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Autonomous Presentation

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Information about Autonomous Presentation
Education

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: cooper

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Slide2:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club What is a ROBOT??? Slide3:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club What is a ROBOT??? A robot is system that Perceives Decides Acts Slide4:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club What is ROBOTICS ??? Slide5:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club What is ROBOTICS ??? Robotics is the science of studying and creating robots. A person working in the field is a ROBOTICIST. Slide6:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Manual Robotics Semi-Autonomous Robotics Autonomous Robotics Slide7:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club PROBLEM STATEMENT The Houdini Act (The Autonomous Robotics Competition) Problem Statement: To design an autonomous robot that would move in a specified rectangular arena avoiding collision with the walls of the arena and also with other robots. Rules: The event will be organized in three stages. Slide8:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club PROBLEM STATEMENT Stage 1 The event will be played by two to five robots simultaneously. They will be placed in the rectangular arena at specific locations which will be decided at the time of the event by the organizers. A time limit of 5 minutes will be given to the robots and they will have to move within this stipulated time avoiding collisions with either the walls or other robots. A grace time of around 30 seconds will be given to the teams to set their robots on the arena before the start of their round. In case of a collision, points will be deducted. If the robot collides with another robot, 10 points will be deducted from both the robots irrespective of which robot is the cause of the collision. If the robot collides with a wall, 15 points will be deducted. If two or more robots collide and get stuck in the arena and are unable to move, then they will be removed and placed in a specific location in the arena. If a robot stops in the middle of the round, that particular robot will be removed from the arena. However, if the robot again works before the finish of the given 5 minutes, it can enter the arena again but no extra time will be given. Time will be given weight age i.e. for how long the robot has been in the arena out of those 5 minutes. The robot will be awarded 1 point for every 3 seconds the robot spends in the arena. There will be a 10cm X 10cm square at the centre of the arena. If a robot touches the central 10cm X 10cm square, 40 points will be awarded. Between any two arrivals of the robot to the central 10cm X 10cm square, the robot must go to any of the corners of the arena to be awarded 40 points again. The following formula will be used to gain points. 10* (number of times the robot reaches the corners of the arena) + 40* (minimum number of times the robot has visited all the corners) + 1*(Time spent in the arena in seconds) / 3 + 40*(Number of times robot touches the central 10cm X 10cm square) Mathematically, if A, B, C, D are the number of times the robot has visited each of the four corners and if X is the least among A, B, C, D , then the number of points scored by the robot will be 10* (A+B+C+D) + 40* (X) + 1*(Time spent in the arena in seconds) / 3 + 40*(Number of times robot touches the central 10cm X 10cm square) If the robot visits a particular corner consecutively, then that will not be counted. Slide9:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club PROBLEM STATEMENT Stage 2 The rules of stage 2 will be same as stage 1 except that there will also be obstacles placed in the arena at arbitrary places and the robots are supposed to move without colliding with the obstacles also. 10 points will be deducted for the collision with each obstacle. Stage 3 The rules of stage 3 are same as that of stage 2 but there will be more obstacles placed in the arena. The sizes, shapes and the positions of the obstacles will be given on the spot. Note: The length and width of the arena can be reduced or increased as we go ahead in the stages. Teams may cover their robots with white paper or chart so that the other robots can detect their robot very well and hence avoid collision. Organizers decision will be final. No arguments will be entertained. Slide10:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Slide11:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Slide12:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club The Components of Robot:  The Components of Robot copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club ROBOT Power Management Motor/Locomotion system Sensors Control System Slide14:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Control System 5VRegulator 5V to 12V Regulator IC to amplify the Microcontroller output Sensor Sensor DC Voltage Source Stepper Motors Slide15:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Sensing? The perception that something has occurred or some state exists. To make a detectable signal (generally electric) from any physical quantity. Slide16:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Why do you need sense organs?? Why do robots need sensors? Slide17:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Similarly The Robots Need to know about Internal information Localization Obstacles Tracking Why do robots need sensors? Slide18:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Different types of Sensors Touch Sensors Infrared(IR) Sensors Light Sensors Ultrasonic Sensor Capacitive Sensor Slide19:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Different types of Sensors Thermal Sensor Rotation Sensor Video Camera Light Sensor Laser Sensor Inductive Sensor Slide20:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Touch Sensors Simplest sensor. Uses a crude method of