Avit Theophil, proposal on public policy. Mount Kenya University

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Information about Avit Theophil, proposal on public policy. Mount Kenya University

Published on July 23, 2014

Author: aviththeophil

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This research study aims at finding out how NGOs contributes to implementation of child development policy through use of different strategies to influence national policy implementation like use of advocacy activities, participatory monitoring and evaluation, lobbying national decisional makers etc.

AN INVESTIGATION OF NGO’S ROLES AS ACTORS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT POLICY CASE KARAGWE DISTRICT, TANZANIA Author: Avit Theophil MPA (DL) 312/ 0417 A Research Project proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Master Degree in Public Administration and Management; School of Business and Public Management Mount Kenya University MAY, 2014 Contact person: Avit Theophil Email: aviththeophil@yahoo.co.uk Call: +255768852190

DECLARATION I, Avit Theophil do hereby declare that this proposal document is my own work. It has never been represented elsewhere except to MKU for partial fulfillment for the award of a Master‟s degree in Public Administration and Management. Name: Avit Theophil Signature: Date: 30/03/2014 This work has been Submitted with Our approval as a supervisors. Name of Supervisor: Dr. Juda Leonard Msaki Signature: Date: 12/04/2014 Name of Supervisor: John MomanyiOngubo (PhD Scholar) Signature: Date: 12/04/2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Of all, I thank the Lord, God for keeping me healthy and physically fit. Also I acknowledge my internal and external supervisors upon this work, John MomanyiOngubo (PhD Scholar) and Dr. Juda Leonard Msaki for their hearty effort during all my consultation period. My sincerely thanks to Post Graduate Coordinator at MKU, Dr Joyce Gikandi for her full academic support that she has been providing to me and I also acknowledge kind, resource and technical support that I have received from my line manager, Dr. Livingstone (SAWAKA Executive Director). And finally, I do appreciate workmate and best friends at SAWAKA who encouraging me while taking this study, Iman G. Masenge (Programs Officer Technical), Frank Fallon (ICS UK volunteers), Fadhila Hussein (Assistance Programs Officer), Ruth Hole (Community Social Mobiliser Officer), Theonest Kashushura (Finance Manager), Evelyne Rwechungura (ICS TZ volunteer), Elvis Chuwa (ICS TZ Volunteer), Libertha Charles (Admnistrator), Mzee Nekemia Kazimoto (Chairman-SAWAKA), Mzee C.K Nsherenguzi (Vice Chairperson-SAWAKA), Mr. Boas Kaitaba (Project Advisor-SAWAKA), Imisa Masinjila (ICS VSO Manager), just to mention a few. Last but not list, I thank my wife Mary Urio as well as Theophil Mussa family for their tireless effort to support me academically until this time. Thank you all who have contributed in one way or another and your names didn‟t appear in this acknowledgement section but your contributions are seriously appreciated. Thank you and God bless you all!

ABSTRACT The study intend to investigate NGO‟s roles as private actors in implementation of child development policy implementation Tanzania, the case of study will be in Karagwe district. The population of the study is Karagwe district in Tanzania where the researcher will use questionnaires and interview methodologies to collect primary data and secondary data will be collected through documentary reviews. Most vulnerable children village committees, managers of registered NGOs, department of social welfare and police officers will be interviewed the rationale behind the use of these identified group is to enhance the quality of research and get relevant information. Findings of the study will be presented in tables and graphs with more illustrations on the findings presented.

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................................ 23 Table 3.1 Sample size of study .................................................................................................................. 25

TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration .......................................................................................................................................i Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................ii Abstract............................................................................................................................................iii List of Tables and figures...................................................................................................................iv Table of Contents...............................................................................................................................v List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................vii List of important terms ................................................................................................................... viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................1-10 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background of the study ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Problem Statement ............................................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Purpose of the Study .............................................................................................................................. 8 1.4 Objectives of the Study .......................................................................................................................... 8 1.4.1 General Objectives of the Study ......................................................................................................... 8 1.4.2 Specific Objectives of the Study........................................................................................................... 8 1.5 Research Questions ................................................................................................................................ 9 1.6 Justification of the Study......................................................................................................................... 9 1.7 Significance of the Study ...................................................................................................................... 10 1.8 Scope of the Study ............................................................................................................................... 10 1.9 Study Limitations and Delimitations..................................................................................................... 10 1.10 Assumptions of the Study ................................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................12-24 2.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 12 2.1 Theoretical Literature Review .............................................................................................................. 12 2.1.1 Behavioral Theory on Child Development ..................................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Social Child Development Theories .................................................................................................. 13 2.1.2.1 Attachment Theory ........................................................................................................................ 13 2.1.2.2 Social Learning Theory.................................................................................................................... 13 2.1.3 Public Administration Theory ........................................................................................................... 13 2.2 Empirical Literature .............................................................................................................................. 14

