Audio in a social Web of linked data

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Information about Audio in a social Web of linked data
Education

Published on March 17, 2009

Author: eduservfoundation

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A presentation given at the British Library as part of the Unlocking Audio 2 conference in March 2009.

Audio in a social Web of linked data What do social networks tell us about the discovery, sharing and re-use of audio resources?

apology

apology

confession

confession

I know very little about audio

I know very little about audio

I know a little bit about digital libraries

I know a little bit about digital libraries

JISC Information Environment

JISC Information Environment

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

any coherently managed collection of audio resources delivered via the Web is a “digital library”... right?

any coherently managed collection of audio resources delivered via the Web is a “digital library”...

right?

on that basis... I hope I have something useful to say but we’ll see!

on that basis... I hope I have something useful to say

but we’ll see!

so... getting back to the audio for a moment

so... getting back to the audio for a moment

I increasingly buy my music here

I increasingly buy my music here

 

and here

and here

 

and... I increasingly listen to music here

and...

I increasingly listen to music here

 

and here

and here

 

and... if I was more into educational podcasts, I’d probably have to access them via

and...

if I was more into educational podcasts, I’d probably have to access them via

 

but let’s ignore iTunes for now

but let’s ignore iTunes for now

Blip.fm and Spotify both interesting for a number of reasons

Blip.fm and Spotify both interesting for a number of reasons

both push at the boundaries of how we have rewarded artists to date

both push at the boundaries of how we have rewarded artists to date

both are explicitly social in nature (and like Muxtape which went before, they represent the evolution of the informal social sharing of recorded music which has gone on for decades)

both are explicitly social in nature

(and like Muxtape which went before, they represent the evolution of the informal social sharing of recorded music which has gone on for decades)

both are not just “on” the Web but “of” the Web

both are not just “on” the Web but “of” the Web

Huh? What does of the Web actually, like, mean?

Huh? What does

of the Web

actually, like, mean?

an attitude

an attitude

an expectation that your content will be re-used in ways you didn’t anticipate

an expectation that your content will be re-used in ways you didn’t anticipate

an expectation that people will take your content, your API and URLs and use them to build something different

an expectation that people will take your content, your API and URLs and use them to build something different

oddly (given the previous slides) Spotify is not accessed primarily thru a Web browser but thru an Adobe Air application

oddly (given the previous slides) Spotify is not accessed primarily thru a Web browser but thru an Adobe Air application

a situation that will be familiar to many Twitter users in the room

a situation that will be familiar to many Twitter users in the room

aside: when my 19 year old daughter first saw Spotify her reaction was, “This is amazing, I never need to buy a CD again”

aside: when my 19 year old daughter first saw Spotify her reaction was, “This is amazing, I never need to buy a CD again”

which nicely captures a possible generational change in attitude from ‘ownership’ to ‘access’

which nicely captures a possible generational change in attitude from ‘ownership’ to ‘access’

Amazon and iTunes are also ‘social’ but not so much in the explicit (outward facing) way of Spotify and Blip.fm

Amazon and iTunes are also ‘social’ but not so much in the explicit (outward facing) way of Spotify and Blip.fm

both derive knowledge from the attention data of large numbers of users

both derive knowledge from the attention data of large numbers of users

whilst Amazon is very much “of” the Web, iTunes is barely even “on” the Web

whilst Amazon is very much “of” the Web, iTunes is barely even “on” the Web

so... that was just anecdotal and by way of introduction but…

so... that was just anecdotal and by way of introduction but…

two important themes that I want to return to

two important themes that I want to return to

1) being ‘of’ the Web rather than just ‘on’ the Web

1) being ‘of’ the Web rather than just ‘on’ the Web

2) the importance of ‘social’ activity around content

2) the importance of ‘social’ activity around content

both are important when we think about what it means to be ‘open’ and to ‘unlock’ content on the Web

both are important when we think about what it means to be ‘open’ and to ‘unlock’ content on the Web

step back

step back

look at digital libraries

look at digital libraries

in a generic way

in a generic way

uk-centric

uk-centric

and specific to higher education

and specific to higher education

jisc ie diagram

jisc ie diagram

focus on the content

focus on the content

primarily ‘document-like objects’

primarily ‘document-like objects’

focus on describing the content (primarily using simple Dublin Core metadata)

focus on describing the content (primarily using simple Dublin Core metadata)

and on moving that metadata from providers to consumers

and on moving that metadata from providers to consumers

for the purposes of resource discovery , access and use

for the purposes of resource discovery , access and use

and so we talk about the OAI-PMH, Z39.50, SRW/SRU, OpenURL, Dublin Core and so on

and so we talk about the OAI-PMH, Z39.50, SRW/SRU, OpenURL, Dublin Core and so on

