Published on February 20, 2014
Introduction • Immunity – It is the ability of the body to defend itself against specific invading agents such as bacteria, toxins, viruses etc.
Introduction • COMPONENTS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM • B - Lymphocytes • T – Lymphocytes • CD4+ cells ( T helper cells) • CD8+ cells (Cytotoxic T cells) • Memory T cells • • • • • The NKCs Macrophages Dendritic cells The MHC antigens (HLA) Cytokines
Introduction • Innate immune response : • First line of defense • Non – specific • Examples : Physical – skin, mucosa Biochemical – complement, Lysozyme, IFNs Cellular – NKCs, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Macrophages • Adaptive immune response • Specific towards a particular antigen
Tolerance • It refers to a state in which an individual is incapable of developing an immune response against a specific antigen. Self – tolerance refers to the lack of immune responsiveness to one’s own tissue antigens. • Self – tolerance mechanisms • Central tolerance - deletion of self reactive T &B lymphocytes during their maturation in central lymphoid organs • Peripheral tolerance – Back up mechanisms
Autoimmunity • Is the condition when the immune response takes place against the normal endogenous proteins. • The disease resulting from this phenomenon is called as an “AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE”. • Mainly seen in young adults. • Females are at a higher risk of developing an autoimmune response. But the reactions occurring in men are more severe.
Classification of Autoimmune diseases • SYSTEMIC (Not tissue specific) • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) • Sjögren's syndrome • Scleroderma • LOCAL SYNDROMES (Tissue specific) • Endocrinologic : IDDM, Hashimoto’s disease • Gastrointestinal : Crohn’s disease • Dermatologic : Vitiligo • Hematologic : Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic purpura • Neurologic : Myasthenia gravis
Pathogenesis • Failure of Activation-Induced Cell Death • Breakdown of T-Cell Anergy • Molecular Mimicry • Dendritic cell malfunctioning • Cryptic self exposure
Triggers • GENES • INFECTIONS • Viruses : Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis D virus, Coxsackie B virus • Bacteria : Treponema pallidum , Streptococcus pyrogenes • Other: Trypanosoma cruzi, Ochocerca volvulus • DIET • Cow’s milk • Gluten • Chemicals • Mercury, Copper, Iron, Iodine • DRUGS • Hydralazine and Procainamide • Quinidine
Diagnosis • INFLAMMATORY MARKERS • ESR • CRP • Ferretin • AUTOANTIBODIES AND IMMUNOLOGIC STUDIES • • • • ELISA Anti nuclear antibody Anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody Anti phospholipid antibody • FLOW CYTOMETRY • CYTOKINE STUDIES • MHC
Treatment • IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS • Corticosteroids • Prednisone • Prednisolone • Immunophilin ligands • Cyclosporine • Tacrolimus • Sirolimus • Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) • Thalidomide
Treatment • CYTOTOXIC AGENTS • • • • • • Azathioprine Mercaptopurine Cyclophosphamide Leflunomide Methotrexate Vincristine • IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE ANTIBODIES • • • • • Immunoglobulin Intravenous Adalimumab Infliximab Etanercept Alefacept
Treatment • OTHER DRUGS • • • • • Chlorambucil Hydroxychloroquine Gold compounds Interleukin -1 antagonists Sulfasalazine
Calcification Inhibitors in CKD and Dialysis Patients
AUTOIMMUNITY – A REVIEW. Dissertation submitted to ANDHRA UNIVERSITY VISAKHAPATNAM In the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
1. PLoS Genet. 2008 Apr 25;4(4):e1000024. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000024. Defining the role of the MHC in autoimmunity: a review and pooled analysis.
The Journal of Autoimmunity publishes papers ... Glycans in the immune system and The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity: A critical review ...
1. J R Soc Med. 1978 Jun;71(6):433-6. Pituitary autoimmunity: a review. Bottazzo GF, Doniach D. PMCID: PMC1436489 PMID: 359806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
258 Methodical Aspects and Diagnostic Strategies New diagnostics in autoimmunity: a review and our experience . Boris Gilburd. 1, Carlo Perricone
viruses etc.Introduction • Immunity – It is the ability of the body to defend itself against specific invading agents such as bacteria. . toxins.
Autoimmunity Reviews Volume 15 ... The critical role of toll-like receptors — From microbial recognition to autoimmunity: A comprehensive review Review ...
Review Inﬂammasomes and human autoimmunity: A comprehensive review Chin-An Yang a, b, Bor-Luen Chiang c, d, * a Department of Laboratory Medicine, China ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most extensively studied regions in the human genome because of the association of variants at ...
Highlighted Articles. Highlighted article ... The critical role of toll-like receptors — From microbial recognition to autoimmunity: A comprehensive review.