2.2.1 Legal Advocacy................................................................................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Civic Education .................................................................................................................................. 14 2.2.3 Participatory monitoring and Evaluation .......................................................................................... 15 2.2.4 Trainings and Technical Assistance.................................................................................................... 16 2.3 Theoretical Framework......................................................................................................................... 17 2.3.1 Child Development ............................................................................................................................ 17 2.3.2 Public Policy Circle ............................................................................................................................. 18 2.3.3 Actors in Policy Process...................................................................................................................... 20 2.3.3.1 Government actor in Policy Process ............................................................................................... 20 2.3.3.2 NGOs as Actors in Policy Process.................................................................................................... 22 2.4 Conceptual Framework ........................................................................................................................ 23 2.5 Research Ethics Considerations ............................................................................................................ 24 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................25-28 3.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 25 3.1 Research Design.................................................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Population of the Study ...................................................................................................................... 25 3.3 Sampling Techniques ........................................................................................................................... 25 3.4 Sample Size ........................................................................................................................................... 26 3.5 Data Collection Methods ...................................................................................................................... 26 3.5.1 Survey................................................................................................................................................. 27 3.5.2 Questionnaires................................................................................................................................... 27 3.6 Validation and Reliability of Research Instruments.............................................................................. 27 3.7 Data Analysis and Techniques............................................................................................................... 28 LIST OF REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................29 APPENDECIES..............................................................................................................................32-39 Questionnaire ............................................................................................................................................ 32 Letter of Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 37 Proposed Research Budget ........................................................................................................................ 38 Project work plan........................................................................................................................................ 39

ABBREVIATIONS MVC MVCC NGO OVC UN SAWAKA UNECOSOC MOH DPI WTO WB USAID AIDS GDP MKU CSO DPI MDGs -Most Vulnerable Children - Most Vulnerable Children Committee - Non Governmental Organization -Orphans and Vulnerable Children -United Nations -Saidia Wazee Karagwe -United Nations Economic and Social Council -Ministry of Health -Department of Public Information -World Trade Organization -World Bank -U.S. Agency for International Development -Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -Gross Domestic Products -Mount Kenya University -Civil Society Organization -Department of Public Administration -Millennium Development Goals

DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPTS USED Policy Public policy is the action taken by government to address a particular public issue. Local, state, federal, and international government organizations all craft and implement public policy to protect and benefit their populations. (Kettl, Donald and James Fessler, 2009) Public policy is the action taken by government to address a particular public issue. Local, state, federal, and international government organizations all craft and implement public policy to protect and benefit their populations (Casey John, 2004) Policy actors is an entity that enacts a certain policy action (Casey John, 2004) Private sectors the part of the national economy that is not under direct state control. (Oxford Dictionary) Legal Advocacy refers to representation by legally qualified advocates, usually barristers or solicitors. (Oxford Dictionary) Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E) refers to a process through which stakeholders at various levels engage in monitoring or evaluating a particular project, program or policy, share control over the content, the process and the results of the M&E activity and engage in taking or identifying corrective actions it focuses on the active engagement of primary stakeholders. (World Bank, 2013) Civic education means all the processes that affect people's beliefs, commitments, capabilities, and actions as members or prospective members of communities. (Malpas.,J, 2013) On job training and development refers to a method of preparing an employee to perform a task by providing them with information about the task, a demonstration of its performance, an opportunity for the employee to imitate the demonstration and subsequent feedback. (Oxford Dictionary) Non Governmental Organization normally refers to organizations that are neither a part of a government nor conventional for-profit businesses (Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia) Child development refers to the various stages of physical, social, and psychologic growth that occur from birth through young adulthood (Oxford Dictionary)

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction This chapter comprises background of the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, and justification of the study, scope, assumptions and finally limitation of the study. 1.1 Background of the study Optimal development requires the harnessing of country assets, its capital, human and natural resources to meet demand from its population as comprehensively as possible. The public and private sectors, by themselves, are imperfect. They can not or are unwilling to meet all demands. Many scholars argue that the voluntary sector may be better placed to articulate the needs of the poor people, to provide services and development in remote areas, to encourage the changes in attitudes and practices necessary to curtail discrimination, to identify and redress threats to the environment, and to nurture the productive capacity of the most vulnerable groups such as the disabled or the landless populations. (Samuel E., 2005) The aim of this chapter is to give a theoretical background of the third sector that non governmental organization - NGOs and their role in implementation of child development policy in Karagwe district, at Kagera region. Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. In general, the foundation is the pertinent national and substantial constitutional law and implementing legislation such as the US Federal code. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Some scholars define it as a system of "courses of action, regulatory measures, laws, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives. Public policy is commonly embodied "in constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions." (Robert and Janet Denhardt, 2009).

In the United States, this concept refers not only to the result of policies, but more broadly to the decision-making and analysis of governmental decisions. As an academic discipline, public policy is studied by professors and students at public policy schools of major universities throughout the country. The U.S. professional association of public policy practitioners, researchers, scholars, and students is the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. (Robert and Janet Denhardt, 2009). Public policy making can be characterized as a dynamic, complex, and interactive system through which public problems are identified and countered by creating new public policy or by reforming existing public policy. Public problems can originate in endless ways and require different policy responses (such as regulations, subsidies, quotas, and laws) on the local, on the national level, or on the international level (Robert and Janet Denhardt, 2009). In public policy making and implementation, numerous individuals and interest groups compete and collaborate to influence policymakers to act in a particular way and implementation strategies. The large set of actors in the public policy process, such as politicians, civil servants, lobbyists, NGOs, domain experts, and industry representatives, use a variety of tactics and tools to advance their aims, including advocating their positions publicly, attempting to educate supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue. Many actors can be important in the public policy process, however, government officials ultimately choose the „public policy‟ in response to the public issue or problem at hand. In doing so, government officials are expected to meet public sector ethics and take the needs of all stakeholders into account. (Robert and Janet Denhardt, 2009). Public administration itself refers to two meanings: first, it is concerned with the implementation of government policy; second, it is an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs (the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day" , the study of government decision making and analysis of the policies themselves(Kettl, Donald and James F., 2009)

