Published on January 17, 2008
Patterns of Developmental Pathways: Patterns of Developmental Pathways Daniel J. Siegel, M.D. FPR-UCLA Center for Culture, Brain and Development Appreciation: Appreciation The Developmental Patterns of Interpersonal Neurobiological Processing (DPINP) Work Group Laura Baker, Ph.D. David Daniels, M.D. Denise Daniels, Ph.D. Jack Killen, M.D. (DrDanSiegel.com) Acknowledgment: Acknowledgment Interpersonal Neurobiology Seminar Participants Global Association for Interpersonal Neurobiology Studies [MindGAINS.net] Center for Culture, Brain, and Development [CBD.UCLA.edu] Teachers: Marion Sigman, Ph.D. Jerome Bruner, Ph.D. Mary Main, Ph.D. Elinor Ochs, Ph.D. Helen Palmer Interpersonal Neurobiology (IPNB): Interpersonal Neurobiology (IPNB) An interdisciplinary view of human experience that draws on over a dozen branches of science to find the consilient findings across various perspectives to create a framework for understanding the development of our subjective and interpersonal lives. [Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology; The Developing Mind-How Relationships and the Brain Interact to Shape Who We Become] Basic Tenets of IPNB: Basic Tenets of IPNB 1) The MIND IS a Process that Regulates the Flow of Energy and Information. 2) The Mind EMERGES within the interaction of the Internal Processes of the Brain/Body and the Interpersonal Processes. 3)The Mind DEVELOPS as the Genetically Programmed Maturation of the Nervous System is Shaped by Ongoing Experience. IPNB: Well-Being: IPNB: Well-Being A working definition of Well-Being: A system that connects differentiated elements into a functional whole = an INTEGRATED System When a system moves toward integration it is a achieving a movement toward maximizing “COMPLEXITY.” FACES: FACES Well-Being is proposed to emerge with Integration: producing a “FACES” state: Flexible – Adaptive – Coherent – Energized – Stable = FACES COHERENCE can be defined as: Connected, Open, Harmonious, Engaged, Receptive, Emerging, Noetic, Compassionate, Empathic. Coherence and Cohesion: Coherence and Cohesion COHERENCE FACES path Embeds new experience into its own defining features Connects to the Larger World of Experience Reinforces Well-Being COHESION Rigidity / Chaos Restrictive definition of its own Features and Pathway Limited to boundaries defined in the past Constricts Well-Being Developmental Principles: Developmental Principles Genes and Experience contribute to the formation of Brain and Mind Genes influence connections in the brain. Experience shapes Connections in the brain: Synapse Formation (Synaptogenesis) and New Neuronal Growth = Neural Plasticity Mental Processes Shape Neural Connections which Shape Mental Processes Neural Plasticity: Neural Plasticity Direct Effects of Experience: Neuronal Firing shapes synapse formation and strengthening Involves gene activation to produce proteins for lasting change Adaptive Effects of Experience: The MIND harnesses Self-Regulation in the Brain to maintain balance and ADAPT Adaptations can involve alterations in synaptic connections Temperament and Attachment: Temperament and Attachment Temperament A “Constitutional Feature” of the child: Inborn (not necessarily genetic) – Constitutional predisposition of the Nervous System May have lifelong impact that is influenced by Experience – especially with Caregivers Attachment The Relationship of the child to the caregiver over time Research has shown Attachment shapes the developing mind Attachment impacts Self-Regulatory Circuits Research on Attachment: Research on Attachment Attachment Classifications are Independent of Temperament Attachment Experiences can shape the developmental outcome of temperamental features [See J. Kagan (1996) , Galen’s Prophecy] Attachment directly shapes Autobiographical Narrative Processes [Siegel and Hartzell (2003), Parenting from the Inside Out] What is Personality?: What is Personality? Controversies in the Field of Science (A.M. Paul (2004): The Cult of Personality) Popularization of Personality Typologies Simplistic Views Reductionistic approach toward Genes and Temperament Patterns of Personality Temperament as Personality?R Cloninger, 2004:: Temperament as Personality? R Cloninger, 2004: “Temperament can be reliably measured and studied by self-report and by observations at many levels of organization from genetic, chemical, anatomical, and physiological to behavioral. Temperament provides a useful account of individual differences in processes of selective attention and emotional salience… Temperament as Personality?: Temperament as Personality? “…but does not stand alone as a description of human personality or consciousness. It provides no account of the self-organizing property of human personality, which gives