attitudes and behavior outline

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Information about attitudes and behavior outline
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Published on January 13, 2008

Author: Dorotea

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Final Exam Time: Friday, December 7, 8:30 AM Place: OSBO A Length: 1.5 hours Format: multiple choice, essay Worth: 50% of course mark Material covered: Chapters 3, 4, 6, 8, 2, 13 and all lectures since Midterm Attitudes and Behavior:  Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes and Behaviour:  Attitudes and Behaviour Attitude: subjective evaluation of objects or persons in the world Ex: political, racial, sports, consumer,… An especially important type of attitudes are those about social groups Components of attitudes: Affective: emotional reaction to object Behavioural: actions taken towards or because of object Cognitive: beliefs about object ABC of Attitudes:  ABC of Attitudes Attitudes Sometimes Conflict with Other Powerful Determinants of Behavior Attitudes predict behaviour when there is… Accessibility: Ex, activating environmental attitude & voting for Kyoto protocol Motivational relevance: Olympics vote & sports fans Constraints: circumstances, norms that limit the expression of that attitude Predicting Behavior From Attitudes:  Predicting Behavior From Attitudes Attitudes are sometimes based on vague, secondhand information Mismatched attitudes and actual attitude targets Death penalty Predicting use of birth control pills Fig. 8.2:  Fig. 8.2 Predicting Behavior From Attitudes:  Predicting Behavior From Attitudes Attitudes are sometimes based on vague, secondhand information Mismatched attitudes and actual attitude targets “Automatic” Behavior that Bypasses Conscious Attitudes Prime - a stimulus presented to mentally activate a concept temporarily, and hence make it accessible Primes strongly influence behaviour:  Primes strongly influence behaviour Bargh, Chen & Burrows (1996) Independent variable: Implicit activation of “elderly” stereotype: Bingo, Florida, wrinkle, etc. or control Dependent variable: walking speed Primes are stronger predictors of behaviour than self-reported attitudes:  Primes are stronger predictors of behaviour than self-reported attitudes Shariff & Norenzayan (2007) Reported belief in God (attitude) God prime (Divine, spirit, prophet, sacred etc.) vs. neutral prime Measure of generosity: how much of $10 offered to stranger? Slide11:  Study 1: Belief in God. Difference is ns at p=.75. n=50. Slide13:  Religious Prime Secular Prime Predicting Attitudes From Behavior:  Predicting Attitudes From Behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1957) inconsistencies between a person’s thoughts, sentiments, and actions create an aversive emotional state (dissonance) that leads to efforts to restore consistency Cognitive Dissonance:  Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance theory: attitude change can occur as a result of an inconsistency between attitude and behaviour People are motivated to maintain consistency in their beliefs and behaviours When attitude is inconsistent with behaviour, people experience dissonance = discomfort Dissonance can be reduced by 1) changing behaviour or 2) changing attitude Predicting Attitudes From Behavior:  Predicting Attitudes From Behavior Induced (forced) compliance - subtly compelling individuals to behave in a manner that is inconsistent with their beliefs, attitudes, or values, which typically leads to dissonance and to a change in their original attitudes to reduce their dissonance Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) experiment on forced compliance Effects of Induced Compliance:  Effects of Induced Compliance Smaller the amount, more attitude change! Ss had to justify to themselves why they had to lie to other for so little money Predicting Attitudes From Behavior:  Predicting Attitudes From Behavior Effort Justification - tendency to reduce dissonance by finding reasons for why you have devoted time, effort, or money for something that turned out to be disappointing Aronson and Mills (1959) ‘initiation experiment’ Self-Perception Theory:  Self-Perception Theory self-perception theory - people come to know their own attitudes by looking at their behavior and the context in which it occurred and inferring what their attitudes must be No discomfort or arousal Cognitive Dissonance: Arousal:  Cognitive Dissonance: Arousal If cognitive dissonance is aversive, it should be accompanied by a high arousal level Anti-attitudinal essay study Subjects were induced to write essays contrary to their attitudes Free choice group vs. no-choice group Which group should change attitude more? Which group should experience more arousal? Arousal and Attitude Change:  Arousal and Attitude Change F 15.4 Predicting Attitudes From Behavior:  Predicting Attitudes From Behavior Self-Affirmation and Dissonance self-affirmation theory - taking stock of one’s good qualities and core values, which can help a person cope with threats to self-esteem (and eliminate feelings of dissonance) Steele (1988) study of science vs. business majors Cognitive Dissonance:  Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance theory explains why… We like a product more if we pay for it than if it were free We like a product more after we buy it We like our romantic partner more after we are committed to the relationship We like someone more after we freely agree to do a favor for that person

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