And since public administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct. Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resource, administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government in implementation of policies and in this case they are involved in pubic policy formulation and implementation of child development policy in Tanzania in collaboration with private sectors including NGOs thought public private partnership. A recent study by Jennifer H., and Reza Hasmath, (2014) on NGOs tries to describe that NGOs vary in their methods. Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others primarily conduct programs and activities. For instance, an NGO such as Oxfam, concerned with poverty alleviation, might provide needy people with the equipment and skills to find food and clean drinking water, whereas an NGO like the FFDA helps through investigation and documentation of human rights violations and provides legal assistance to victims of human rights abuses. Others, such as Afghanistan Information Management Services, provide specialized technical products and services to support development activities implemented on the ground by other organizations. NGOs were intended to fill a gap in government services, but in countries like India and China, NGOs are slowly gaining a position in decision making. In the interest of sustainability, most donors require that NGOs demonstrate a relationship with governments. State Governments themselves are vulnerable because they lack economic resources and potentially strategic planning and vision. They are therefore sometimes tightly bound by a nexus of NGOs, political bodies, commercial organizations and major donors or funders, making decisions that have short term outputs but no long term affect .In India, for instance, NGOs are under regulated, political, and recipients of large government and international donor funds. NGOs often take up responsibilities outside their skill ambit. Governments have no access to the number of projects or amount of funding received by these NGOs. There is a pressing need to regulate this group while not curtailing their unique role as a supplement to government services. There have been a variety of outside pressures: from the church, Western private voluntary organizations and

official aid agencies. Emphasis has shifted from their traditional humanitarian relief to a new focus on "empowerment." (Jennifer H., and Reza Hasmath, 2014). Official aid agencies have supplemented and, to a considerable degree, subsidized these private initiatives. Since the mid-1960s, foreign assistance programs have placed increasing emphasis on involving the Third World poor in development activities. In the last one and a half decade, development actors have adopted "participatory development" as its strategy. Finally, pressures to form nonprofit organizations have come from above, from official governmental policy circles. Most visibly, the conservative governments of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher made support for the voluntary sector a central part of their strategies to reduce government social spending. In the Third World and former Soviet block such governmental pressures have also figured. From Thailand to the Philippines, governments have sponsored farmers‟s cooperatives and other private organizations. Egyptian and Pakistani five- year plans have stressed the participation of nongovernmental organizations as a way to ensure popular participation in development. Further, Salamon argues that four crises and two revolutionary changes have converged both to diminish the hold of the state and to open the way for the increase in organized voluntary action. The first of the impulses is the perceived crisis of the modern welfare state revealed after reducing of global economic growth in the 1970s. Accompanying this crisis has been a crisis of development since the oil shock of the 1970s and the recession of the 1980s, which dramatically changed the outlook for developing countries. One result has been a new-found interest in "assisted self-reliance" or "participatory development," an aid strategy that stresses the engagement of grassroots energies and enthusiasms through a variety of nongovernmental organizations. A global environmental crisis has also stimulated greater private initiative. The continuing poverty of developing countries has led the poor to degrade their immediate surroundings in order to survive. Citizens have grown increasingly frustrated with government and eager to organize their own initiatives. Finally, a fourth crisis, Solomon is referring to that of socialism - has also contributed to the rise of the third sector. It caused a search for new ways to satisfy

unmet social and economic needs. While this search helped lead to the formation of market- oriented cooperative enterprises, it also stimulated extensive experimentation with a host of nongovernmental organizations offering services and vehicles for self-expression outside the reaches of an increasingly discredited state. (Samuel U., 2005), According to REPOA Report 2010 on Childhood Poverty in Tanzania, children 0-14 years living below the basic needs poverty line of 6 million, children 0-14 years living below the food poverty line about 3 million and children suffering 2 or more severe deprivations of basic human needs about 70.8% . Tanzania has made significant progress towards achieving global and national targets in key areas of child wellbeing, particularly child survival and primary schooling. Yet a full decade of economic growth has only led to negligible declines in poverty rates. About one in three Tanzanians lives in poverty, unable to meet the cost of essential food staples and other basic necessities like clothing, healthcare and shelter. One in six Tanzanians lives in households so poor that providing food is a real challenge, especially when prices of basic consumption items rise by only a fraction. The benefits of economic growth have not been shared equitably. The wealthiest 10 percent of Tanzanian households has benefited disproportionately from the growth spell of the last decade, at a time when the consumption share of the poorest 10 percent was falling drastically. (REPOA Report, 2010) Poor families living in a state of chronic insecurity are constantly exposed to shocks from which they are seldom able to recover. The effects of poverty and deprivation on children are devastating. Poverty interacts with and reinforces poor outcomes in health, nutrition, schooling, water and sanitation. It makes children vulnerable to exploitation, violence and abuse, as well as to common ailments and premature death, denying their rights to a standard of living adequate for their physical, mental and social development. Livingstone Byekwaso Research Report (2006) illustrates that despite Tanzania‟s strongly egalitarian policy thrust since independence, vast disparities persist in health outcomes and access to health services among households of different means, as well as across regions and districts. Similar disparities are present in regard to education, water and sanitation, and