sensing. Slide21:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Infrared Sensors Infrared (IR) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared The Visible Spectrum Ultra Violet Gamma Rays x-Rays The name means “below red”, red being the color of visible light of longest wavelength. Wave length range- 750 nm and 1 mm. Slide22:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Infrared Temperature Sensors Every object (with the exception of a blackbody) emits an optimum amount of IR energy at a specific point along the IR band. Slide23:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Infrared Sensors Transmitter Transmitter Slide24:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Infrared Sensors Receiver Receiver Slide25:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Infrared Sensors Infrared sensors able to detect closer obstacles and detect large obstacles at greater angles. Slide26:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Light Sensors Measures the amount of light that it sees. It outputs a number between 0 (total darkness) and 100 (very bright). The light sensor uses its own light source, a red Light Emitting Diode (LED), to illuminate a small area in front of its receiver. When the light sensor is over the white paper, it reads a value of 50. When it is over the black paper, it reads a value of 13. Slide27:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Light Sensors This consist of a photodiode which allows current through it exponentially proportional to light absorbed by it exactly like a valve. Slide28:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Sensors Light Sensors LDR’s are light dependent resistance Two types of LDR circuits - Slide30:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Integrated Circuits It is also known as IC, microcircuit, microchip, silicon chip, or chip. An integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. They may contain a few hundreds of electronic components to a few millions. Made up of Capacitors, Inductors, Transistors, Resistors, etc. Slide32:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Integrated Circuits Integrated circuits are used for a variety of devices, including microprocessors, audio and video equipment, and automobiles. Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components they contain: SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip Slide33:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Integrated Circuits Why do we need ICs? Slide34:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Data Sheets Millions of different ICs. Each IC has a specific function. Data sheet contains the specifications of each IC For example: - Pin diagram of the IC showing the various input and output pins and the power supply pins - Range of power supply - Current limitations - Operating Temperature ranges. - Graphs describing the various characteristics. Slide35:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Microcontroller Microcontrollers are "special purpose computers". A microcontroller (or MCU) is a computer-on-a chip. Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. Any device that measures, stores, controls, calculates, or displays information is a candidate for putting a microcontroller inside. The microcontroller includes a CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers like a standard computer. Slide36:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Microcontroller A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system. They are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system, they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip. The program is stored in ROM (read-only memory) and generally does not change. Slide37:  Microcontroller Slide38:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Microprocessor Similar to a Microcontroller. Has only a CPU, no memory storage device or I/O ports, etc. The CPU executes instructions that perform the basic logic, math, and data-moving functions of a computer. External memory storage device is required. Slide39:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor, which is a general-purpose chip . That is used to create a multi-function computer or device and requires multiple chips to handle various tasks. A microcontroller is meant to be more self-contained and independent, and functions as a tiny, dedicated computer. Slide40:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Microcontroller Microcontrollers have become common in many areas, and can be found in home appliances, computer equipment, and instrumentation. They are often used in automobiles, and have many industrial uses as well, and have become a central part of industrial robotics. Because they are usually used to control a single process and execute simple instructions, microcontrollers do not require significant processing power. Slide41:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Microcontrollers are hidden inside a surprising number of products these days. If your microwave oven has an LED or LCD screen and a keypad, it contains a microcontroller. All modern automobiles contain at least one microcontroller. The engine is controlled by a microcontroller, as are the anti-lock brakes, the cruise control and so on.. Slide42:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Microcontroller REG104FA-5 PT5048C ULN2803AN Sensor Sensor DC Voltage Source Stepper Motors Slide43:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club 1. Develop the hardware and the software at the same time. Don't try to build a robot and then write software for it. These two domains feedback on each other. Develop them both concurrently, they are really just two different pieces of the same problem. You'll save a lot of frustration and headaches if you write the software as you go. 2. Build robust bump sensors and bumper software first. The robot needs to be able to survive on its bumper behavior alone. All other sensors will eventually depend on the bumper to rescue them from failure modes. A robust collision detection method should not allow the robot to run into anything without sensing it. And there is great peace of mind in the knowledge that the robot won't rip itself apart if you are not watching it all the time! Let the robot run around your living/working space and observe the bumper collision recovery failures. Figure out how to resolve them. A quick look at the robots which run in the DPRG contests will reveal that very few have ever had to survive an encounter with the back end of a rocking-chair. Nice flat walls are not the problem. Find the situations in which the robot's response is not appropriate, where it gets stuck, or scrapes off a sensor, or snags a wire, and see if you can develop a software- hardware solution which does not require human intervention! 