much of the content is provided commercially

much of the content is provided commercially

so there is also a focus on mechanisms to protect content from inappropriate access

so there is also a focus on mechanisms to protect content from inappropriate access

and, perhaps more importantly… there is an implied flow

and, perhaps more importantly…

there is an implied flow

jisc ie diagram

jisc ie diagram

the JISC IE says very little about the relationships between people and content

the JISC IE says very little about the relationships between people and content

and nothing about relationships between people

and nothing about relationships between people

it says nothing about the social use that grows around content

it says nothing about the social use that grows around content

it talks about identifiers for stuff

it talks about identifiers for stuff

but not about identity (of people)

but not about identity (of people)

this is not unusual for ‘digital library’ activities

this is not unusual for ‘digital library’ activities

we talk a lot about content, and data formats, and metadata, and curation, and preservation, and persistent identifiers, and …

we talk a lot about content, and data formats, and metadata, and curation, and preservation, and persistent identifiers, and …

we even talk about openness, and Creative Commons, and other open licences

we even talk about openness, and Creative Commons, and other open licences

and these things are all very good and important

and these things are all very good and important

but we don’t talk much about social networks

but we don’t talk much about social networks

which is a shame…

which is a shame…

because while we have been busy building digital library initiatives like the JISC Information Environment

because while we have been busy building digital library initiatives like the JISC Information Environment

the Web has changed under our feet

the Web has changed under our feet

it’s increasingly participatory

it’s increasingly participatory

it’s increasingly about user-generated content

it’s increasingly about user-generated content

it’s increasingly open

it’s increasingly open

it’s increasingly social

it’s increasingly social

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 things that are interesting about these services...

3 things that are interesting about these services...

firstly, concentration http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/001556.html

firstly, concentration

http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/001556.html

secondly, they are ‘ of ’ the Web they support diffusion thru simple and open APIs, the use of RSS, cool URIs for everything of value, a RESTful architectural approach, and so on...

secondly, they are ‘ of ’ the Web

they support diffusion thru simple and open APIs, the use of RSS, cool URIs for everything of value, a RESTful architectural approach, and so on...

in short... they see being mashed as a virtue

in short... they see being mashed as a virtue

thirdly, identity (in these services) is not just concerned with questions like “who are you and what are you allowed to do?”

thirdly, identity (in these services) is not just concerned with questions like “who are you and what are you allowed to do?”

but also about “ this is me, this is who I know, and this is what I’ve created ”

but also about “ this is me, this is who I know, and this is what I’ve created ”

identity has become user-centric

identity has become user-centric

concentration, diffusion and identity are enablers of social interaction

concentration, diffusion and identity are enablers of social interaction

meanwhile... somewhere in academia (a alternative case-study)

meanwhile... somewhere in academia

(a alternative case-study)

the open access movement and scholarly repositories

the open access

movement

and

scholarly repositories

a university-based institutional repository is a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution . … An institutional repository is not simply a fixed set of software and hardware (Cliff Lynch, 2003)

scholarly publications learning objects research data

scholarly publications

learning objects

research data

manage deposit disclose make openly available curate preserve

manage

deposit

disclose

make openly available

curate

preserve

largely institutional focus interoperability through centralised aggregators (national and global) harvesting metadata about content using OAI-PMH (metadata = simple Dublin Core)

largely institutional focus

interoperability through centralised aggregators (national and global)

harvesting metadata about content using OAI-PMH (metadata = simple Dublin Core)

jisc ie diagram

jisc ie diagram

but... our terminology is confusing to ‘real’ people

but...

our terminology is confusing to ‘real’ people

a focus on plain old ‘ making content available on the Web’ would be more intuitive to researchers than ‘deposit in a repository’

a focus on ‘ content management ’ would change our emphasis

a focus on ‘ content management ’ would change our emphasis

OAI-PMH out…

OAI-PMH out…

search engine optimisation, usability, accessibility, Web design, tagging, information architecture, cool URIs in…

search engine optimisation, usability, accessibility, Web design, tagging, information architecture, cool URIs in…

Google indexing RSS feeds widget technology – embedding functionality into other sites

Google indexing

RSS feeds

widget technology – embedding functionality into other sites

we have tended to adopt service oriented approaches in line with long tradition from Z39.50 to SOAP/WSDL

we have tended to adopt service oriented approaches in line with long tradition from Z39.50 to SOAP/WSDL

our focus has been on building “services on content” rather than on the “content” itself

our focus has been on building “services on content” rather than on the “content” itself

we don’t tend to adopt a resource oriented approach

we don’t tend to adopt a resource oriented approach

we don’t adopt REST – an architectural style with a focus on resources, their identifiers (e.g. URIs), and a simple uniform set of operations that each resource supports (e.g. GET, PUT, POST, DELETE)

we don’t adopt REST – an architectural style with a focus on resources, their identifiers (e.g. URIs), and a simple uniform set of operations that each resource supports (e.g. GET, PUT, POST, DELETE)

we don’t encourage a Web style “follow your nose” approach

we don’t encourage a Web style “follow your nose” approach

… and we tend to treat “content” in isolation from the “social networks” that need to grow around that content

