Published on March 11, 2014
ATTITUDES & VALUES
CONCEPT & NATURE OF VALUES • Milton Rokeach has defined values as global beliefs that guide actions and judgments in different situations. • Contain a judgmental element. • Content and intensity attributes.
Characteristics • Central to the core of a person • Relatively permanent and resistant to change. • Attributes-content and intensity
Sources of Values • Family Factors • Social Factors • Personal Factors • Cultural Factors
Types of Values • Terminal & Instrumental Values TERMINAL INSTRUMENTAL Comfortable file Ambition Family Security Hard Work Self Respect Courage Sense of Accomplishment Imagination
Types of Values – G. W. Allport 1. Theoretical Values 2. Political Values 3. Social Values 4. Aesthetic Values 5. Economical Values 6. Religious Values *Values people emphasize vary with their occupations.
Merging Personal & Organizational Values •Personal value system •Intended Values •Adopted Values •When personal values (intended) & organizational values (adopted) are congruent, these become ‘operative values.’
Values Vs Attitude • Values are general beliefs about life, whereas attitudes are directed towards specific objects, events or people. • Of course, values influence our attitudes towards those objects.
Story – You can Win There was a man who made a living selling balloons at a fair. He had all colours of balloons, including red, yellow, blue and green. Whenever business was slow, he would release a helium – filled balloon into the air and then the children saw it go up. And the sales would also improve. He continued this process all day. One day he felt some one tugging at his jacket. He turned around and saw a little boy who asked “If you release a black balloon, would that also fly?”
You Can Win Moved by the boy’s concern, the man replied with empathy, “Son, it is not the colour of the balloon, it is what is inside that makes it go up.”
You Can Win The same thing applies to our lives. It is what is inside that counts. The things inside of us go up is our attitude. Have you ever wondered why some individuals, organizations or countries are more successful than others?
Definition • "An attitude is a tendency or predisposition to evaluate an object or symbols of that object in a certain way." Katz and Scott
Characteristics of Attitudes 1. Attitudes are feelings and beliefs 2. Attitudes are invisible 3. Attitude affect behaviour 4. Attitudes are evaluative statements 5. Attitudes are acquired 6. Attitudes are pervasive
Components of Attitude Informational / Cognitive Component (My pay is low) Affective / Emotional Component (I’m angry over how little I’m paid) Behavioural Component (I’m going to look for another job that pays better)
SOURCES OF ATTITUDES • Direct Personal Experience • Association • Social Learning or Modelling • Institutional Factors • Mass Media • Economic Status and Occupations
Work Attitudes 1. Job Satisfaction a) Job satisfaction and productivity b) Job satisfaction and absenteeism c) Job satisfaction and employee turnover 2. Job Involvement - refers to the degree with which an individual identifies psychologically with his or her job and perceives his or her performance level important to self worth.
Work Attitudes 3. Organizational Commitment – Job involvement refers to one's attachment to a job whereas organizational commitment implies an employee's identification with a particular organization and its goals.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–19 Responses to Job Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 3–5
Theories of Attitude Formation 1. Cognitive Dissonance – Festinger, 1957 • People dislike inconsistencies • Cognitive dissonance - Unpleasant state 2. Balance Theory - Newcomb
Changing Employees’ Attitude 1. Give Feedback & Information 2. Positive Role Model 3. Use of Fear 4. Influence of Friends or Peers 5. The Coopting approach 6. Rewards
Changing Attitude of Self 1. Be aware of one’s attitudes 2. Negative attitudes, has few, if any benefits 3. Keep an open mind 4. Get into continuous education programme 5. Build a positive self – esteem 6. Stay away from negative influences
Value Vs Attitude Values Attitude Values represent judgment of what ought to be. This judgment is basic to respond in a given way. Attitudes represent tendency to respond according to your like or dislike. A value represents single belief that guides actions and judgment for objects and situations. An attitude represents several beliefs focused on a specific object or situation. Values are derived from social and cultural mores. Attitudes are derived from personal experiences.
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Attitudes have a powerful influence on behavior. Learn more about how attitudes form, how they change, and how they influence the way we behavior. Menu.