3. Run the robot a lot. I have a real temptation when I'm working to change a software or hardware feature, put the robot down on the floor for 30 seconds of evaluation, and then pick it back up for more changes. This is a mistake. These are really "chaotic" systems, greatly dependent on initial conditions and unobservable real-world parameters. Let it run a lot, in different conditions and environments, before determining the effectiveness of a certain behavior or modification. Evaluation should take the lion's share of your development time. It's also the most fun! 4. Document, document, document. Write down what you did, comment your control programs, draw diagrams/schematics/etc and keep them up-to-date, label wires and connectors (especially ones that carry the power supply). In two weeks, you won't remember what changes you made to board A that needs to connect to board B that you haven't had time yet to fix. You won't remember which orientation a connector is supposed to attach. You'll be glad you wrote it down. Slide44:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club 5. Use fuses, optical isolators, and/or other forms of protection liberally in your design. A fuse for each power source: battery, DC-DC converter, charger, etc. 6. Be very methodical in your debugging. Check the simplest things first, even twice if you aren't SURE after the first time. Problems always seem to come up at the interfaces -- connectors, sockets, serial protocols, etc. Use a voltmeter to check your connections, even AFTER you physically connect them. 7. Beware of anyone else's pre-canned control code. If you use someone else's stuff, check everything they've done in it against what it should be. No one is perfect, and the code may not do exactly what you assume it will do. 8. Design your drive motor system to carry twice as much weight as you predict your robot will weigh when finished. The margin will disappear quickly with "small", seemingly insignificant additions. 9. Use the techniques and knowledge of others to avoid re-inventing the wheel. E.g.: if you need 68HC11 or 8051 code to control hobby servos, post a request to the club. The same goes for motor control, IR detection, etc. Caveat: beware of pre-canned control code. 10. If you use an oscilloscope, put Ground pins in easy-to-reach places on your circuit boards. 11. I recommend getting an oscilloscope if you don't have one. It will save you time and money in the long run. 12. Give your robot lots of outputs: LEDs, sound, servos, etc. They're great for diagnostic output as well as entertainment. 13. Start with something simple, then add to it. Don't try to build a complex robot without first making sure you can build a simple one that works. Then take baby steps, adding functionality to the simple one. (By the way, "subsumption" is a good control software model to use for this... I believe David took this approach, too. Start with bumper switches, then add infrared, sonar, imaging, etc.) Slide45:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club 14. Unless you have lots of time and money, build your robot modular. If the motor controller is one module, power management another, speech another, etc, it's easier to troubleshoot if you have a standalone module. It also makes it much easier to transfer your technology to your next robot. 15. Don't overlook thrift stores, swap meets, and garage sales as good sources for parts. Many times technology only a few years old will show up at a swap meet for $.05 on the dollar. 16. Develop a system of construction and stick to it. Black wires will always be ground, red wires will always be VCC, white wires will always be motor supply, etc. If you get in the habit of grabbing what ever color wire is handy to build your bot, troubleshooting will be much more difficult. It also makes documentation much easier. 17. Don't be afraid to experiment. That's what fuses are for! 18. Add to your parts bin when the opportunity arises. Unless you live next to the ultimate Robot Parts Store, or plan to special order every gear you need, pick them up when you see them -- taking storage space and spousal tolerances into account, of course! 19. Give your Robot a name. Make it personal. 20. Get datasheets for what you don't understand. Read them, digest them, absorb them. Then go back and read them again until you can explain them to someone else. 21. Share with others what you are doing. Think out loud. Often times in the process of answering questions about your plans, you'll be forced to further define things and polish some of the rough spots. 22. Be proud of what you build. Some people talk, some people build. If you have to pick just one, then build. But doing both is preferred. Slide46:  copyright© IIT Guwahati Robotics Club Robotics http://www.electronicsteacher.com/ http://schoolscience.rice.edu/duker/robots/robotwhatis.html Sensors http://www.sensorland.com/HowPage022.html http://www.answers.com/Infrared%20Sensors http://www.barello.net/ARC/projects/LEGO/ http://www.sensorland.com/HowPage022.html Light Sensors http://www-education.rec.ri.cmu.edu/roboticscurriculum/lightsensor.htm http://www-education.rec.ri.cmu.edu/multimedia/rcx.shtml http://www-education.rec.ri.cmu.edu/multimedia/rotationsensore.shtml http://www.doctronics.co.uk/ldr_sensors.html

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