Published on March 9, 2014
SEMINAR AUGMENTED REALITY MAHESH M
AUGMENTED REALITY(AR) Attempt to enhance the real world by adding information about the current object or environment by means of super imposing visuals, sounds, smells, haptic.
IN THIS PRESENTATION • • • • • • Virtualization of and Augmenting the Real World Augmented reality - Introduction Implementation AR in Mobile devices challenges or Problems Applications
VIRTUAL REALITY • Replaces the reality entirely with computer generated world
VR - Common practises and Applications • Usually projected on a screen or on a stereoscopic display • Mainly used in entertainment sector such as film, gaming, treatment,etc. • In most cases, just recreates the world. But now incorporates audio of the environment and also haptics to feel the touch/ interaction with the objects.
AR • HISTORY – Ivan Sutherland’s vision of AR User is “inside” the computer – 1965 "Ultimate Display" Real and synthetic objects coexist – 1968 “Head Mounted Display” AR System (MIT, Harvard, Univ. of Utah) Graphics (vector mono) HMD (optical see-through) Tracker (mech. on head)
AR • Now... – Moore's law • more processing power in smaller sizes and advanced graphic generators – Displays • • • • • HMD LCD Laser OLED See through displays etc.
AR • Now... – New algorithms and technologies • Advanced tracking systems such as GPS/RF,Optical IR, ultrasonic etc. • New ways of interacting with the world like voice commands, gesture support etc. • Smarter devices - displays contents/information automatically from around the world, according to the need of the user
IMPLEMENTATION Most Important building blocks of an Augmented Reality System are – Processor – Display – Tracking device – Human Interaction Device
Processor • The system can be a individual device/embedded system, based on some processor • Usually processing done in a PC or some other kind of mobile device such as smart phones, tablets etc. • In the former case, device size gets reduced in a great amount and becomes more powerful with the advances in IC technologies
Processor • Second case – processing done on another device – Sensors either embedded on the device(as in smartphone/tablets) or are connected separately to the device
Displays • most of the AR systems augments the real world with visuals rather than using sounds or other senses • Several display technologies classified into – Head worn displays – Handheld displays – projection displays
Displays - Head worn • mounted on head • two types – optical see through • provides AR overlay through a transparent display • Have a disadvantage of insufficient brightness – Video see through uses video captured from head mounted cameras to provide background on an opaque screen
Displays - Head worn Another approach Virtual retinal display – visuals drawn directly on retina using low power modulated laser beams which are scanned by micro electromechanical mirror assemblies that sweep the beam horizontally and vertically
Displays - Head worn • An example for optical see through approach – using prism technology • visuals projected towards the glass which are then projected into the eyes using prism arrangement • Advantage - can be created on usual eyewears
Displays - Handheld • Uses handheld flatpanel LCD/(O)LED displays with a camera which captures the images process and augments it and provide video see through augmentation
Displays - Projection type •Virtual information projected directly on the physical object to be augmented •No need for special eye wears •Can be projected from a single room mounted projector or from a head mounted portable projector for mobility
Displays - Projection type • Another interesting application - Optical camouflage
Tracking Device • To track the user's orientation and position Eg.: Magnetic and video sensors • To get more accurate registration - hybrid sensors (accelerometer + video sensors) • For improved tracking performance - Single Constraint At A Time(SCAAT) Algorithm
TRACKING - USING GPS, GSM, UMTS • Most commonly used - GPS for its low cost and sufficient accuracy of about 3-10m / 2-5m for differential GPS(DGPS) • GSM/UMTS - upcoming solution – locate by triangulating signals of the mobile phone – less accurate
TRACKING - OTHER METHODS • Outside in and inside out tracking – outside in - tracking the user with an external camera, ie., imaging sensor mounted outside the tracking space • more accurate • • • • • – inside out - imaging sensor mounted on head Visual marker based tracking Visual markerless tracking Sensor Based tracking Wireless-LAN based tracking Hybrid tracking systems
Environment sensing • Needs to locate other objects around the user • For indoor cases use cameras and object markers • for outdoor/unprepared situations – a hybrid compass/gyroscope tracker provides motion stabilized orientation measurements – adding video tracking increses the accuracy – GPS - track real time position • limitation - need clear view of sky
Human Interface device • Lets the users interact with the augmented environment • Different technologies such as interaction through gesture, voice etc. and haptic feedback to let the user feel the interaction
Audio Augmented Reality • Can be achieved using Spatialized audio • postion can tracked using gyros or magnetic compasses • helpful for blind navigation or when the user is concentrating on another activity
Mobile Augmented Reality Systems - MARS • One of the area that is being popular nowadays • Computing hardwares - Handheld mobile devices or wearable devices • Tracking - Integrated GPS, Gyroscopes, accelerometers and cameras
Wireless networking in MARS Wireless networking – improves performance and quality of user experience – enhances mobility For a Usable AR wireless network should provide – sufficient data rate – low latency – support for mobility
Wireless Wide Area Networks • ideal for systems that need large scale mobility Example: • Several choices from low speed(9.6Kbps) to high speed 3G networks(upto 2Mbps) • 2G mostly used - but limitted due to their low speed and high latency • 2.5G or GPRS - speed upto 171.2Kbps - also suffer from high latency • Highly interactive AR sysems need lower latencies of less than 100ms
Wireless Wide Area Networks • 3G or Universal Mobile Telecomunication System(UMTS) - speed upto 2Mbps(theoretical) » nearly 300Kbps practically • round trip time/latency ~ 300-580ms => prevents real time VR/AR
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) • • • • • networks implemented in a local area speed in the range of 11-54Mbps low latency than WWAN typical range - 100m Mainly used in gaming etc.
Wireless Personal Area Networks(WPANs) • Short range • Implemented using Bluetooth,infrared etc. • Used for controlling the VR environment
CHALLENGES A good AR should convince the user that the virtual and the real worlds coexists. This is a diffcult task. Problems arrive while implementing the display technologies and processors and also in case of networking in MARS.
CHALLENGES - DISPLAYs • various issues – technological - latency, resolutiondistortion,field of view, and cost – perceptual - depth of field, qualitative – human factors - social acceptance and safety • Optical see through displays : – have all the above technological issues – parallax error - since cameras mounted away from true eye location • Registration error
APPLICATIONS • • • • • Medical Entertainment Personal assistant Navigation Blind assistant etc.
Case study - Googe Glass
Case Study - 6th Sense technology
References • Wagner, Daniel, et al. "Real-time detection and tracking for augmented reality on mobile phones." Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on 16.3 (2010): 355-368. • Blum, Jeffrey R., Mathieu Bouchard, and Jeremy R. Cooperstock. "What’s around me? Spatialized audio augmented reality for blind users with a smartphone." Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 49-62. • Azuma, Ronald, et al. "Recent advances in augmented reality." Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE 21.6 (2001): 34-47. • Papagiannakis, George, Gurminder Singh, and Nadia Magnenat‐Thalmann. "A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems."Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 19.1 (2008): 3-22.
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