ATP cycle

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Information about ATP cycle
Health & Medicine

Published on March 27, 2014

Author: mprasadnaidu



energy and role of ATP cycle

ATP CYCLE M.Prasad Naidu MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D.Research Scholar

 The term high-E compounds or energy rich compounds is usually applied to substances which possess sufficient free E to liberate at least 7 Cal/mol at pH 7.0  The compounds which liberate less than 7.0 Cal/mol are referred to as low-E compounds.  Most of the high E compounds contain PO4 3- (exception acetyl CoA) hence they are called high E phosphate compounds.

Compounds ΔG0 (Cal/mol) Phosphoenol pyruvate -14.8 Carbamoyl phosphate -12.3 Cyclic AMP -12.0 1,3bisphosphoglycerate -11.8 phosphocreatine -10.3 Acetyl phosphate -10.3 SAM -10.0 Pyrophosphate -8.0 Acetyl CoA -7.7

ADP→AMP+Pi -6.6 Glucose-1- phosphate -5.0 Fructose-6- Phosphate -3.8 Glucose-6- phosphate -3.3 Glycerol-3- phosphate -2.2

 1. Pyrophosphates e.g. ATP  2. Acyl phosphates e.g. 1,3-bisphosphogly  3. Enol phosphates e.g. PEP  4. Thioesters e.g. acetyl CoA  5. Phosphagenes e.g. phosphocreatine

 The living objects require a continuous supply of FE mainly for  1. to synthesize macromolecules from simpler & smaller precursors  2. to transport molecules and ions across membranes against gradients and  3. to perform mechanical work, as in the muscle contraction etc.,

 The FE in these processes is derived from the environment.  The phototrophs obtain this E by trapping light E from the SUN.  On the other hand, chemotrophs obtain it by the oxidation of food stuffs.  This FE is partly transformed into special form b4 it is used for biosynthesis, tpt, motion and fidelity.  This special carrier of FE is ATP.  ATP plays a central role in the transference of FE from exergonic to the endergonic processes in the cells.

 ATP donates much of its chemical E to energy requiring processes (biosynthesis, transport) by undergoing a breakdown to ADP and Pi.  ATP was discovered in extracts of skeletal muscles by Karl Lohmann in GE and by Cyrus Fiske and Y.Subbarow (US) simultaneously in 1929.  Later it was found to be present in all types of cells- animal, plant and microbial.

 Fritz.A.Lipmann a GE born US biochemist postulated that ATP is the 10 and universal carrier of chemical E in cells.(Nobel prize)  He also first proposed the ATP Cycle , and is popularly known as Father of ATP cycle.  He introduced squiggle notation to designate E rich bonds of biomolecules such as ATP and ADP.

 ATP, ADP & AMP occur not only in cell cytosol but also in MC and the nucleus.  ATP serves as the principal immediate donor of FE in biological systems rather than as a storage form of E.  In a typical cell, an ATP molecule is consumed with in a minute of its formation.  The turnover of ATP is very high.  For instance , a resting human consumes about 40kg ATP in a day.

 The endergonic processess such as bio- synthesis, active tpt etc can occur only if ATP is continuously regenerated from ATP  Phototrophs harvest the FE in light to regenerate ATP where as chemotrophs form ATP by the oxidation of food stuffs.

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