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Information about AW9

Published on December 7, 2007

Author: Samuel


IONIAN REVOLT:  IONIAN REVOLT Persia took control of all Greek city-states along coast of Asia Minor in 547 BC Region known as Ionia Ionian city-states rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC Sought aid from mainland Greece Only Athens and Eretria responded This aid allowed Ionian city-states to put up fierce resistance to Persians But revolt was nonetheless defeated by 494 BC DARIUS I:  DARIUS I Persian emperor Darius I determined to punish Athens and Eretria for aiding Ionian rebellion Sent fleet to Greece with goal of conquering both city-states and teaching the entire mainland a lesson it would never forget BATTLE OF MARATHON:  BATTLE OF MARATHON Eretria fell quickly to the Persians Persians then entered the plain of Marathon and headed for Athens Athenians wasted several days debating strategy Finally decided to request reinforcements from Sparta and send a 9000 hoplite army met Persians at Marathon By the time Spartan reinforcement arrived, Athens had won battle By using new tactic of “collapsing center” AFTERMATH OF MARATHON:  AFTERMATH OF MARATHON Athenians saw victory at Marathon as vindication of their adoption of democratic reforms of Cleisthenes More democratic reforms followed More elected offices opened up to demos Introduction of practice of ostracism To check against overly ambitious men To make a clear-cut decision between conflicting policies advocated by different individuals Athens also embarked on huge naval construction program Financed by silver in Laurium Resulted in fleet of 200 ships A NEW ATTACK:  A NEW ATTACK Persians made plans for another invasion With goal of conquering entire peninsula Led by new emperor, Xerxes Greeks prepare for invasion by setting up defensive line stretching from pass at Thermopylae to northern tip of Euboea BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE:  BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE Thermopylae was narrow pass through mountains Since only a few soldiers could get through at a time, Greeks hoped it would nullify Persian numerical advantage 7000 men held pass commanded by King Leonidas of Sparta Persians could not make any headway against Greeks for several days Greek traitor led Persians around pass and they came in behind Greeks Leonidas sent most men away and kept 1400 to hold pass Wiped out by Persians BATTLE OF SALAMIS:  BATTLE OF SALAMIS Athens evacuated population to nearby seaside fort of Salamis Persians hesitated to attack because Bay of Salamis was full of Athenian ships Athenians tricked Persians into entering bay with their navy Smaller, more maneuverable Athenian ships then destroyed Persian fleet Xerxes withdrew back to Asia Minor FINAL VICTORIES:  FINAL VICTORIES Xerxes still had 300,000 man army in Greece Spartan commander Pausanias set up camp in plain below Persian army at Plataea Persians attacked but Spartans counter-attacked and achieved victory A few weeks later, Athenian navy liberated Ionian city-states Alliance of Spartan land power and Athenian naval power had defeated the most powerful empire in the world PROBLEMS AMONG THE GREEKS:  PROBLEMS AMONG THE GREEKS Sparta should have led an alliance designed to protect Greece But this did not happen Because Spartan army could never be gone from city for long because of danger of helot uprising Could not therefore provide long-range military leadership required Persians still raided Asia Minor Naval power required to handle this threat Athens therefore became the head of new Greek alliance DELIAN LEAGUE:  DELIAN LEAGUE New alliance known as Delian League (478-77 BC) Sparta created smaller alliance called Peloponnesian League Purpose of Delian League was offensive and defensive Athens dominated decision-making process Military commanders were all Athenians Athens administered finances and took 50% of all loot Athens dominated the Delian League from the very start EXPANSION OF ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY:  EXPANSION OF ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY Athenian democracy continued to evolve under reforms of Pericles Fundamental motivation was military necessity With rise of Athenian naval power, the military importance of rowers increased Generally poor men who did hard physical labor for low pay under hazardous conditions Generally were not citizens Began to pressure government for political participation and rights Their demands were ultimately granted and thereby paved the way for an expansion of democracy in Athens CIMON vs PERICLES:  CIMON vs PERICLES Pericles’ most powerful rival was Cimon Successful general and talented speaker Advocated pro-Spartan foreign policy Pericles advocated opposite policy Advocated crippling Sparta before she would take inevitable revenge on Athens Pericles Cimon PERICLES WINS:  PERICLES WINS Cimon insulted by Spartans when he arrived to help them put down revolt by helots Pericles used episode to work up public opinion against Cimon Cimon ultimately ostracized Pericles’ anti-Spartan orientation became official Athenian policy Athens makes alliance with Spartan enemies, Argos and Thessaly OUTBREAK OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR:  OUTBREAK OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR Hostility between Athens and Sparta escalated until it culminated in war in 459 BC Spartan army blocked from returning from Boeotia by Athenian army Spartans retaliated by attacking Athens Resulted in Battle of Tanagra Spartans win but suffer such horrible losses that they return home ATHENS GAINS THE UPPER HAND:  ATHENS GAINS THE UPPER HAND Athenians regroup and attack Sparta’s allies between Attica and the Peloponnese Especially Megora Blocked future invasion by Sparta By 457, Athens had Sparta bottled up and had firm control over rest of Greece Athens and Sparta sign 5 year truce in 455 CHANGES IN THE DELIAN LEAGUE:  CHANGES IN THE DELIAN LEAGUE Athens began to act unilaterally Did not consult “allies” in Delian League Did not even hold meetings anymore Naxos and Thasos tried to drop out of the League but Athens forced them to stay League funds began to be used exclusively for Athenian purposes By 446, Athens had clearly transformed the League into its personal empire TROUBLE FOR ATHENS:  TROUBLE FOR ATHENS Argos left Delian League in 451 and made alliance with Sparta Boeotia did same in 446 Megara broke free in 446 Exposed Athens to land assault by Sparta Athens signs 30-year truce with Sparta Prompted by these reversals SECOND PELOPONNESIAN WAR:  SECOND PELOPONNESIAN WAR Truce remained in force for 15 years Sparta was afraid that Athenian power and imperialistic designs would inevitably lead to attack on her allies and Sparta itself Sparta went to war again against Athens in 446 Because of Athenian attempts to take over Corinth and Megara Athens lost everything Because its allies used war to assert independence Because it wasted resources on useless attack on Sicily Because of internal turmoil after death of Pericles Because Sparta was aided by Persia SPARTAN PROBLEMS:  SPARTAN PROBLEMS Sparta won but did not emerged unscathed Population decimated Still tried to establish empire in Greece Broke down isolation which had long preserved Spartan society Left it open to corrupting influences from rest of Greece Fundamental egalitarianism of city-state broke down Power struggles erupted between different factions MORE SPARTAN PROBLEMS:  MORE SPARTAN PROBLEMS Sparta experienced chronic manpower shortage in its army Increasingly forced to rely on mercenaries No longer had a citizen army Drained Sparta of economic resources Committed fundamental foreign policy errors Attack on Persians in Ionia allowed creation of anti-Spartan alliance in Greece Spartan forces defeated several times by members of alliance Slipped into the ranks of just another poor Greek city-state END OF THE GOLDEN AGE:  END OF THE GOLDEN AGE Thev Thebes then emerged as the supreme power in Greece and immediately tried to establish an empire Wasted its advantage in population and resources in a series of useless wars By 336, Thebes was completely exhausted and all of Greece was in a state of chronic decay Too weak now to defend itself against any foreign invader who decided to attack Greece Thebes

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