Augmented Reality

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Information about Augmented Reality

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: MaheshMohan6



Presentation on Augmented Reality done as part of my seminar. Covers comparison of AR, VR, implementation of AR, Problems in its implementation etc.


AUGMENTED REALITY(AR) Attempt to enhance the real world by adding information about the current object or environment by means of super imposing visuals, sounds, smells, haptic.

IN THIS PRESENTATION • • • • • • Virtualization of and Augmenting the Real World Augmented reality - Introduction Implementation AR in Mobile devices challenges or Problems Applications

VIRTUAL REALITY • Replaces the reality entirely with computer generated world

VR - Common practises and Applications • Usually projected on a screen or on a stereoscopic display • Mainly used in entertainment sector such as film, gaming, treatment,etc. • In most cases, just recreates the world. But now incorporates audio of the environment and also haptics to feel the touch/ interaction with the objects.

AR • HISTORY – Ivan Sutherland’s vision of AR User is “inside” the computer – 1965 "Ultimate Display" Real and synthetic objects coexist – 1968 “Head Mounted Display” AR System (MIT, Harvard, Univ. of Utah) Graphics (vector mono) HMD (optical see-through) Tracker (mech. on head)

AR • Now... – Moore's law • more processing power in smaller sizes and advanced graphic generators – Displays • • • • • HMD LCD Laser OLED See through displays etc.

AR • Now... – New algorithms and technologies • Advanced tracking systems such as GPS/RF,Optical IR, ultrasonic etc. • New ways of interacting with the world like voice commands, gesture support etc. • Smarter devices - displays contents/information automatically from around the world, according to the need of the user

IMPLEMENTATION Most Important building blocks of an Augmented Reality System are – Processor – Display – Tracking device – Human Interaction Device

Processor • The system can be a individual device/embedded system, based on some processor • Usually processing done in a PC or some other kind of mobile device such as smart phones, tablets etc. • In the former case, device size gets reduced in a great amount and becomes more powerful with the advances in IC technologies

Processor • Second case – processing done on another device – Sensors either embedded on the device(as in smartphone/tablets) or are connected separately to the device

Displays • most of the AR systems augments the real world with visuals rather than using sounds or other senses • Several display technologies classified into – Head worn displays – Handheld displays – projection displays

Displays - Head worn • mounted on head • two types – optical see through • provides AR overlay through a transparent display • Have a disadvantage of insufficient brightness – Video see through uses video captured from head mounted cameras to provide background on an opaque screen

Displays - Head worn Another approach Virtual retinal display – visuals drawn directly on retina using low power modulated laser beams which are scanned by micro electromechanical mirror assemblies that sweep the beam horizontally and vertically

Displays - Head worn • An example for optical see through approach – using prism technology • visuals projected towards the glass which are then projected into the eyes using prism arrangement • Advantage - can be created on usual eyewears

Displays - Handheld • Uses handheld flatpanel LCD/(O)LED displays with a camera which captures the images process and augments it and provide video see through augmentation

Displays - Projection type •Virtual information projected directly on the physical object to be augmented •No need for special eye wears •Can be projected from a single room mounted projector or from a head mounted portable projector for mobility

Displays - Projection type • Another interesting application - Optical camouflage

Tracking Device • To track the user's orientation and position Eg.: Magnetic and video sensors • To get more accurate registration - hybrid sensors (accelerometer + video sensors) • For improved tracking performance - Single Constraint At A Time(SCAAT) Algorithm

TRACKING - USING GPS, GSM, UMTS • Most commonly used - GPS for its low cost and sufficient accuracy of about 3-10m / 2-5m for differential GPS(DGPS) • GSM/UMTS - upcoming solution – locate by triangulating signals of the mobile phone – less accurate

TRACKING - OTHER METHODS • Outside in and inside out tracking – outside in - tracking the user with an external camera, ie., imaging sensor mounted outside the tracking space • more accurate • • • • • – inside out - imaging sensor mounted on head Visual marker based tracking Visual markerless tracking Sensor Based tracking Wireless-LAN based tracking Hybrid tracking systems

Environment sensing • Needs to locate other objects around the user • For indoor cases use cameras and object markers • for outdoor/unprepared situations – a hybrid compass/gyroscope tracker provides motion stabilized orientation measurements – adding video tracking increses the accuracy – GPS - track real time position • limitation - need clear view of sky

Human Interface device • Lets the users interact with the augmented environment • Different technologies such as interaction through gesture, voice etc. and haptic feedback to let the user feel the interaction

Audio Augmented Reality • Can be achieved using Spatialized audio • postion can tracked using gyros or magnetic compasses • helpful for blind navigation or when the user is concentrating on another activity

Mobile Augmented Reality Systems - MARS • One of the area that is being popular nowadays • Computing hardwares - Handheld mobile devices or wearable devices • Tracking - Integrated GPS, Gyroscopes, accelerometers and cameras

Wireless networking in MARS Wireless networking – improves performance and quality of user experience – enhances mobility For a Usable AR wireless network should provide – sufficient data rate – low latency – support for mobility

Wireless Wide Area Networks • ideal for systems that need large scale mobility Example: • Several choices from low speed(9.6Kbps) to high speed 3G networks(upto 2Mbps) • 2G mostly used - but limitted due to their low speed and high latency • 2.5G or GPRS - speed upto 171.2Kbps - also suffer from high latency • Highly interactive AR sysems need lower latencies of less than 100ms

Wireless Wide Area Networks • 3G or Universal Mobile Telecomunication System(UMTS) - speed upto 2Mbps(theoretical) » nearly 300Kbps practically • round trip time/latency ~ 300-580ms => prevents real time VR/AR

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) • • • • • networks implemented in a local area speed in the range of 11-54Mbps low latency than WWAN typical range - 100m Mainly used in gaming etc.

Wireless Personal Area Networks(WPANs) • Short range • Implemented using Bluetooth,infrared etc. • Used for controlling the VR environment

CHALLENGES A good AR should convince the user that the virtual and the real worlds coexists. This is a diffcult task. Problems arrive while implementing the display technologies and processors and also in case of networking in MARS.

CHALLENGES - DISPLAYs • various issues – technological - latency, resolutiondistortion,field of view, and cost – perceptual - depth of field, qualitative – human factors - social acceptance and safety • Optical see through displays : – have all the above technological issues – parallax error - since cameras mounted away from true eye location • Registration error

APPLICATIONS • • • • • Medical Entertainment Personal assistant Navigation Blind assistant etc.

Case study - Googe Glass

Case Study - 6th Sense technology

References • Wagner, Daniel, et al. "Real-time detection and tracking for augmented reality on mobile phones." Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on 16.3 (2010): 355-368. • Blum, Jeffrey R., Mathieu Bouchard, and Jeremy R. Cooperstock. "What’s around me? Spatialized audio augmented reality for blind users with a smartphone." Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 49-62. • Azuma, Ronald, et al. "Recent advances in augmented reality." Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE 21.6 (2001): 34-47. • Papagiannakis, George, Gurminder Singh, and Nadia Magnenat‐Thalmann. "A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems."Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 19.1 (2008): 3-22.


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