorist credited with the development of the pure watercolor technique?Name other artists. 3.What were the characteristics of watercolor adopted by American painters of the 19th century? 4.Name a 20th century artist who began painting abstractly structured city scenes and landscapes. 5.Name the naturalistic painter known as the quot;Master of the medium of watercolorquot;.What was his favorite subject to paint? 6.Define briefly the following watercolor terminlogy: A.)Transparent medium- B.)Wash- C.)Opaque medium- D.)Gouache- E.)Flat Wash- F.)Graded Wash_ G.)Wet-in-Wet- H.)Wet-in-Dry- I.)Dry brush- J.)Glazing- K.)Techniques- KNOW YOUR TOOLS AND MATERIALS: 7.How does watercolor paper differ from other art papers? 8.What characteristic should a good watercolor brush have? 9.How are watercolor paints available? 22
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 23 10.What tools,materials,and equipment are needed to begin watercolor? 11.How does one prepare paper for watercolor? 12.How does one lighten a color in watercolor?What is the general rule for working in watercolor? DO AS THE ARTISTS DO in Watercolor: In your SKETCH BOOK complete the following exercises: A.) Sketch a picture lightly. Dissect this by drawing a line lightly through the center of the picture. On one half, paint it as an English watercolorist on the other half, paint as a European watercolorist. B.) Sketch a second composition of a still life or landscape. Paint it as an American painter of the 19th century. C.) Sketch an abstractly structured city scene. Paint it as the artist of the 20th century D.) Sketch a subject. Investigate a quot;master of the watercolor medium.quot; Paint your subject as they would have done. Compare your work to theirs. Did you paint it in a similar manner? Upon the completion of your watercolor assignments. Allow these to dry. Sign your name in pencil lightly in the bottom right corner. Take a piece of 18quot; X 24quot; news print ,fold it once to make a folder. Place your four pieces of art work in the folder. On the outside, print your full name ,art class level and class period number (circled)and dated. 23
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 24 Watercolor Worksheet-Answer Key: PAINTING WITH TRANSPARENT WATERCOLOR: 1.In what ways did the European and English watercolorists techniques vary? Europeans used watercolor primarily to tint ink drawings or to do miniature paintings as preliminary works for oil paintings. English used watercolor in a transparent,aquarelle manner. 2. Who was the English watercolorist credited with the development of the pure watercolor technique? Name other artists. Paul Sandby was credited with the development of the pure watercolor technique. Other artists were Cozens,Gertin, and Turner. 3.What were the characteristics of watercolor adopted by American painters of the 19th century? They used watercolor in a transparent technique and also to create impressionism. 4.Name a 20th century artist who began painting abstractly structured city scenes and landscapes. John Marin 5.Name the naturalistic painter known as the quot;Master of the medium of watercolorquot;.What was his favorite subject to paint. Winslow Homer is considered the Master of the medium of watercolor. His favorite subject was the sea. 6.Define briefly the following watercolor terminology: A.)Transparent medium- A medium used to give a clear transparent effects. Transparency depends on how much the medium is diluted. B.)Wash-A large area of thinned paint on a picture.This is achieved by diluting pigment in a puddle of water. Darkness is achieved by overlaying washes. C.)Opaque medium-A medium that achieves a solid layer of color that you cannot see through. D.)Gouache-The addition of white to the watercolor pigment which gives this medium the ability to cover that which is beneath it. E.)Flat Wash-An area of color that is uniform throughout, it appears even without a change in value. F.)Graded Wash_A wash that gradually changes from dark to light or light to dark. G.)Wet-in-Wet-Technique which involves applying a wet brush to a wet or dampened paper.This gives a fuzzy effect with very little control-useful in atmosphere studies. H.)Wet-in-Dry-Technique where a wet brush is added to a dry surface. This gives a smooth effect and offers more control. I.)Dry brush-Applying color with a dry brush to achieve textural effects such as grass,wood grain, hair and any other types of fine line details. J.)Glazing-Applying thinned color to an already dried area to unify the picture. K.)Techniques-Method to achieve a particular result. The ways in which an artist uses and applies his media-a shortcut to a particular end result. 24
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 25 KNOW YOUR TOOLS AND MATERIALS: 7.How does watercolor paper differ from other art papers? Watercolor paper has a higher degree of absorbency. It may be purchased in light medium and rough textures. It is also available in different weights from 30 lbs.-400 lbs. 8.What characteristic should a good watercolor brush have? A good watercolor brush must have the capability of holding lots of water and yet will not go limp when pressed to the paper. It must spring back. 9.How are watercolor paints available ? Watercolor paints are available in tubes,cakes, and pans.Watercolor pencils and payons (crayons) are also available. 10. What tools,materials,and equipment are needed to begin watercolor? Watercolor paints, brushes, paper, water containers, palettes, sponges, X-acto knives, kleenex, salt ,crayons, mask ,sandpaper, tape, toothbrushes,etc,... 11.How does one prepare paper for watercolor? Watercolor paper can be stretched to a board and then wet in order to prevent buckling. It can also be soaked for five (5) minutes or more and then stretched on a board by taping all four sides,again to prevent the paper from buckling. 12.How does one lighten a color in watercolor? Watercolor is lightened by diluting the paints by adding more water. 13. What is the general rule for working in watercolor? The general rule for working in watercolor is to work from light to dark.It is also a very good habit to leave whites throughout your work. DO AS THE ARTISTS DO: In your sketchbook /journal,complete the required exercises: A.)Sketch a picture lightly. Dissect this by drawing a line lightly through the center of the picture. On one half, paint it as an English watercolorist on the other half,paint as a European watercolorist. B.)Sketch a second composition of a still life or landscape. Paint it as an American painter of the 19th century. C.)Sketch an abstractly structured city scene. Paint it as the artist of the 20th centu D.)Sketch a subject. Investigate a quot;Master of the watercolor medium.quot; Paint your subject as they would have done. Compare your work to therirs. Did you paint it in a similar manner? Turn in assignments: Upon the completion of your watercolor assignments. Allow these to dry. Sign your name in pencil lightly in the bottom right corner. Take a piece of 18quot; X 24quot; newsprint,fold it once to make a folder. Place your four pieces of art work in the folder. On the outside.Print your full name,art class level and period number (circled)and dated. Watercolor Test Matching: Match the correct word with it's definition. 25
