Auxiliary

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Published on September 23, 2008

Author: cijat

Source: slideshare.net

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How to implement auxiliary verbs in HPSG.

AUXILIARY V ERBS BASIC A NALYSIS OF AUXILIARY V ERBS IN HPSG Maria Cieschinger, Anton Flügge, Hannes Schulz, Claudia Thiessen University of Osnabrück, Department of Cognitive Science Feb 1st , 2005 Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 1 / 19

O UTLINE 1 F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES 2 AUXILIARIES IN HPSG Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 2 / 19

W HY ARE AUXILIARIES I NTERESTING ? Most extensively analyzed, because: In all languages (→ Universal Grammar) Closed word class Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 3 / 19

W HAT ARE AUXILIARIES ? Express notions of H ELPING WORDS Time (will) Be, do, have Necessity (must) M ODALS Possibility (could) Can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would Obligation (should) Permission (may) ... Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 4 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of Kim could have attended. . . following verb Kim could attend. . . Precedence of non-aux verb Kim attends. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) * Kim could have being. . . No iteration of auxiliaries of * Kim could have been attend. . . given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 5 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of Kim could have attended. . . following verb Kim could attend_. . . Precedence of non-aux verb Kim attends. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) * Kim could have being. . . No iteration of auxiliaries of * Kim could have been attend. . . given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 5 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of * Kim attending . . . could have. following verb * Kim could attending . . . been. Precedence of non-aux verb Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) No iteration of auxiliaries of given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 5 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of * Kim have could been. . . following verb * Kim been have could. . . Precedence of non-aux verb * Kim could been have. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) No iteration of auxiliaries of given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 5 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of * Kim could would have been. . . following verb * Kim could have had been. . . Precedence of non-aux verb * Kim could have been being. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) No iteration of auxiliaries of given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 5 / 19

C HOMSKY ’ S CFG CFG-RULE E XAMPLE S → NP AUX VP; AUX → (M)(PERF)(PROG) S NP AUX VP Kim M PERF PROG attending the reception could have been Problem: No account for determination of form of following verb and not compatible with HPSG structures. Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 6 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of Kim could have attended. . . following verb Kim could attend. . . Precedence of non-aux verb Kim attends. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) * Kim could have being. . . No iteration of auxiliaries of * Kim could have been attend. . . given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 7 / 19

O PTIONALITY verb-lxm   srv-lxm srv-lxm        ARG-ST SPR 1   1,     COMPS ic-srv-lxm auxv-lxm   auxv-lxm     SYN HEAD AUX + But what about the following verbs form? * Kim could have attending Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 8 / 19

O PTIONALITY verb-lxm   srv-lxm srv-lxm        ARG-ST SPR 1   1,     COMPS ic-srv-lxm auxv-lxm   auxv-lxm     SYN HEAD AUX + But what about the following verbs form? * Kim could have attending Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 8 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of Kim could have attended. . . following verb Kim could attend_. . . Precedence of non-aux verb Kim attends. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) * Kim could have being. . . No iteration of auxiliaries of * Kim could have been attend. . . given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 9 / 19

D ETERMINATION OF F ORM OF F OLLOWING V ERB Specification of complement VP in the lexical entry: 2 3 auxv-lxm auxv-lxm 2 3 6SYN [HEAD [FORM fin]] 7 6 2 2 3 3 7 6 6 7 6 6 verb 7 7 2 2 3 7 33 7 6HEAD 6AUX + 7 6 2 6 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 * 6 verb 7 7 7 6 6SYN 6 4 5 7 7 7 7 6 7+ 6SYN 6HEAD 6INF - AGR 0 6 77 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 6ARG-ST X, 6 6 4 4 57 7 5 7 6 4 5 7 FORM base 7 7 * 6 7 + 6 7 VAL [SPR <[AGR 0 ]>] 6 6 6 7 6 4 5 7 can, 6 7 6 7 6 SEM [INDEX s2 ] 7 * 6 6 2 2 3 7 3 7 + HEAD [PRED +] 6 7 be, 6 6 7 6 7 INDEX s1 6 2 3 7 * 6 quot; 7 7 # + 6 7 6 6SYN 6 7 7 SPR <3> 7 7 6 6 7 3, 6 6 2 3 7 7 6ARG-ST 6 4VAL 7 5 7 6 * RELN can + 7 6 7 7 COMPS <> 6 7 6 6SEM 6 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 4SIT s1 5 5 6 6RESTR 6 7 7 7 6 4 5 7 SEM [INDEX s] 4 4 5 6 7 ARG s2 6 7 6 7 6 2 3 7 2 3 6 6 MODE prop 7 7 auxv-lxm 4SEM 6 6 4INDEX s 7 5 7 5 RESTR <> 6 2 2 quot; #3 7 3 6 7 6SYN 4HEAD verb 6 * +7 6 7 5 7 6ARG-ST 6 X, 6 6 FORM psp 7 7 7 7 E XAMPLE * 6 4 5 7+ 6 7 6 SEM [INDEX s2 ] 7 have, 6 6 7 7 INDEX s1 Kim could have been attending the 6 2 3 7 6 7 6 6 2 3 7 7 * RELN have + reception. 6 6 7 7 6SEM 6 6 7 7 7 4SIT s1 5 5 6 6RESTR 6 7 7 7 4 4 5 ARG s2 Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 10 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of * Kim attending . . . could have. following verb * Kim could attending . . . been. Precedence of non-aux verb Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) No iteration of auxiliaries of given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 11 / 19

