Audience Theories - psychographics and ideology

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Information about Audience Theories - psychographics and ideology

Published on March 3, 2014

Author: CrispySharp



A look at different ways audiences can understand Media Texts as well as ways of categorising audiences in groups.

Psychographics A more sophisticated way to divide consumers

What were the last three memorable purchases you made? What was your motivation for buying them?

Early Adopter Vs. Mainstreamer

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Lifestyle Groups This is a chart that divides consumers into different categories based on their motivations

Innovators • Successful, sophisticated and have high self-esteem • Mega-rich and receptive to new products. • Set trends and change markets.

Thinkers / Believers • Mature, satisfied and liberal. • Well-educated. • Engage with the world around them. • Traditional and conservative, respects rules. • Slow to adopt new technology. • Chose familiar products and brands.

Achievers / Strivers • Hard working, with emphasis on family & career. • Enjoy status symbols. • Already achieved successful. • Trendy and fun loving • Not much money and narrow interests. • Stylish and try and emulate success. • Love celebrities.

Experiencers / Makers • Appreciate unconventional things. • Value self-sufficiency. • Act on impulse seeking • Like D.I.Y / crafts. stimulation from new products / experiences. • Prefers value to luxury. • Spend all their money on fashion, socialising and entertainment.

Survivors • Have the least expendable income. • Concerned mainly with safety and security. • Brand loyal and buys discounted merchandise.

Applying the idea Can you use the categories to name as many brands / high street shops / products that fit into each segment?

Uses & Gratifications Information Personal Identity Social Integration Entertainment The VALS framework shows how people subconsciously use products to reflect their Personal Identity

Ideology Audiences and Ideology

What is Ideology? • A system of ideas and beliefs promoted by dominant groups (governments, corporations, cultural groups) to reinforce their power. • A way of seeing the world (a world view)

Passive audiences • Early audience theory said that media messages were injected into peoples minds.

Active audiences Text Audience • More recent theory suggests that audiences Use media for different Gratifications, and that audiences create their own meanings.

Reception Theory • Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding model is the idea that an active audience has to decode the meanings within a text, therefore different audiences will do so in different ways Preferred Producer encoding text Audience decoding meaning Negotiated Oppositional

Preferred Reading • The audience accepts the worldview of the text • They consume the text as the producer intended them to

Negotiated Reading • The audience understands the ideology that is contained within the text but mostly rejects it • Instead the audiences choses elements of the text to enjoy

Oppositional Reading • The audience entirely rejects the ideology that is contained within the text • Not because they dislike it, but because they oppose it

An Example ydOxcq0

Rastamouse Dominant (Preferred) Negotiated Oppositional A positive program for children that teaches morals and the benefits of helping others A tongue-in-cheek look at Rasta culture with possible drug references and music aimed at teenagers and above A racist stereotype of Afro-Caribbean culture that will negatively affect the viewers that might imitate the language

Important Ideologies • • • • • • Consumerism Conservatism Liberalism Multiculturalism Feminism Environmentalism

Environmentalism • Protection of the Earth • Preference of natural and organic products • Suspicious of Globalisation

Feminism • Promotion of women’s rights • Rejection of gender roles • Promotion of fairness and justice

Multiculturalism • Celebration of cultural diversity • Rejection of all racisms • Promotion of cultural relativism

Consumerism • Celebration of products and businesses • Solving problems through economic growth • Individual freedom (to consume) most important value

Conservatism • Society has naturally created traditions that should be respected. • Authority keeps the peace. • Citizens achieve freedom by conforming to established rules. • Strong social groups (like religions and nations) protect ideals

Modern conservatism?

Liberalism • Individual rights are the most important human ideal. • Minorities should be protected from the oppression of the majority. • Celebration of a progressive (changing) society

Modern Liberalism?

An Example g2WARb0

John Lewis Advert Dominant (Preferred) Negotiated Oppositional A positive allegory that reminds us all of the importance of Christmas and the message of giving A nice attempt to remind us of the good times that Christmas. You might enjoy the song or the cartoon but not the message. Cynical corporate sentimentalism wrapped in family friendly cartoon Definitely not going to shop there Going to shop there Not going to shop there

Another Example

Boots Advert Dominant (Preferred) Negotiated Oppositional There are people in my life who deserve to receive a gift from Boots A good message about young people rewarding those around them, but highly unrealistic Consumerist, middleclass propaganda that uses guilt to sell products Not going to shop there Definitely not going to shop there Going to shop there

Summary • Ideology is a worldview that is contained in media texts. • Stuart Hall said that you can respond by negotiating or opposing this ‘coded’ ideology

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