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Astronomy Today (8th Edition)

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Information about Astronomy Today (8th Edition)
Science-Technology

Published on September 21, 2017

Author: TradingBooks

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slide 2: 8e Astronomy Today slide 3: This page intentionally left blank slide 4: 8e Astronomy Today Eric Chaisson Harvard University Steve McMillan Drexel University Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo slide 5: Publisher: Jim Smith Executive Editor: Nancy Whilton Editorial Manager: Laura Kenney Project Editor: Tema Goodwin Content Producers: Kate Brayton Ziki Dekel Development Editor: Barbara Price Director of Marketing: Christy Lesko Marketing Manager: Will Moore Director of Product Management Services: Erin Gregg Team Lead Program and Project Management: Corinne Benson Compositor: Cenveo® Publisher Services Production Service: Thistle Hill Publishing Services Illustrations: Rolin Graphics Inc. Design Manager: Mark Ong Interior and Cover Design: Jeanne Calabrese Manufacturing Buyer: Jeffrey Sargent Specialist Rights and Permissions: Joseph Croscup Image Permissions Coordinator: Maya Melunchuk Photo Research: Stefanie Ramsay Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Printer and Binder: R. R. Donnelley Cover Images: Main Edition: ESO/S. Guisard www.eso.org/sguisard Vol. 1: The Solar System: NASA JPL-Caltech MSSS Mastcam Vol. 2: Stars and Galaxies: ESO/F. Comeron Copyright © 2014 2011 2008 2005 Pearson Education Inc. 1301 Sansome St. San Francisco CA 94111. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction storage in a retrieval system or transmission in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or likewise. To obtain permissions to use material from this work please submit a written request to Pearson Education Inc. Permissions Department 1900 E. Lake Ave. Glenview IL 60025. For information regarding permissions call 847 486-2635. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. MasteringAstronomy® is a trademark in the U.S. and/or other countries of Pearson Education Inc. or its affiliates. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Chaisson Eric author. Astronomy today / Eric Chaisson Harvard University Steve McMillan Drexel University. — Eighth edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-321-90167-5 student edition — ISBN 978-0-321-90971-8 volume 1 — ISBN 978-0-321-90972-5 volume 2 — ISBN 978-0-13-341279-6 nasta 1. Astronomy—Textbooks. I. McMillan S. Stephen 1955– author. II. Title. QB43.3.C48 2014 520—dc23 2013019295 ISBN 10 digit 0-321-90167-3 13-digit 978-0-321-90167-5 Student edition ISBN 10-digit 0-321-90971-2 13-digit 978-0-321-90971-8 Volume 1 ISBN 10-digit 0-321-90972-0 13-digit 978-0-321-90972-5 Volume 2 ISBN 10-digit 0-13-341279-2 13-digit 978-0-13-341279-6 NASTA www.pearsonhighered.com 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—VHC—19 18 17 16 15 14 13 slide 6: Brief Contents Part One: Astronomy and the Universe 2 1 Charting the Heavens: The Foundations of Astronomy 4 2 The Copernican Revolution: The Birth of Modern Science 32 3 Radiation: Information from the Cosmos 58 4 Spectroscopy: The Inner Workings of Atoms 78 5 Telescopes: The Tools of Astronomy 98 Part Two: Our Planetary System 132 6 The Solar System: Comparative Planetology and Formation Models 134 7 Earth: Our Home in Space 160 8 The Moon and Mercury: Scorched and Battered Worlds 188 9 Venus: Earth’s Sister Planet 216 10 Mars: A Near Miss for Life 236 11 Jupiter: Giant of the Solar System 264 12 Saturn: Spectacular Rings and Mysterious Moons 290 13 Uranus and Neptune: The Outer Worlds of the Solar System 318 14 Solar System Debris: Keys to Our Origin 338 15 Exoplanets: Planetary Systems Beyond Our Own 366 Part Three: Stars and Stellar Evolution 386 16 The Sun: Our Parent Star 388 17 The Stars: Giants Dwarfs and the Main Sequence 420 18 The Interstellar Medium: Gas and Dust among the Stars 448 19 Star Formation: A Traumatic Birth 468 20 Stellar Evolution: The Life and Death of a Star 494 21 Stellar Explosions: Novae Supernovae and the Formation of the Elements 520 22 Neutron Stars and Black Holes: Strange States of Matter 542 Part Four: Galaxies and Cosmology 574 23 The Milky Way Galaxy: A Spiral in Space 576 24 Galaxies: Building Blocks of the Universe 606 25 Galaxies and Dark Matter: The Large-Scale Structure of the Cosmos 638 26 Cosmology: The Big Bang and the Fate of the Universe 666 27 The Early Universe: Toward the Beginning of Time 688 28 Life in the Universe: Are We Alone 714 slide 7: About the Authors  xxi Preface  xxiii Part One: Astronomy and the Universe 2 1 Charting