protection from abuse, neglect and exploitation. The persistence of such disparities hampers Tanzania‟s efforts to build a solid basis for sustained growth and achieve progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The extent of deprivation among children is far greater than indicated by conventional poverty measures. According to a UNICEF study, more than 70 percent of Tanzanian children suffer two or more deprivations in regard to health, nutrition, sanitation, education, access to information, water supply or shelter. The level of deprivation among rural children is up to three times higher than for urban children. The depth of poverty varies inversely with the level of education attained by a child‟s mother, underscoring the critical importance of investing in girls‟ education to break inter-generational poverty cycles. Poverty, in fact, starts in the womb. Poor, undernourished mothers give birth to small, weakly babies. The critical 1,000 days from inception to the first 18 months of life are a time when a child‟s brain develops; failing to invest during that crucial period has lifelong consequences. Keeping girls longer in school helps delay sexual debut, teen pregnancy and early marriage. Yet while secondary school enrolment has expanded quickly from 6 percent in 2002 to 32 percent in 2011, girls still face much greater challenges in completing primary schooling and transitioning to secondary school than boys, especially if they live in rural areas. Limited budgets for fulfilling child rights. Translating policy intentions into programmes and services that deliver results for children requires resources – human, technical as well as financial. Children cannot study without schools. Students cannot learn if schools have no teachers. Teachers will not be able to impart their knowledge if they lack incentives, are poorly paid or trained, or if there are insufficient classrooms or textbooks. Nor can children learn on an empty stomach or if they miss school as a result of sickness, or if their parents cannot afford the cost of educating them. Removing the barriers that prevent children from accessing core services depends on the availability of resources, whether raised through domestic revenues, borrowing or development partners‟ contributions. (Dr. Daniel Y., 2012) Non governmental organization in Karagwe like in other parts of Tanzania, have agreed to establish a joint platform for effective engagement in government aid management process, in

particular towards implementation of joint assistance strategy (including child development policy) for Tanzania. As this initiative is very important provided that it is effectively and efficiency implemented. The roles of NGOs in the JAST are well stipulated as they include mobilizing and enhancing community participation, and resources contribution in development activities. Also, they act as partners of the government and development partners in delivering community services and they participate in local government planning and in reviewing development strategies. (CSOs Joint Initiative Report, 2010) 1.2 Problem Statement According to Child development policy (1996) the term child development refers to provision and strengthening of material and child care, immunization and preventive health, implementation of water projects, environmental sanitation campaigns, establishment and strengthening of feeding posts and day care centers, establishment of pre-schools, establishment and care of playgrounds and provision of primary education for all. Hence briefly child development mean provision of comprehensive service to child for her social wellbeing which may include education, social protection to the child, health and care, shelter, economic strengthening and psychological support. According to National Guidelines for Quality Improvement in OVC Program (2009) they have been seen number of challenges‟ in implementation of child development and ensuring child receive a comprehensive care without the presence of NGOs and other stakeholder‟s participation. This mean that NGO‟s roles are of great importance in the implementation of child development policy, and this has led to the strengthening of Public Private Partnership (PPP). Scholte Jan (2005), argue that civil societies associations can bring greater public control to global governance. Their main goals are to increase democratic accountability in global regulatory arrangements and to promote new norms and ideas on the international agenda in different policy areas: human rights, environmental movements, labour standards, and health and development groups. They promote and increase accountability in global governance through policy monitoring and review, participation: democratic legitimacy of global governance arrangements and their mechanisms of influence can be: networks, relationships with ruling

authorities (lobby), mass media (newspapers, magazines, websites), campaigns, demonstrations, consultancy (information, insights to policy process, political viability, research). Through advocacy, public policy analysis and development, the NGOs have gained an important place in international public policy making. Based on the above problem stated of the failure of public administration in implementation of child development policy in Karagwe district are the reasons to why the researcher wants to conduct research in Karagwe district is to find out the NGO‟s roles that play in implementation of child development policy. 1.3 Purpose of the Study Purpose of this study is to investigate role of NGOs, as private actor on implementation of child development policy, taking Karagwe district as a case study. 1.4 Objectives of the Study 1.4.1 General Objectives To investigate the NGO‟s role on Child Development Policy implementation in Tanzania 1.4.2 Specific Objectives 1. To examine the extent in which legal advocacy influences implementation of child development policy. 2. To determine how technical monitoring and evaluation influences Child Development Policy implementation in Karagwe District. 3. To assess the contribution of civic education towards Child Development Policy implementation, in Karagwe district. 4. To determine the extent on job training and development contributes to Child Development Policy implementation in Karagwe district. 1.5 Research Questions