it properties of executive control or empathic cooperation as observed in primates generally. Temperament as Personality?: Temperament as Personality? “It also provides no account of intuition or subjective awareness that underlies uniquely human characteristics such as symbolic invention, or the drive for coherence and integration itself.” [R. Cloninger (2004): Feeling Good – The Science of Well-Being] Cloninger’s Personality Factors: Cloninger’s Personality Factors Harm Avoidance Novelty Seeking Dependence Persistence Self-Aware Consciousness or Intuitive Senses of… Being Freedom Beauty Truth Goodness Self-Directedness Cooperativeness Self-Transcendence Chess and Thomas’ Nine Aspects of Temperament: Matching: Chess and Thomas’ Nine Aspects of Temperament: Matching Activity Level (the motor activity) Rhythmicity (regularity of functions) Approach (positive response to new stimuli vs. withdrawal) Adaptability (ease with which responses are modified) Threshold of Responsiveness (sensitivity level) Intensity of Reaction (the general energy level of a response) Quality of Mood (the intensity and nature of emotional responsiveness) Distractablity (responsiveness to extraneous stimuli altering ongoing behavior) Attention span/persistence (vigilance in attending to task at hand) IPNB Approach to Personality: IPNB Approach to Personality What is the influence of temperament or “constitutional predispositions” on the developing mind? How do Attachment Experiences interact with Constitution Predispositions to influence the development of Personality – the regulation of energy and information flow that is the Mind? IPNB and Personality: IPNB and Personality Development harnesses genetic factors to shape neural connections by way of direct effects, experiential influences, and adaptive mechanisms. Each of these three processes utilize GENES in the formation of synaptic connections EPI-GENESIS is the way that experiences influence neural connectivity in characteristic ways based on genetic information Epigenetics and Personality: Epigenetics and Personality Predict general PATTERNS of Developmental Pathways over a lifespan. Development is NON-LINEAR, meaning that small inputs can lead to large and Un-predictable outcomes. Why then propose Patterns? Chaos and Rigidity: Two banks on the flow of the river of life. Some General Principles: Some General Principles Memory embeds prior experiences in neural connections in the brain. The brain is an associational organ and matches present firing patterns with those of the past. The brain is an anticipation machine - linking the present with what it expects in the future based on experiences in the past. The Brain is a Social Organ: The Brain is a Social Organ The structure and function of the brain is to engage with other people, other brains, in the shaping of its development over time and in shaping its activity in the present. Mirror Neurons and the capacity to develop empathy and insight = MINDSIGHT Patterns of Developmental Pathways: PDP: Patterns of Developmental Pathways: PDP Overview: (a) Underlying Motivations (b) Organizing Patterns (c) Operating Patterns Observable Personality Traits PDP a: A Working Model – Underlying Motivations: PDP a: A Working Model – Underlying Motivations Mechanisms of Memory lead to sharp contrast between Passive-Receptive state in-utero and the Active-Engaged state of post-birth life – “From the Being to Doing.” Constitutional Factors shape the Salience of Three Core Need Sets that create a drive or underlying motivation of the child – All needs are relevant, some are more salient than others. Assumes Innate Drive toward “Satisfactory Survival.” PDP b: Organizing Patterns: PDP b: Organizing Patterns The Basic Need Sets form the Underlying Motivation which Focuses the Organization of Attention and the subsequent Adaptive Strategy: Organization of Attention – Primary Orientation Bias and Fundamental Appraisal (Primary Emotion) Adaptive Strategy (the “DOING”) PDP c: Operating Pattern : PDP c: Operating Pattern Information Processing - IP – (thought patterns) PLUS Affective Tone and Regulation - ATR – (feeling and mood) Behavioral Strategy to achieve the 3 Core Need Sets (behavioral expressions and defensive patterns) PDP d : Personality Patterns: PDP d : Personality Patterns Externally Observable: Behavioral Traits Internal – reportable by subject: Mental Preoccupations and Feelings Available in various degrees to research investigations by direct observations and subjective reporting Manifestations of the Operating Pattern Organizing Pattern Underlying Motivation The Neurobiology of Personality: The Neurobiology of Personality The essential importance of distinguishing Personality Substrate versus Correlate [Davidson, R.J. (2004): The neurobiology of