Published on March 20, 2014
PROJECT DATE CLIENT FALL 2011 SOCIOLOGY 100 AUTHORITY & THE STATE CHAPTER 15 Tuesday, November 15, 2011
TYPES OF LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY Politics - power relations among people or other social actors. Authority - the justiﬁable right to exercise power. Charismatic authority - authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader. Traditional authority - authority based on appeals to past tradition. Legal-rational authority - a system of authority based on impersonal rules; the rules rule. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
TYPES OF LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY Characteristics of legal-rational authority Routinization - the clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision-making. Rationalization - an ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing. Role dependent - authority is attached to roles, not individuals. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
Bureaucracy - a legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy. Hierarchical organization Specialized roles Specialization - process of making work consist of speciﬁc, delimited tasks. Impersonal interactions Meritocracy Highly efﬁcient TYPES OF LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY Tuesday, November 15, 2011
OBEDIENCETOAUTHORITY The Miligram Experiment An experiment devised in 1961 by Stanley Miligram, a psychologist at Yale University, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientiﬁc authority ﬁgure 65% of the research subjects went on shocking the “learner” to the highest voltage level, labeled “lethal” Before the experiment, a group of psychologists estimated that only 10% of the subjects would administer a “lethal” dose of electricity. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY THE MILIGRAM EXPERIMENT Tuesday, November 15, 2011
OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY THE MILIGRAM EXPERIMENT Tuesday, November 15, 2011
AUTHORITY,LEGITIMACY,&THESTATE Power - the ability to carry out one’s own will despite resistance. Domination - the probability that a command with a speciﬁc content will be obeyed by a given group of people. State - “a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory” (Max Weber) Coercion - the use of force to get others to do what you want Tuesday, November 15, 2011
the paradox of authority although the state’s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
INTERNATIONALSTATESYSTEM EACH STATE IS RECOGNIZED AS TERRITORIALLY SOVEREIGN BY FELLOW STATES Tuesday, November 15, 2011
AUTHORITY,LEGITIMACY,&THESTATE Welfare State - a system in which the state is responsible for the well-being of its citizens. Theories on the development of welfare states Logic of industrialization Neo-Marxist theories State-centered approaches Tuesday, November 15, 2011
AUTHORITY,LEGITIMACY,&THESTATE Citizenship rights - the rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state. Civil rights - the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s person freedom from interference, including of speech and the right to travel freely. Political rights - the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected ofﬁce. Social rights - the rights guaranteeing a citizens protection by the state. Rights to contributory programs and rights to means-tests programs Tuesday, November 15, 2011
RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Power as three-dimensional (Lukes) Different agendas clash, conﬂict results, and one side prevails. Different agendas exist, but one side is so formidable that resisting it seems pointless. Conﬂict is averted through “inﬂuencing, shaping, or determining” desires, wants, and preferences. Shape the choice set. (Two-party political system) Control the ﬂow of information and construct interdependency. (Coal mining towns) Tuesday, November 15, 2011
RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Hard vs. soft power (Nye) Hard power - physical control, violence, etc. Soft power - power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action. “If a state can make its power seem legitimate in the eyes of others, it will encounter less resistance to its wishes.” Tuesday, November 15, 2011
RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Dictatorship or democracy? Leviathan (1651) - Thomas Hobbes No agreed-up authority leads to chaos and violence; the “war of all against all.” Social contract and submission to sovereign authority that ensures peace by punishing deviance Second Treatise of Government (1690) - John Locke Without sovereign authority, people lived in a conﬂict-free state as equals The state as means of adjudicating discord over personal property. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Democracy - system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people Dictatorship - form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual Game theory - the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence. Collective action problem - the difﬁculty in organizing large groups of people because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Political rule in the United States Three branches of government (checks and balances) Two-party system (Democrats and Republicans) Political party - an organization that seeks to gain power in a government, generally by backing candidates for ofﬁce who subscribe (to the extent possible) to the organization’s political ideals. Interest group - an organization that seeks to gain power in government and inﬂuence policy without direct election or appointment to ofﬁce. Tuesday, November 15, 2011
Political Participation activity that has the intent or effect of inﬂuencing government action. • Voter registration • Actual voting • Volunteering • Financial contributions Tuesday, November 15, 2011
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Civic volunteerism model (Verba, et al.) Political orientation Resources Mobilization efforts American party system (Piven and Cloward, 1988) “Apathy and lack of political skill” “Party strategies and political culture... sustained by legal and procedural barriers to electoral participation” Tuesday, November 15, 2011
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Maybe voter participation hasn’t declined at all. McDonald and Popkin (2001) People don’t vote like the used to not because they are too busy or too lazy to get to the polls on election day, but because they are prohibited from voting. 1972 2000 Prisoners Probationers Parolees 196,429 1,381,892 455,093 1,924,548 616,189 4,019,140 Total 616,189 0.39% 4,019,140 1.43% Tuesday, November 15, 2011
TRUE VOTING RATES VOTING AMONG ALL CITIZENS ELIGIBLE TO VOTE Tuesday, November 15, 2011
POLICY: NVRA National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA) “Motor voter” law; allowed voters to register at: DMV data Public assistance applicants More accessible mail-in registration and voter registration drives Effects Increased voter registration at DMV ofﬁces resulted in 1% increase in total voter registration Other interventions had no effect. Implications If easier registration doesn’t always increase voter registration, what does? Tuesday, November 15, 2011
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