i. How does legal advocacy influence Child Development Policy implementation in Karagwe district? ii. How does technical monitoring and evaluation affect Child Development Policy implementation in Karagwe District? iii. What are the contributions of civic education towards Child Development Policy implementation in Karagwe district? iv. How does on job trainings and development contribute to Child Development Policy implementation across Karagwe district? 1.6 Justification of the Study This study will important as it will give more information on the roles that NGOs play in ensuring child receives a comprehensive care and support as part of implementation of child development policy as well as child right in Tanzania where Karagwe district will be chosen for the study since according to Foundation for Civil Society directory 2913), Karagwe is one of the district with many NGOs with more 78 NGOs, followed by Bukoba urban in Kagera region. Karagwe district based on district council report (2012) has more than 5000 vulnerable children. Different scholars and journalists have written on importance of NGOs roles in social, economic, political and cultural development. For instances Casey John (2004) identified six important roles these includes development and operational of infrastructure, supporting innovations, demonstration and pilot projects by selecting particular projects and specify particular length of time which they will be supporting the projects. Facilitating communication through monitoring and evaluation and using interpersonal methods of communication. Technical assistance, capacity building and assisting both CBOs and government institutions. As according to Foundation for civil society journal (2009), advocacy for and with the poor, since NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programs on their behalf done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor especially women and children.

1.7 Significance of the study This study will help to state on existing gaps between theoretical and problem aspects of the problem also the study will help researcher to add knowledge on public administration role as well as the role of NGOs in implementation of child development policy in Karagwe district, The study will provide a brief recommendations and suggestions to government departments, donors, civil society organization and NGOs and officials on NGOs roles that they play in implementation of development policy (1996) in Tanzania The findings will help the policy makers and other stakeholders take a complimentary approach and ensure child receives a comprehensive care by creating good and sustainable systems that will help to reduce number of vulnerable children. For the future researcher proposed study will benefit and help the future researcher as their guide and open in development of this study. 1.8 Scope of the Study The study will take place in Karagwe district and its all twenty two wards that found in Karagwe district in Kagera region, involving registered thirty nine (39) NGOs found in Karagwe, 44 most vulnerable committees, district social welfare officers and policemen dealing with vulnerable children issues. 1.9 Study limitations and Delimitations In carrying out the study foreseen minor limitation that might affect carrying out the study include resources and since it has been earlier noted the researcher will put into consideration in carrying the study include asking for technical assistance from research supervisors and research expertise on how to deal with the limitation of the proposed research study. 1.10 Assumptions of the Study

NGO‟s role in implementation of child development policy in Karagwe are said to be vital in ensuring every child gets comprehensive social care on the basis of the children‟s. There are certain formal and informal ways in which private actors particularly NGO‟s get involved through organizing campaign meetings and workshops, provide civic education, monitoring child care projects, strengthening and protesting which mobilize the public towards addressing a specific issue, through public private partnership (PPP), writing global petition, engaging skillful advocacy, civic education, training, monitoring and evaluation.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter will comprise of theoretical review and empirical reviews, conceptual framework, research gaps and ethical consideration of proposed research study. 2.1 Theoretical Literature Review 2.1.1 Behavioral Theory on Child Development Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interaction influences behavior and are based upon the theories of theorists such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov and B. F. Skinner. These theories deal only with observable behaviors. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, stimuli and reinforcement. This theory differs considerably from other child development theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are. Learn more about these behavioral theories in these articles on classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. (Kendra Cherry, 2012) Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response. In order to understand how more

about how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process. 2.1.2. Social Child Development Theories 2.1.2.1 Attachment Theory There is a great deal of research on the social development of children. John Bowbly proposed one of the earliest theories of social development. Bowlby believed that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and continue to influence social relationships throughout life. Then attachment theory on child development describes on need importance of social environment to the child development and child care which actually starts from the parents or caregivers. 2.1.2.2 Social Learning Theory Psychologist Albert Bandura proposed what is known as social learning theory. According to this theory of child development, children learn new behaviors from observing other people. Unlike behavioral theories, Bandura believed that external reinforcement was not the only way that people learned new things. Instead, intrinsic reinforcements such as a sense of pride, satisfaction and accomplishment could also lead to learning. By observing the actions of others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquire new information. And this theory therefore also it try to describe that child learn behaviours from observing others and interactions. Hence social environment for child development is of great importance. 2.1.3. Public Administration Theory Aspect of governmental activity is very old. Public administration as a system of connection and organization and mainly concerned with the performance of political decision of these goals. Public Administration is characterized with cooperative group effort in public setting, covers three branches that is legislatives, executives and judicial where their important role is formulation of public policy and they closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community (Raj K., 2005).