P RECEDENCE OF N ON -AUX V ERB Why do auxiliary verbs always precede the non-auxiliary verb? Verbs do not take AUX as complements AUX are no modifiers AUX do take verbs as complements Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 12 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of * Kim have could been. . . following verb * Kim been have could. . . Precedence of non-aux verb * Kim could been have. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) No iteration of auxiliaries of given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 13 / 19

P OSSIBILITY OF C OOCURRENCE IN F IXED O RDER E XAMPLE SENTENCE Kim could have been attending the reception. 2 3 auxv-lxm 6SYN [HEAD [FORM fin]] 6 7 7 6 2 2 33 7 6 2 3 7 6 6 verb 7 6 * 6 6 6SYN 6HEAD 6INF 77+7 777 7 6 4 - 557 7 6ARG-ST X,6 6 4 7 7 * 6 6 6 FORM base 7 7+ 4 5 7 can, 6 6 7 6 SEM [INDEX s2 ] 7 7 6 2 3 7 6 7 6 6 INDEX s1 7 7 6 6 2 7 3 7 7 6 6 * RELN can +7 7 6SEM 6 6 7 7 6 6 6RESTR 4SIT 6 s1 5 7 7 7 7 4 4 5 5 ARG s2 Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 14 / 19

P OSSIBILITY OF C OOCURRENCE IN F IXED O RDER E XAMPLE SENTENCE Kim could have been attending the reception. 2 3 auxv-lxm 6 2 7 6 2 quot; #33 7 6SYN 4HEAD verb 6 * +7 6 57 7 6 7 6ARG-ST X,6 6 FORM psp 7 7 7 7 6 4 5 7+ * 6 6 SEM [INDEX s2 ] 7 have, 6 6 7 2 3 7 INDEX s1 6 7 6 7 6 6 7 7 6 2 3 7 7 6 6 * RELN have +7 7 6SEM 6 6 7 7 6 6 6RESTR 4SIT 6 s1 5 7 7 7 7 4 5 ARG s2 4 5 Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 14 / 19

P OSSIBILITY OF C OOCURRENCE IN F IXED O RDER E XAMPLE SENTENCE Kim could have been attending the reception. 2 3 auxv-lxm 6 2 2 3 3 7 6 6 verb 7 7 6 7 6HEAD 4AUX + 5 6 6 7 7 6 7 7 6SYN 6 7 7 6 6 6 4 AGR 0 7 5 7 7 6 7 6 6 VAL [SPR <[AGR 0 ]>] 7 7 * 6 2 2 3 7+ 3 7 6 6 HEAD [PRED +] 7 be, 6 * 6 6 quot; #77+7 6 6 6SYN 6 SPR < 3 > 77 7 7 6ARG-ST 3, 6 4VAL 57 7 COMPS <> 6 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 4 5 7 6 6 SEM [INDEX s] 7 7 6 2 3 7 6 7 6 6 MODE prop 7 7 6SEM 4INDEX s 5 6 7 7 4 5 RESTR <> Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 14 / 19

P OSSIBILITY OF C OOCURRENCE IN F IXED O RDER E XAMPLE SENTENCE Kim could have been attending the reception. Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 14 / 19