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 26 1.________Transparent medium 2.________Wash 3.________Opaque medium 4.________Flat wash 5.________Graded wash 6.________Wet-in-wet 7.________Wet-in-dry 8.________Dry-brush 9.________Technique 10._______Blossoms 11._______Incising 12._______Alla Prima 13._______Backwash 14._______Winslow Homer 15._______Gum arabic A.)A partially dried brush used in order to achieve fine lines for such details as grass, and hair, etc., B.)Watercolor pigment with white added in order to cover that which is beneath. C.)Color that is suspended in water. D.)An area of color that appears to be the same value andis a flat area of color. E.)A method of achieving a desired aim. F.)An approach to painting that allows the artist to mix his paint on his/her paper. G.)Dropping clean water into an area with a lot of pigment to create a bleeding and diluting of the colors. H.) An approach to achieve an area that shows a transition from dark to light.This is done by dipping into a wash and then into clean water as you pull the paint down the paper. I.)Applying a fully-charged brush to a wet surface,which gives you very little control.This technique is useful in atmosphere studies. J.)Pushing clean water into areas with a lot of pigment in order to acheive a long passage of blossoms. K.)An approach using a fully-charged brush to paint in a dry area.This allows the timid painter much more control. L.)Watercolor is described as this because it's colors are applied in thin washes that allow the paper and the underlying colors to show through. M.)A method of scratching into the paper to form dents or canals whereby the color is more or less concentrated. N.)The binder that holds watercolor pigment together. O.)Naturalistic painter-known as the quot;master of watercolor medium.quot; True or False: 16.______Watercolor paper comes in a variety of weights from 20 lbs. to 400 lbs. 17.______Watercolor paper is very delicate and you must be very careful in how you work with it. 18.______Watercolor paper absorbs water and is very textured. 26
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 27 19.______Watercolor brushes are stiff and must have body to push paint. 20.______Watercolor brushes must be capable of holding lots of water as well as have the ability to spring back into shape. 21.______Watercolor when done properly should allow for each layer of color to dry. 22.______When you allow the colors to dry, the results are beautiful overlays of color. 23.______Improper use of watercolor will muddy up your colors. 24.______Watercolors can be resistant to certain materials such as crayons,glue,or frisket. 25.______Watercolors are available in only two forms including tubes and pans. 26.______One myth established about watercolor is that corrections and changes cannot be made. 27.______Watercolor is a spontaneous and suggestive medium which can be an exciting adventure. 28______You must let accidents happen in watercolor and go beyond them in your expression. 29.______All the supplies needed for watercolor are: paints,palettes,water, water containers and brushes, 30.______Always dilute your colors in a puddle of water when doing watercolor. Watercolor Subjects: 31.Winslow Homer painted the sea with all of its beauty. What other subjects have been depicted in this exciting medium? 32.What water scenes could we paint in watercolor? Watercolor Exercises: 33. Show the contrast between a flat and graded wash. 34.Show the difference between a wet-in-wet and a wet-in-dry approach using the same subject in a 5quot; X 5quot;composition. 35.Show an example of incising. 36.Show how to paint with two brushes employing the alla-prima technique. 27
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 28 37.Create blossoms and a backwash. 38.Show how to use a resist process in watercolor. 39.Show how to use the watercolor pencils and payons. 40.Show some experimentation combining techniques of your choice. Watercolor Test: Answer Key Matching: Match the correct word with it's definition. 1.____L____Transparent medium 2.____C____Wash 3.____B___ Opaque medium 4.____D____Flat wash 5.____H____Graded wash 6.____I____ Wet-in-wet 7.____K____Wet-in-dry 8.____A____Dry-brush 9.____E____Technique 10.___G___ Blossoms 11.___M____Incising 12.___F____Alla Prima 13.___J____Backwash 14.___O____Winslow Homer 15.___N____Gum arabic A.)A partially dried brush used in order to achieve fine lines for such details as grass, hair,etc., B.)Watercolor pigment with white added in order to cover that which is beneath. C.)Color that is suspended in water. D.)An area of color that appears to be the same value and is a flat area of color. E.)A method of achieving a desired aim. F.)An approach to painting that allows the artist to mix his paint on his/her paper. G.)Dropping clean water into an area with a lot of pigment to create a bleeding and diluting of the colors. H.) An approach to achieve an area that shows a transition from dark to 28
Artworkbook:Watercolor Painting 29 light.This is done by dipping into a wash and then into clean water as you pull the paint down the paper. I.)Applying a fully-charged brush to a wet surface,which gives you very little control.This technique is useful in atmosphere studies. J.)Pushing clean water into areas with a lot of pigment in order to acheive a long passage of blossoms. K.)An approach using a fully-charged brush to paint in a dry area.This allows the timid painter much more control. L.)Watercolor is described as this because it's colors are applied in thin washes that allow the paper and the underlying colors to show through. M.)A method of scratching into the paper to form dents or canals whereby the color is more or less concentrated. N.)The binder that holds watercolor pigment together. O.)Naturalistic painter-known as the quot;Master of watercolor medium
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