Public Administration is the complex of governmental activities that are undertaken in public interest at different levels such as the central, state/ provincial (in federal set up) and local levels. Government as a political authority is the major regulator of social life. With the emergence of democracy, and the concept of welfare state, the governmental activities have increased by leaps and bounds. Expanding governmental activities have resulted inn expansion of the bureaucracy, creation of different forms of public and semipublic organizational raising public expenditure, and overall control over public life. The scope of public administration and major concerns of the discipline it include policy sensitization, promoting publiciness, implementation capabilities, shared understanding of social reality and Learning experience. (Raj K., 2005). 2.2 Empirical Literature 2.2.1 Legal Advocacy Scripen Tantivesss and Gill Walt (2008), conducted a study on the role of state and non state actors in the policy process. The researcher aimed at to assess the contribution of policy networks to the scale up of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand. He used population of Thailand employing qualitative approaches, including in depth interviews, document review and direct observation to examine the process by which universal ART policy developed between 2001 and 2007, with the focus on the connections between actors who shared common interests- so called policy networks. Research findings illustrated the crucial contributions of non-state networks in the policy process. The supportive role of public-civic networks could be observed at every policy stage, and at different levels of health sector. The role of non state actors including NGOs contribution was not simply at agenda setting stage for example lobbing government but in the actual development and implementation of health policy. The researcher has seen potential areas and opportunity to do research study on this area extensively by future researchers. 2.2.2 Civic Education

Livingstone Byekwaso (2006) conducted a study on the plight of older people, care and protection in rural Tanzania. The researcher aimed at to examine the actual situation of older people in rural setting regarding care and protection. By using the population of Karagwe, sample size was drawn from the population of Government officials at the district, ward and villages levels, NGO‟s, CBO‟s officials, prominent community members, family members, older people and Religious leaders. A total of 161 respondents were obtained from a targeted sample frame of 180 which is 89% of respondents interviewed, using documentary review, interview, observation and questionnaire, and focused group discussion. The researcher recommendation was need for civic education to community to be responsible for protecting rights of vulnerable groups like older people and children, as well as providing social, economic, cultural and political support to them and he also acknowledged on the role of NGOs including SAWAKA, in protecting the rights and entitlements of older people and vulnerable groups in Karagwe. The current researcher needs to observe and confirm on the matter above in the current present era, here much has been changing across Tanzania region. Moreover, Wolfram Schulz (2008) did a study on questionnaire construct validation in the International Civic and Citizenship Education to measure context and outcomes of civic and citizenship education and it was explicitly linked through common questions to the IEA Civic Education Study (CIVED) which was undertaken in 1999 and 2000 Torney-Purta, L., (2004). The study surveyed 13-to-14-year old students in 38 countries in the years 2008 and 2009 and report on student achievement and perceptions related to civic and citizenship education. Outcome data was to be obtained from representative samples of students in their eighth year of schooling and context data from the students, their schools and teachers as well as through national centres. The study builds on the previous IEA study of civic education (CIVED) undertaken in 1999. It was recognized that there was substantial diversity in the field of civic and citizenship education within and across countries. Consequently, maximizing the involvement of researchers from participating countries in this international comparative study was of particular importance for the success of this study in the process of developing an assessment framework and instruments. Input from national research centers has been sought throughout the study and strategies have been developed to maximize country contributions from early piloting activities

until the selection of final main survey instruments in June 2009. And the researcher also suggested on further studies on significant impact of civic education on policy implementation. 2.2.3 Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Kara Greenblot (2008) on behalf of the Working Group on Social Protection for the IATT on children and HIV and AIDS. The general objective of the paper was to find the essential support services and policies that required attention for the monitoring and evaluation of the child development policies. Target was a population of Africa, Asia and Latin America and using purposive sampling techniques. Data collection was done with the help of SPSS, and then he found that NGO‟s played important roles through participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) towards the implementation of child development policy. Then he concluded by saying that all public administration in public policy implementation have the necessity of NGO‟s innervations. And he further, emphases on more research to be conducted in that area, though the paper taken a different approach by looking on understanding the risk factors and vulnerabilities affecting children, need for social protection, need to move towards a more integrated vision, essential support service and policies required attention, guiding principles for promoting social protection for vulnerable children and finally current opportunities and issues to address which include institutional capacity and good governance. 2.2.4 Trainings and Technical Assistance Nae G., Grigore C., Grigore G (2008), conducted a study aim at to approach the role of the private actors in general and NGOs in particular in international public policy making and when and how these actors should be given access to the process of policy making. Therefore, where in the first part of the paper briefly set to the context of international public policy and the actors performing in global governance. In the second part, the researcher focused on the role that NGOs and business groups play in policy making. In the third section presented some guidelines that we were considered important related to the access that should be given to these actors and in the last section researcher drew some concluding remarks on NGO‟s Engagement in International Public Policy Making. In giving findings and recommendations, the researcher recommended on civil society associations and NGOs do make important contributions to greater

