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Information about Attr

Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Mattia


Chapter 15 Translation of Attributive Clause:  Chapter 15 Translation of Attributive Clause Of various English subordinate clauses, the attributive is perhaps the most complicated and therefore it always presents a hard nut for the translator to crack. This is either because of the disparity between English and Chinese syntax or because of their habitual modes of expressing the same idea in different ways. Slide2:  I. A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Attributive Structures A comparative study of English and Chinese attributive structures helps us to bring this disparity to light. As some linguists have pointed out; an English sentence may be followed by an unlimited number of attributive clauses following the word being modified, Slide3:  While a Chinese sentence allows only a limited amount of words preceding the word being modified. And eventually, there is no correspondence between their sentence structure. Let's compare the structure of the following English sentences and its Chinese versions. Slide4:  1. This is the cat. 2. This is the cat that killed the rat. 3. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the cake. 4. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the cake that lay in the house. Slide5:  5. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the cake that lay in the house that Jack built. Apparently, it's impossible for a translator to put all the information into one Chinese sentence in the same sequence as English. Therefore, a readable Chinese version of the above English sentences 3, 4, 5 should be worked out. Slide6:  Consequently, some efficient ways have been suggested to tackle the problems that occurs in the translation of English attributive clauses. II. Restrictive Attributive Clauses Restrictive attributive clauses, which are characterized by the absence of a comma between the subordinate clauses and the principal clauses, are very closely related to the nouns or pronouns (also called antecedents) that they are modifying. Slide7:  The meaning of the complex sentence would not be complete unless the restrictive attributive clause is taken into consideration. Generally, the following three methods are used to translate restrictive clauses. Slide8:  1.Combination This is the most common practice, in which an English restrictive attributive clause is embedded in the Chinese sentence with“---的---”, and is placed before the words being modified(the antecedents). By combination, we have actually converted the complex English sentence into a simple Chinese sentence. Slide9:  The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him. Pollution is a pressing problem which we must deal with before 2008 Olympic Games. In the room where the electronic computer is kept, there must be no dust at all. Slide10:  2. Division Sometimes, an English sentence with a restrictive attributive clause is too long or too complicated for a translator to take as whole. In this case, we may divide it into two, placing the attributive clause after the principal clause to conform to the Chinese usage, repeating the antecedent being modified. Slide11:  How can I introduce into a casual conversation those lengthy lines of argument that inject the adrenaline into a given idea. They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which, in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives. Slide12:  Between these two tiny particles, the proton and electron, there is a powerful attraction that is always present between negative and positive electric charges. Sometimes, however, a sentence with a restrictive attributive clause may be translated as a compound sentence without repeating the antecedent. Slide13:  He managed to raise a crop of 200 miracle tomatoes that weighed up to two pounds each. A fuel is a material which will burn at a reasonable temperature and produce heat. They worked out a new method by which production has now been rapidly increased. Slide14:  3. Mixture By mixture here we mean combining the principal clause and the attributive clause into a single Chinese sentence without any demarcation. This method is usually adopted in translating English “there be ---” structure. Slide15:  There were men in that crowd who had stood there every day for a month. Fortunately, there are some chemical fuels that are clean and smokeless. There are some metals which possess the power to conduct electricity and the ability to be magnetized. Slide16:  III. Non-restrictive Attributive Clauses Non-restrictive attributive clauses are characterized by a comma between the principal and the attributive clause. In comparison with restrictive attributive clauses, non-restrictive attributive clauses hold a loose relationship with the antecedents, functioning as a supplementary part in the sentence. Slide17:  In terms of translation techniques, there is no significant difference between these two kinds of attributive clauses. However the method of division is adopted more frequently in translating non-restrictive attributive clauses than in translating restrictive attributive clauses, while the method of combination is just the other way around. Slide18:  1. Division This is a university of science and technology, the students of which are training to be engineers or scientists. He saw in front that haggard white-haired old man, whose eyes flashed red with fury. One was violent thunderstorm, the worst I had ever seen, which obscured my objective. Slide19:  2. Combination The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor. Transistors, which are small in size, can make previously large and bulky radios light and small. You can break up a beam of incoherent light with a prism, which is made of glass. Slide20:  IV. Attributive Clauses Functioning as Adverbials Some attributive clauses function as adverbial in the complex sentence, having a very close logic relationship with the principal clause and indicating the cause, result, purpose, time, condition, concession, and so on. Therefore, when translating such sentences, we should render them into corresponding Chinese adverbial sentences. Slide21:  We know that a cat, whose eyes can take in many more rays than our eyes, can see clearly in the night. There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them. The software engineer bought the half-million house, but the professor of sociology, whose salary is much lower, only bought a small apartment. Slide22:  Electronic computers, which have many advantages, cannot carry out creative work and replace man. Men became desperate for work, any work, which would help them to keep alive their families. For any machine whose input and output are known, its mechanical advantage can be calculated. Slide23:  I'll try to get an illustrated dictionary dealing with technical glossary, which will enable me to translate scientific literature more exactly. We have to oil the moving parts of the machine, the friction of which may be greatly reduced.

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