… and we tend to treat “content” in isolation from the “social networks” that need to grow around that content

successful “repositories” (Flickr, YouTube, Slideshare, etc.) promote the social activity that takes place around content as well as the content management and disclosure activity

successful “repositories” (Flickr, YouTube, Slideshare, etc.) promote the social activity that takes place around content as well as the content management and disclosure activity

the institutional approach has fundamental mismatch with the real-life social networks adopted by researchers subject-based cross-institutional global

the institutional approach has fundamental mismatch with the real-life social networks adopted by researchers

subject-based

cross-institutional

global

while institutional approach is good from perspective of institutional management, preservation, etc. globally “concentrated” repositories might better reflect the social networks that need to arise

while institutional approach is good from perspective of institutional management, preservation, etc.

globally “concentrated” repositories might better reflect the social networks that need to arise

the net effect …is that there is no net effect

the net effect …is that there is no net effect

repositories remain uncompelling places to disclose scholarly publications from POV of the researcher

repositories remain uncompelling places to disclose scholarly publications from POV of the researcher

perceived cost of deposit remains higher than perceived benefits

perceived cost of deposit remains higher than perceived benefits

we resort to institutional or funder mandates, “thou shalt deposit”, to fill what would otherwise remain empty

we resort to institutional or funder mandates, “thou shalt deposit”, to fill what would otherwise remain empty

what would a Web 2.0 repository look like?

 

high-quality browser-based document viewer (not Acrobat!) tagging, commentary, more-like-this, favorites, … persistent (cool) URIs to content ability to form simple social groups ability to embed documents in other Web sites high visibility to Google offer RSS as primary API use of Amazon S3 to cope with scalability

high-quality browser-based document viewer (not Acrobat!)

tagging, commentary, more-like-this, favorites, …

persistent (cool) URIs to content

ability to form simple social groups

ability to embed documents in other Web sites

high visibility to Google

offer RSS as primary API

use of Amazon S3 to cope with scalability

final thought

final thought

visitors vs. residents http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives-immigrants-but-visitors-residents/

visitors vs. residents

http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives-immigrants-but-visitors-residents/

counterpoint to the whole ‘Google generation’, ‘digital native’ meme

counterpoint to the whole ‘Google generation’, ‘digital native’ meme

resident – “ an individual who lives a percentage of their life online”

resident – “ an individual who lives a percentage of their life online”

visitor – “ an individual who uses the web as a tool in an organised manner whenever the need arises”

visitor – “ an individual who uses the web as a tool in an organised manner whenever the need arises”

the cultural heritage sector tends to build services aimed at visitors

the cultural heritage sector tends to build services aimed at visitors

I think we should be designing with residents in mind

I think we should be designing with residents in mind

conclusions...

conclusions...

http://www.plasticbag.org/images/extra/native_02.jpg

http://www.plasticbag.org/images/extra/native_02.jpg

what would I do if I was advising on something like the JISC Information Environment now?

what would I do if I was advising on something like the JISC Information Environment now?

I’d aim to be as like the mainstream Web as possible

I’d aim to be as like the mainstream Web as possible

I’d ask “How would Google do this?” more often

I’d ask “How would Google do this?” more often

I’d focus on the basics

I’d focus on the basics

I’d focus on the principles of linked data http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

I’d focus on the principles of linked data

http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

use URIs to name things

use URIs to name things

use HTTP URIs so that people can look them up

use HTTP URIs so that people can look them up

provide useful information when people dereference the URIs

provide useful information when people dereference the URIs

include links to other things as part of that information (so that the recipient can find new things)

include links to other things as part of that information (so that the recipient can find new things)

I’d promote the principles of cool URIs (practical persistence)

I’d promote the principles of cool URIs

(practical persistence)

I’d strongly encourage a RESTful architectural approach

I’d strongly encourage a RESTful architectural approach

I’d encourage RSS / Atom as essential point of access

I’d encourage RSS / Atom as essential point of access

I’d focus on the social aspects of the systems being built

I’d focus on the social aspects of the systems being built

implies that the Open Stack (OpenID, OAuth, ...) is increasingly important

implies that the Open Stack (OpenID, OAuth, ...) is increasingly important

I’d focus on building stuff for residents rather than visitors

I’d focus on building stuff for residents rather than visitors

thank you

thank you

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