democratic accountability in global governance. Already these activities have reached a notable scale, and considerable opportunities exist to broaden them further on how trainings and other NGOs activities contributes to the achievement of policy implementation. 2.3 Theoretical Framework 2.3.1 Child Development In Tanzanian policies perspective, it is held that, success of the policy will depend on the participation of every individual, family, community, institution, department, ministry, religious denomination and other people organization‟s (Public Perception on Civil Society in Tanzania, 2014). Child development is all about change in the child that occurs over time. Changes follow an orderly pattern that moves toward greater complexity and enhances survival. Child periods of development can be categorized into five (5) that is prenatal period which occurs from conception to birth, infancy and toddlerhood which occurs at birth to 2 years, early childhood 2-6 years old, middle childhood: 6-12 years old and finally adolescence period which occurs at 12-19 years old. Domain of development is described in three domains, but growth in one domain influences the other domains where every domain has its own characteristics. Physical domain its where body size, body proportions, appearance, brain development, motor development, perception capacities, physical health. The we have cognitive Domain characterized with thought processes and intellectual abilities including attention, memory, problem solving, imagination, creativity, academic and everyday knowledge, met cognition, and language and lastly is social or emotional domain with self-knowledge (self-esteem, met cognition, sexual identity, ethnic identity), moral reasoning, understanding and expression of emotions, self-regulation, temperament, understanding others, interpersonal skills, and friendships. “The implementation of the Tanzanian Child Development Policy will help to reduce and even eliminate problems facing children.” (Mkombozi Publication, 2007). Child Development Policy was developed in 1996 by the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children to safeguard the rights of the child and encourage education of all other sectors of society in their responsibilities. It recognizes child protection as a vital element to create “intellectually, spiritually and morally” sound future citizens. This paper aim paper aims to discuss and clarify:

factors affecting the provision of child rights; measures to promote the rights of the child; definition of child survival and measures to promote this; important issues concerning child development and measures to promote this. In all sections, the responsibilities of government, ministries, community, guardians, institutions, parents and the child are discussed. (Mkombozi Publication, 2007) 2.3.2 Public Policy Cycle One of the underlying concepts in the majority of the analytical models is the existence of phases, or stages, within the policy process. The rational models presented a lineal process which began with the identification of a problem and finished with its solution. In contrast, current perspectives refer to a more dynamic process which has neither a beginning nor an end, but instead functions as a perpetual cycle of phases of interactions between the participants and the determinative elements. (Scholte J., 2014) A classic example of these cycles is that offered by Casey John. According to Jones, the process consists of the following phases: a) definition of the problem and its inclusion in the public agenda; b) formulation of the alternatives for action and the decision-making about them; c) legitimation of these decisions; d) budgeting; e) implementation of the alternative(s) chosen; and, f) evaluation of the outcomes. This final evaluation usually results in the reformulation of some aspects of the other phases which results in the creation of new cycles of needs identification and responses. (Casey J., 2004). Casey Jones's approach is both a description of the process and a context for the application of analytical techniques. At the same time, Jones and other researchers who use such cyclical perspectives recognize their limitations. In particular, there is a danger of an overly literal application of the analysis of the relationship between the phases of the cycle. The complexity of the dynamics involved in the public policy process determines that it is unlikely that one phase neatly follows another or that one finishes before another begins. The linear sequencing of the phases is illusory and the reality of the policy process involves simultaneous activity in the differing phases. The differentiation between phases, however, continues to be a valid analytical tool, serving to highlight the distinct dynamics and differing roles of participants as the policy

process evolves. Casey Jones offers a "macro-cycle" that involves the complete process of public action. At the same time other cyclical perspectives, or "micro-cycles", exist that try to explain more restricted processes and dynamics. Downs, in his research on environmental policies, posits the existence of an "issue attention cycle" which comprises five phases: a) an issue is known only to a small group of specialists and professionals; b) this issue comes to the public's attention, usually as the result of a dramatic event, and a climate of confidence is created with respect to the possibility of a solution; c) a sense of frustration begins to emerge with the realization that the solution requires a significant cost to society; d) the level of interest begins to decline as other issues begin to have more priority for the public interest; and, e) the original issue is returned to the hands of the professionals, but with a new framework created by the changes resulting from the period of interest. Downs recognizes that this model cannot be applied to all policies, but he claims that the reality imposed by the issue attention cycle determines the manner in which the public policy participants will act, given that significant changes tend to occur only during high- interest phases. (Casey J., 2004). The existence of these different phases is tacit in the framework of this thesis. The focus is on the development of policies, the first stages of the cycle that involve the dynamics of problem identification, and decision making over action alternatives. Not all societal needs become "problems" which entail public intervention, and not all identified problems become issues which receive government response. Private needs become public issues when a concerned sector is able to communicate and articulate the problems in a manner that demands public action. These needs can be communicated by the affected parties or by others who define needs on behalf of people who have not defined them for themselves and they must pass the barrier between demand formulation or issue recognition and reach the political agenda. This process of agenda setting, or "filtering", in the first stages of the cycle and the following phases of decision- making and the design of intervention are the principal arenas of conflict between the preferences of various actors. If NGOs seek to take part in the policy process, they must be able to intervene effectively in these phases. (Casey John, 2004).