F EATURES OF AUXILIARIES E XAMPLE : AUXILIARIES Kim could have been attending the reception. Optionality M ORE E XAMPLES Determination of form of * Kim could would have been. . . following verb * Kim could have had been. . . Precedence of non-aux verb * Kim could have been being. . . Possibility of coocurrence (fixed order) No iteration of auxiliaries of given type Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 15 / 19

N O I TERATION E XAMPLE S[fin] Kim VP[fin] Iteration is not possible: form of following verb VP[base] quot; # given FORM fin AUX + following form always different from current VP[psp] quot; # FORM base could AUX + one VP[prp] quot; # FORM psp have AUX + attending the office been Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 16 / 19

S UMMARY Features of auxiliaries can be represented in HPSG. Cieschinger, Flügge, Schulz, Thiessen (UOS) Auxiliary Verbs Seminar Syntax, Group 8 17 / 19

N O I TERATION E XAMPLE S[fin] Kim VP[fin] VP[base] quot; # FORM fin AUX + VP[psp] quot; # FORM base could AUX +

N O I TERATION VP[base] quot; # FORM fin AUX + VP[psp] quot; # FORM base could AUX + VP[prp] quot; # FORM psp have AUX + attending the office been

D ETERMINATION OF F ORM OF F OLLOWING V ERB Specification of complement VP in the lex 2 auxv-lxm au 2 3 6SYN [HEAD [FORM fin]] 7 6 6 6 7 6 6 2 2 3 7 3 7 6 6 2 3 6 6 verb 7 6 6SY * 6 6SYN 6HEAD 6INF 77 7 7+ - 6 6 77 7 6 4 57 7 6 6ARG-ST X, 6 6 4 5 7 6 FORM base 7 7 * 6 7 + 6 6 6 6 6 4 5 7 can, 6 7 6 6 6 SEM [INDEX s2 ] 7 7 * 6 6 be, 6 6 7 6 INDEX s1 6 2 3 7 6 7 6 6 7 6 6 6 2 * RELN can + 3 7 7 6AR 6 7 6 6SEM 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 4SIT s1 5 5 6 6RESTR 6 7 7 6 4 4 5 6 ARG s2 6 6 6 6 2 3 6 auxv-lxm 6SE 4 6 2 2 quot; 3 #3 7 6 7 6SYN 4HEAD verb 6 * +7 6 57 7

6 6 7 7 6 6 4 5 7 D ETERMINATION OF F ORM OF F OLLOWING V ERB 6 7 6 6 7 * 6 6 7 6 be, 6 6 7 6 INDEX s1 6 2 3 7 6 7 6 6 7 6 6 6 2 * RELN can + 3 7 7 6AR 6 7 6 6SEM 6 6 7 7 6 7 6RESTR SIT s1 5 7 6 6 7 7 6 4 4 4 5 5 6 ARG s2 6 6 6 6 2 3 6 auxv-lxm 6SE 4 6 2 2 quot; #3 7 3 6 7 6SYN 4HEAD verb 6 * +7 6 7 5 7 6ARG-ST 6 X, 6 6 FORM psp 7 77 7 E 6 4 5 7 * 6 6 SEM [INDEX s2 ] 7 7 + XAM have, 6 6 7 7 INDEX s1 Kim c 6 2 3 7 6 7 6 6 2 3 7 7 * RELN have + recep 6 6 7 7 6SEM 6 6 7 7 7 4SIT s1 5 7 6 6RESTR 6 7 7 4 4 5 5 ARG s2

D ETERMINATION OF F ORM OF F OLLOWING V ERB 2 3 auxv-lxm 3 7 6 2 2 3 3 7 7 6 6 verb 7 7 3 7 3 6HEAD 6AUX + 7 3 7 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 7 7+ 6SYN 6 4 5 7 7 AGR 0 77 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 57 5 7 6 6 7 7 7 + 6 4 5 7 6 7 VAL [SPR <[AGR 0 ]>] 7 7 6 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 * 6 2 2 3 7 3 7+ 6 HEAD [PRED +] 7 be, 6 7 6 7 7 * 6 quot; #7 7 7+ 7 6 6SYN 6 7 7 7 7 6 6ARG-ST 3, 6 6 4VAL SPR <3> 7 7 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 COMPS <> 7 7 7 6 4 5 7 SEM [INDEX s] 5 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 2 3 7 3 6 6 MODE prop 7 7 6SEM 4INDEX s 6 7 7 4 5 5 3 7 RESTR <> 3 7 +7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7

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