Attitudes 2

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Information about Attitudes 2

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Marco1


Attitudes:  Attitudes Attitude components Attitude measurement Attitude change One-sided vs. two-sided appeals The Elaboration Likelihood Model: How intensively do consumers scrutinize claims? Components of Attitudes:  Components of Attitudes Beliefs Affect Behavioral Intentions Beliefs:  Beliefs For same belief, consumer may hold beliefs which are not accurate multiple beliefs some positive, some negative beliefs which, if examined, may be contradictory Generating Beliefs Through Advertising:  Generating Beliefs Through Advertising Statements must be Perceived Comprehended Remembered Believed (at least in part) Positioning Through Creating Beliefs:  Positioning Through Creating Beliefs “It’s not delivery; it’s De Journo!” “Wal-Mart. Always low prices. Always.” “I just saved a bunch of money on my auto insurance.” “U-um Good!” (Campbell’s Soup) Pricing: Creating Beliefs of “Normal Prices”:  Pricing: Creating Beliefs of “Normal Prices” External reference prices—e.g., “Regular price…” “Manufacturer’s suggested retail price” “Sold elsewhere for…” Comparison to internal reference prices Assimilation-Contrast “Discounting of Discounts” Multiattribute Models of Attitude:  Multiattribute Models of Attitude Attitude computed as a function of multiple attributes weighted for importance: Ab= attitude toward brand b Wi: weight of attribute I Xib: belief about brand b’s performance on attribute I Model assumes rationality Affect:  Affect Based on past emotional associations of product emotional effect of beliefs Behavioral Intention:  Behavioral Intention Response based on belief and affect components Behavior may or may not actually take place Attitude Characteristics:  Attitude Characteristics Availability/accessibility Constructed vs. natural Strength Measurement of Attitude Components:  Measurement of Attitude Components Beliefs Semantic Differential Scales Good -------------------Bad Fast --------------------Slow Reliable-----------------Unreliable Feelings Likert Scales (Strongly agree … Strongly Disagree) “This product makes me happy.” Measurement:  Measurement Behavioral Intention Rating of likelihood of purchase May need projection if social desirability affects willingness to admit to product use Attitude-Behavior Consistency:  Attitude-Behavior Consistency Some determinants: ability attitude specificity between categories resource limitations/demands for resources elsewhere momentary attitude change social influence accurate measurement of actual attitude Attitudes Toward Objects vs. Behaviors:  Attitudes Toward Objects vs. Behaviors Liking a product may not translate into wanting to use it Consumer may resist actual behavior change despite beliefs Attitude Change Strategies:  Attitude Change Strategies Change Affect Classical conditioning Attitude toward the ad Mere exposure Change behavior (e.g., sampling) Change Belief Component Change existing beliefs Change importance of attributes Add beliefs Change ideal Source Credibility:  Source Credibility Firm vs. spokesperson or spokes character Aspects of source credibility Trustworthiness Expertise Status Consumer Responses to Appeal Attempts:  Consumer Responses to Appeal Attempts Couterarguments Support arguments Source derogations One-sided vs. two sided appeals:  One-sided vs. two sided appeals One-sided: only saying what favors your side Two-sided: stating your case but also admitting points favoring the other side Why is this effective? Attitude Change Appeals Response:  Attitude Change Appeals Response Effect of involvement Argument Quality vs. quantity The “Sleeper” Effect Elaboration and Likely Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsements:  Elaboration and Likely Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsements Product important or expensive? Celebrity endorsements more likely to be effective No Is endorser congruent with product endorsed? Unlikely to be effective More likely to be effective No Yes Yes low elaboration high elaboration low elaboration Appeal Approaches:  Appeal Approaches Affect--e.g., empathy Fear Stimulus intensity Availability of solution Humor Comparison Value expressive vs. utilitarian Affect:  Affect Use of affect may increase Likability of ad Amount of attention and information processing given Liking Through classical conditioning Through high involvement processes Fear :  Fear Stimulus intensity “Optimal” level U-shaped relationship—medium level is most effective Availability of solution For the consumer to react, the solution must be made clear Humor :  Humor Attention vs. persuasion Attitude toward ad vs. product association recognition attitude toward product Comparative Advertising:  Comparative Advertising Illegal in many countries Effects on Product attribute perception Number of attributes to compare May be more useful for small share brands Media choices Value Expressive vs. Utilitarian Appeals:  Value Expressive vs. Utilitarian Appeals Utilitarian: Functional, “bottom line” performance benefits Value-expressive: Product serves more personal purpose; style or philosophical expression is more relevant Congruence between product type and ad type is important Message Framing:  Message Framing Many tradeoffs can be stated in two, mathematically equivalent ways—e.g., “80% lean” vs. “20% fat” $49.00 per person per night based on double occupancy Priming:  Priming Making data or information unobtrusively salient to the individual E.g., consumers asked to find expensive car names in anagrams will estimate a higher price for a new car Consumers are willing to pay more for a beer taken from a fancy establishment than from a rundown one even though they will drink at the same, remote site

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