At the same time, if we accept the cyclical nature of the process we must consider how the implication of actors in any one phase may influence their participation in another. For example, the increasing participation of NGOs in the implementation phase, through service delivery contracts, may legitimate their intention to participate in the reformulation of the policies in question. 2.3.3 Actors in Policy Process In the private sector, policy-makers are CEOs, Boards of Directors and other top-ranking corporate officials. Policy-makers usually are influenced by special interest groups (i.e., entities that do not have the power to make or enforce policy themselves, but who influence development of a particular policy for their own interests or for the interests of third parties). Special interest groups include lobbyists, political groups, individuals, corporations, donors, NGOs and many others (Najam 2000). A second group important in setting policy consists of technical advisors or policy analysts; they advise and inform policy-makers on alternative options, and likely on the effects of those alternatives. In democratic societies, a third group that influences decisions is the general public, who elect policy-makers. 2.3.3.1 Government Actors in Policy Process The participation of government actors is beyond discussion, except perhaps by the neomarxists who see them as little more than the puppet of certain interests and the ultimate artifice of false consciousness. In the guise of the legislative and administrative functions of government, institutional actors are seen as the decision-makers that filter and arbitrate interest pressures and legitimate the outcome of policy negotiations. But are they merely the sum of the parts -- in the pluralist sense that the decision are the outcome of the final balance of power between the diverse social agents or is there a convergence of interests between elites and government, or perhaps some form of political and technical gestalt, which makes government an independent actor with its own interests? More statist theorists tend to attribute to the state apparatus an independent interest at the service

of a general ideological orientation, as well as the interests derived from a group of specialists versed in the technical-professional aspects of the question at hand. These writers maintain that government has its own interests and the mechanisms for translating their interests into policy. G.K. Wilson (2000) maintains that we should look not only at the way interest groups attempt to influence states, but also the ways in which states influence interest groups and the way in which they exercise the power over access and influence of extra-governmental actors. Other writers claim that extra-governmental interests may cancel each other out and leave the way clear for government professionals to push their own interests. (G. K Wilson, 2000) Whatever the degree of independence of action, there is little question that extra-governmental actors direct their influence efforts at government. Casey John, quoting Tilly (1996: 5), indicates that at least since the rising "parliamentarization" of protest in the late 18th Century, states have been the central fulcrums of collective actions, even when claim-makers make demands against other social actors. Samuel U.,(2005) observe, lobbying is aimed at impressing public officials with the depth and intensity of a constituency's feelings. It is designed to convince politicians and bureaucracy that great risks are courted by daring to thwart the organization's interests. In a democratic system, the government institutions include: legislators, parliamentary political parties, the judiciary, and government agencies which administer the negotiation process and the implementation of public actions as well as the relations with social agents. These actors use the resources conferred on them by the political system to meet their objectives, both those consistent with implementing policies according to their ideological stances and the functional objective of perpetuating their own power. There is a tendency to consider these actors in a monolithic vision of government as a single actor captive to party discipline and the power of the ballot box. Once the citizens have given over the policies to the negotiation of political elites and once legitimated by the legislative process of parliamentary debates between government and opposition, the administration should act as a disciplined actor. The existence of different levels of administration national, state and local often governed by different parties and with overlapping or complementary responsibilities, ensures that ideological debates that have been resolved in one legislature are

reproduced in other arenas, and faction fighting within governing parties can ensure on-going debate even in governments with substantial majorities. 2.3.3.2 NGO’s as Actors in Policy Process Extra-governmental actors are the entities and individuals not directly connected with the state and who function with independence in respect to government agencies. The creation of government corporations, quasi-non-governmental organizations (QUANGOs), and private enterprises with a majority of government capital makes it increasingly difficult to define the legal and political frontiers. There is constant movement of people between the two worlds: many individuals traffic in and out of government, alternating periods as public sector employees with those as consultants, professional lobbyists or just "names about town". Strong corporatist relationships can confer privileged, quasi-governmental status of legitimation, credibility and participation The organizations that enjoy this status vary according to the society and the policy areas in which they work, but typically include unions, employer organizations, the church in religious societies and non-government associations particularly important in their areas of influence. The relations created by contracting and consultation as well as the vertical integration between political parties and other organizations prejudice the possibility of independent action of even the most clearly legally separate organizations. Non-government, non-profit organizations that articulate a wide range of interests, but primarily those related to public goods. They can be part of social movements or other interest groups, formed specifically to intervene in the policy process; but, at the same time, all NGOs can potentially participate in lobby activities even though they have not been constituted directly for this purpose. The decision to restrict their activities specifically to service delivery or, on the contrary, to play a more political role depends on the internal tendencies of the organization. In some countries there are attempts to limit the lobby activities of NGOs (G.K Wilson, 2000), and this work is treated in the same way as that of professional lobby groups; but in general NGOs are free to participate in this type of activity. 2.4 Conceptual Framework

2.4 Conceptual Framework Figure 2.1. Conceptual Framework Source: Researcher (2014) NGOs play major roles like legal framework, strengthening governance systems through legal advocacy and lobbying; interventions that support establishment of more significance on the children‟s development and protection policy implementation through different ways for instance writing of reports that are used as fact sheets and evidences. Technical monitoring and evaluation is another role for NGOs towards the child development and protection policy implementation. This involves activities like; being watchdogs and observers by through feedback on what the child protection policy implementation is really like at the ground. NGOs also conduct on job training and development to impart skills to the stakeholders of child protection policy implementation to ensure effectiveness during this policy implementation. Effectiveness is also derived from the NGOs role of being Civic educators to impart knowledge that increases the awareness and stakeholder understanding on the importance of child protection policy implementation. Thus, the current study has adopted the “Role of NGOs as Independent Variable” and the “Child Protection policy Imple

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