Authority & the State (Chapter 15 "You May Ask Yourself")

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Published on March 20, 2014

Author: EmilyCoffey

Source: slideshare.net

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A review of authority and the state, looking at the impact they have on individual life and society as a whole, particularly in America. Appropriate for 100-level sociology courses. If you like it, feel free to use it!
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"You May Ask Yourself" second edition (2011), D. Conley, W.W. Norton - Chapter 15
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*** This is only my "reworking" of pre-packaged PPT files included textbook published by W.W. Norton. Some materials copyright by W.W.Norton.

PROJECT DATE CLIENT FALL 2011 SOCIOLOGY 100 AUTHORITY & THE STATE CHAPTER 15 Tuesday, November 15, 2011

TYPES OF LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY Politics - power relations among people or other social actors. Authority - the justifiable right to exercise power. Charismatic authority - authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader. Traditional authority - authority based on appeals to past tradition. Legal-rational authority - a system of authority based on impersonal rules; the rules rule. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

TYPES OF LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY Characteristics of legal-rational authority Routinization - the clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision-making. Rationalization - an ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing. Role dependent - authority is attached to roles, not individuals. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Bureaucracy - a legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy. Hierarchical organization Specialized roles Specialization - process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks. Impersonal interactions Meritocracy Highly efficient TYPES OF LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY Tuesday, November 15, 2011

OBEDIENCETOAUTHORITY The Miligram Experiment An experiment devised in 1961 by Stanley Miligram, a psychologist at Yale University, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure 65% of the research subjects went on shocking the “learner” to the highest voltage level, labeled “lethal” Before the experiment, a group of psychologists estimated that only 10% of the subjects would administer a “lethal” dose of electricity. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY THE MILIGRAM EXPERIMENT Tuesday, November 15, 2011

OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY THE MILIGRAM EXPERIMENT Tuesday, November 15, 2011

AUTHORITY,LEGITIMACY,&THESTATE Power - the ability to carry out one’s own will despite resistance. Domination - the probability that a command with a specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people. State - “a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory” (Max Weber) Coercion - the use of force to get others to do what you want Tuesday, November 15, 2011

the paradox of authority although the state’s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

INTERNATIONALSTATESYSTEM EACH STATE IS RECOGNIZED AS TERRITORIALLY SOVEREIGN BY FELLOW STATES Tuesday, November 15, 2011

AUTHORITY,LEGITIMACY,&THESTATE Welfare State - a system in which the state is responsible for the well-being of its citizens. Theories on the development of welfare states Logic of industrialization Neo-Marxist theories State-centered approaches Tuesday, November 15, 2011

AUTHORITY,LEGITIMACY,&THESTATE Citizenship rights - the rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state. Civil rights - the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s person freedom from interference, including of speech and the right to travel freely. Political rights - the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office. Social rights - the rights guaranteeing a citizens protection by the state. Rights to contributory programs and rights to means-tests programs Tuesday, November 15, 2011

RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Power as three-dimensional (Lukes) Different agendas clash, conflict results, and one side prevails. Different agendas exist, but one side is so formidable that resisting it seems pointless. Conflict is averted through “influencing, shaping, or determining” desires, wants, and preferences. Shape the choice set. (Two-party political system) Control the flow of information and construct interdependency. (Coal mining towns) Tuesday, November 15, 2011

RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Hard vs. soft power (Nye) Hard power - physical control, violence, etc. Soft power - power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action. “If a state can make its power seem legitimate in the eyes of others, it will encounter less resistance to its wishes.” Tuesday, November 15, 2011

RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Dictatorship or democracy? Leviathan (1651) - Thomas Hobbes No agreed-up authority leads to chaos and violence; the “war of all against all.” Social contract and submission to sovereign authority that ensures peace by punishing deviance Second Treatise of Government (1690) - John Locke Without sovereign authority, people lived in a conflict-free state as equals The state as means of adjudicating discord over personal property. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Democracy - system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people Dictatorship - form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual Game theory - the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence. Collective action problem - the difficulty in organizing large groups of people because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

RADICAL POWER & PERSUASION Political rule in the United States Three branches of government (checks and balances) Two-party system (Democrats and Republicans) Political party - an organization that seeks to gain power in a government, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe (to the extent possible) to the organization’s political ideals. Interest group - an organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct election or appointment to office. Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Political Participation activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action. • Voter registration • Actual voting • Volunteering • Financial contributions Tuesday, November 15, 2011

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Civic volunteerism model (Verba, et al.) Political orientation Resources Mobilization efforts American party system (Piven and Cloward, 1988) “Apathy and lack of political skill” “Party strategies and political culture... sustained by legal and procedural barriers to electoral participation” Tuesday, November 15, 2011

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Maybe voter participation hasn’t declined at all. McDonald and Popkin (2001) People don’t vote like the used to not because they are too busy or too lazy to get to the polls on election day, but because they are prohibited from voting. 1972 2000 Prisoners Probationers Parolees 196,429 1,381,892 455,093 1,924,548 616,189 4,019,140 Total 616,189 0.39% 4,019,140 1.43% Tuesday, November 15, 2011

TRUE VOTING RATES VOTING AMONG ALL CITIZENS ELIGIBLE TO VOTE Tuesday, November 15, 2011

POLICY: NVRA National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA) “Motor voter” law; allowed voters to register at: DMV data Public assistance applicants More accessible mail-in registration and voter registration drives Effects Increased voter registration at DMV offices resulted in 1% increase in total voter registration Other interventions had no effect. Implications If easier registration doesn’t always increase voter registration, what does? Tuesday, November 15, 2011

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