personality and personality disorders, In: D.S. Charney and E.J. Nester (Eds.), Neurobiology of Mental Illness, Second Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ] How Do We KNOW and Re-Create Our Selves across Time?: How Do We KNOW and Re-Create Our Selves across Time? The Brain and Autobiographical Memory Autonoetic Consciousness: Self-Awareness Life Stories: Narratives and the Brain – How we reinforce our own Patterns [Siegel, DJ (1999) The Developing Mind, and Macrae, C.N., Heatherton, T.F., and Kelley, W.M. (2004): A self less ordinary: The medial prefrontal cortex and you, In: M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.): The Cognitive Neurosciences III.] How do we know our Self Traits?: How do we know our Self Traits? While the Right hemisphere appears to specialize in Autobiographical Memory, recent studies suggest that it is the Left hemisphere that creates and stores factual knowledge about SELF TRAITS. [Klein, S.B. (2004): The cognitive neuroscience of knowing one’s self, In: M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.): The Cognitive Neurosciences III] PDP: Possible Neurobiological Aspects: PDP: Possible Neurobiological Aspects Some Intriguing Possibilities and Questions: Primacy of Approach-Avoid Internal versus External Orientation Linkage of Perception, Processing, and Action Modified Triune Brain – Brainstem – Limbic/Right Hemisphere – Left Hemisphere Mirror Neurons Drive toward Integration and Coherence The Brain in the Palm of Your Hand: The Brain in the Palm of Your Hand The Brain: A Systems View of Brain Anatomy, Function, and The Mind: The Brain: A Systems View of Brain Anatomy, Function, and The Mind PDP a: Basic Need Sets: Underlying Motivation: PDP a: Basic Need Sets: Underlying Motivation PDP: Three Layers of Distribution: PDP: Three Layers of Distribution Underlying Motivation (BrainStem, LimbicRight, Left Predisposition) Organizing Pattern (Internal Predilection, I/E, External Predilection) Operating Pattern (BrainStem, LimbicRight, Left Manifestation) PDP e: Distributions: PDP e: Distributions PDP f: Movement Toward Coherence: PDP f: Movement Toward Coherence Interpersonal Neurobiology predicts that the movement toward well-being is created as the system connects its disparate elements into a functional whole. This INTEGRATION creates a FACES pathway: flexible, adaptive, coherent, energized and stable Personality Type’s rigid boundaries loosen with increased well-being. FACES: FACES Within an individual’s life, the PDP can lead to a very cohesive adaptive strategy in which the pattern has RESTRICTED the person’s internal and interpersonal experiences and made them prone to CHAOTIC outbursts as well. The movement toward well-being is a movement toward INTEGRATION. Integration, Coherence, and PDP: Integration, Coherence, and PDP Coherence entails a flexible state of harmony that embraces the many aspects of neural functioning and interpersonal connections ::: Brain Stem, Limbic/Right and Left Hemisphere processes. As Integration is achieved across the numerous dimensions of living, a sense of the unity of being is revealed [Siegel, DJ (in press) Mindsight] Moving Toward Coherence: Moving Toward Coherence Dissolving the role of Invariant Representations (Top-Down Processing) that shape the ways we perceive incoming simtuli. Jeff Hawkins’Memory-Prediction Framework and Invariant Representations: On Intelligence (2004): Jeff Hawkins’Memory-Prediction Framework and Invariant Representations: On Intelligence (2004) The Low Road: The Low Road Temporarily Disengaging the Middle Aspect of the Prefrontal Cortex dissolves the nine functions of the PFC including Body Regulation, Attunement, Emotional Balance, Response Flexibility, Empathy, Self-Knowing Awareness, Fear Extinction, Intuition, and Morality The Optical Delusion of Isolation: The Optical Delusion of Isolation Albert Einstein had a sense of the importance of this issue when he stated: “A human being is a part of the whole, called by us ‘Universe,’ a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the rest, a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. Slide45: This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. Nobody is able to achieve this completely, but the striving for such achievement is in itself a part of the liberation and a foundation for inner security." PDP and Compassionate Connections: PDP and Compassionate Connections With the realization of ones Patterns of Development, ironically self-awareness enables the restrictive adaptations to relax and a wider range of possibilities become realized in the internal and interpersonal worlds. We are ultimately a part of the same essence. Deep neurobiological analyses reveals the ultimate connection of each of us to the larger whole.