Published on February 21, 2008
Telework,Telepresence for Work:Audio / Video / Data (channels and media) Considerations: Telework, Telepresence for Work: Audio / Video / Data (channels and media) Considerations Gordon Bell Microsoft Research Telepresence: A Market? Audio/Video/Data-communication: Telepresence: A Market? Audio/Video/Data-communication “being there, then” without having to, or “being there” while being here, there, or elsewhere if we had “Telepresence” would we be here? or need to be? the telepresence channels, information, and apps: Computer: remote window control, text, graphics, images, animation, 3D, and 4D (VR) Speech: encoded, evolving to hi quality audio Video: TV with evolving resolution Tools: desktop presentations like... SGI “In Person” videophone, shared whiteboards, shared apps e.g. image & movie viewers ... The Space of Telepresencefor work: email Formal presentations of all types ... Video mail/video fax Video lectures & courses Internet phone & phone conf. RealAudio & simple graphics Workspace for remote program control Whiteboard (groups) ... Videophone Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) person-computer 1:1 personal communication 2 site-site conferencing; n site conferencing 1:p broadcasts computer management distributed groups with >2, 10, <100, view (troll) hallways with “informal” interaction 1: 1 videophone calls for (problem solving, authoring) interviews classes formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..) Mechanisms (how) Synchronous Asynchronous Group Interaction (Who) Type of Work (What) The Space of Telepresence for work Telepresence Mechanisms (for Work): Asynchronous voice mail…stt email and tts file transport, SW & doc. dist. bulletin boards Schedule & “Notes” Formal presentations of all types Video mail/video fax Video lectures & courses Synchronous Internet phone & phone conferencing RealAudio & Overhead graphics Workspace for remote program control Shared Whiteboards CU SeeMe on POTS… IP Videophone Mbone Video conferencing Room Video conferencing Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) Telepresence Mechanisms (for Work) Colliding Worlds of tv, telephony and datacom a.k.a. computing & Internet/Intranet: Broad- cast Cable PBX VCR CDs >97 all Telcos Long Dist. Intranet LECs DBS LANs Pvt. WANs The Internet Cable phone Cable Internet LAN PBX clients/ servers Internet Phone Games Wire- less Wire- less Television world Telephony world Datacom and Computing world Inter- active RADIO Colliding Worlds of tv, telephony and datacom a.k.a. computing & Internet/Intranet Data-rate (MB/hr; Mbits/sec) and media for various TP channels: Data-rate (MB/hr; Mbits/sec) and media for various TP channels Format MB/hr Bits/sec Media Overheads (1 MB) 1. -- 1 floppy Text (script@120wpm) .06 -- 1 floppy Voice (coded) 3.6 .008 4 floppies Talking head 14.- 60 .028-.128 Zip, MiniD. ----- Hi Q. Audio 600 1.4 CD Video (MPEG 2) 1800 4 1997 CDs Distribution Channels: Distribution Channels Channel 1995 Soon 2005 Floppy 1.4MB 100 MB CDs .6 GB 9 GB/side ------------------------------------------------------ Intranets .1 Mb/s 1.5 25? Internet .03-.128 Mb/s Mb/s(burst) 4 Mbps 3rd world access (from homes) Distribution formats for AV now: Distribution formats for AV now Videotape*: “talking head” lectures with overheads... CD: “videotapes”*; evolving to following formats Audiotape*: interviews & overhead supplements Floppy (now): overheads* & transcript; Hard copy** Floppy (& newer floppies): overheads*, script & voice sans video (“radio” voice = 15 min. per floppy) Internet & Intranet: overheads, script & voice/audio Internet & Intranet: overheads, script, audio, animation, and limited video ... in 5 years Above, with unrestricted, interactive video (5-10 years) *allows buyer to access copyrighted material **current products DVD Data Capacity for Movies: DVD Data Capacity for Movies Picture (avg)* 3.5 Mbps Sound .384 x 3 1.2 Mbps Subtitles .01 x 3 .03 Total 4.682 x 60 x 135 / 8 4.74 Gbytes from Warner Bros. The Evolution of CD Specs(It takes more time than we think): The Evolution of CD Specs (It takes more time than we think) Audio 1982 ROM 1984 i 1987 Recordable 1990 Video CD 1994 Recordable plus 1994 Plus spec 1995 Cost (time) for sending 1 hour of video c1995: Cost (time) for sending 1 hour of video c1995 5 Mbits/s * 60s/min * 50 min = 15,000 Mbits (1.875 Gbytes) 15,000 Mbits @ 28.8 Kbits / s = 520,833.3 s = 144.7 hours At 128 Kbits/ sec = 32 hours At 1.5 Mbits/sec = 2.7 hours Time (min.) to transfer some data: Time (min.) to transfer some data LAN & WAN Converge?Useful without adequate POTS?: LAN & WAN Converge? Useful without adequate POTS? 1Kb 1 Mb Video ISDN ADSL, etc. ATM @?? Internet 3.0: symmetry & bandwidth: Internet 3.0: symmetry & bandwidth backbone @Gbps POTS (retail) .03-.13 Mbps Private nets @1.5-155Mbps plain cats VOD home pages corporate, large organizations couch potatoes CATV third world home pages POPS Third World CATV Infrastructure (3-9 Mbps /channel) work at home ? ATM?? Internet 3.0 goals & vision? : Internet 3.0 goals & vision? dial tone for hi speed, symmetrical links bit warehouses for audio, nice images, 3D (x,y,t), and 4D (3D+z = VR) tele-stuff: remote conferencing, remote work and business universal digital dial tone scalable & symmetrical: 25 Mbps (not 0.014 -0.13) fungible bits aka the IP (dial tone): phone/videophone, datacom, Internet and Intranet access, and 2 & 3d video cost of 2x telephones (telephone & cable) Conclusions: We need Internet 3.0,but it will take many years to get it!: Conclusions: We need Internet 3.0, but it will take many years to get it! Broadcast (terrestrial, satellite, cable): Limited utility/delivery .002x - 4x - 2,000 Mbps Not for much telework or Internet. Cable: Install POPs & rf modems at head-end. Users buy Modems. Limited upstream capacity. Forget symmetry. Telephony: T1 or xDSL (Digital Subscriber Loop) x = asymmetric, symmetric, high speed, etc. or Multiplex up to OC 12 (655 Mbps)... OC 48. Ship on to Internet. Just say no to ISDN!