the Heavens The Foundations of Astronomy  4 1.1 Our Place in Space  6 1.2 Scientific Theory and the Scientific Method  8 1.3 The “Obvious” View  10 1.4 Earth’s Orbital Motion  13 More Precisely 1-1 Angular Measure  14 1.5 The Motion of the Moon  18 1.6 The Measurement of Distance  24 More Precisely 1-2 Measuring Distances with Geometry  28 Chapter Review  29 2 The Copernican Revolution The Birth of Modern Science  32 2.1 Ancient Astronomy  34 2.2 The Geocentric Universe  36 2.3 The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System  39 Discovery 2-1 Foundations of the Copernican Revolution  40 2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy  41 2.5 The Laws of Planetary Motion  44 More Precisely 2-1 Some Properties of Planetary Orbits  46 2.6 The Dimensions of the Solar System  47 2.7 Newton’s Laws  49 2.8 Newtonian Mechanics  52 More Precisely 2-2 Weighing the Sun  54 Chapter Review  56 3 Radiation Information from the Cosmos  58 3.1 Information from the Skies  60 3.2 Waves in What  63 3.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum  65 Discovery 3-1 The Wave Nature of Radiation  67 3.4 Thermal Radiation  68 More Precisely 3-1 The Kelvin Temperature Scale  69 More Precisely 3-2 More About the Radiation Laws  72 3.5 The Doppler Effect  73 More Precisely 3-3 Measuring Velocities with the Doppler Effect  75 Chapter Review  76 Contents slide 8: 4 Spectroscopy The Inner Workings of Atoms  78 4.1 Spectral Lines  80 4.2 Atoms and Radiation  84 More Precisely 4-1 The Hydrogen Atom  86 4.3 The Formation of Spectral Lines  87 Discovery 4-1 The Photoelectric Effect  88 4.4 Molecules  91 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis  92 Chapter Review  95 5 Telescopes The Tools of Astronomy  98 5.1 Optical Telescopes  100 5.2 Telescope Size  105 5.3 Images and Detectors  109 5.4 High-Resolution Astronomy  111 5.5 Radio Astronomy  114 5.6 Interferometry  118 5.7 Space-Based Astronomy  121 Discovery 5-1 The ALMA Array  124 5.8 Full-Spectrum Coverage  128 Chapter Review  129 Part Two: Our Planetary System 132 6 The Solar System Comparative Planetology and Formation Models  134 6.1 An Inventory of the Solar System  136 6.2 Measuring the Planets  138 6.3 The Overall Layout of the Solar System  139 6.4 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets  140 Discovery 6-1 Gravitational “Slingshots”  142 6.5 Interplanetary Matter  143 6.6 How Did the Solar System Form  144 Discovery 6-2 Spacecraft Exploration of the Solar System  146 More Precisely 6-1 Angular Momentum  149 6.7 Jovian Planets and Planetary Debris  152 Chapter Review  156 7 Earth Our Home in Space  160 7.1 Overall Structure of Planet Earth  162 7.2 Earth’s Atmosphere  162 More Precisely 7-1 Why Is the Sky Blue  165 Contents vii slide 9: viii Contents Discovery 7-1 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  167 7.3 Earth’s Interior  168 More Precisely 7-2 Radioactive Dating  172 7.4 Surface Activity  173 7.5 Earth’s Magnetosphere  180 7.6 The Tides  182 Chapter Review  185 8 The Moon and Mercury Scorched and Battered Worlds  188 8.1 Orbital Properties  190 8.2 Physical Properties  191 8.3 Surface Features on the Moon and Mercury  192 8.4 Rotation Rates  195 More Precisely 8-1 Why Air Sticks Around  196 Discovery 8-1 Lunar Exploration  198 8.5 Lunar Cratering and Surface Composition  201 8.6 The Surface of Mercury  206 8.7 Interiors  208 8.8 The Origin of the Moon  210 8.9 Evolutionary History of the Moon and Mercury  211 Chapter Review  213 9 Venus Earth’s Sister Planet  216 9.1 Orbital Properties  218 9.2 Physical Properties  219 9.3 Long-Distance Observations of Venus  220 9.4 The Surface of Venus  221 9.5 The Atmosphere of Venus  228 9.6 Venus’s Magnetic Field and Internal Structure  232 Chapter Review  233 10 Mars A Near Miss for Life  236 10.1 Orbital Properties  238 10.2 Physical Properties  239 10.3 Long-Distance Observations of Mars  239 10.4 The Martian Surface  240 10.5 Water on Mars  244 Discovery 10-1 Life on Mars  250 10.6 The Martian Atmosphere  256 10.7 Martian Internal Structure   259 10.8 The Moons of Mars  260 Chapter Review  261 slide 10: Contents ix 11 Jupiter Giant of the Solar System  264 11.1 Orbital and Physical Properties  266 11.2 Jupiter Atmosphere  268 Discovery 11-1 A Cometary Impact  274 11.3 Internal Structure  274 Discovery 11-2 Almost a Star  276 11.4 Jupiter’s Magnetosphere  277 11.5 The Moons of Jupiter  279 11.6 Jupiter’s Ring  287 Chapter Review  287 12 Saturn Spectacular Rings and Mysterious Moons  290 12.1 Orbital and Physical Properties  292 12.2 Saturn’s Atmosphere  293 12.3 Saturn’s Interior and Magnetosphere  296 12.4 Saturn’s Spectacular Ring System  298 12.5 The Moons of Saturn  304 Discovery 12-1 Dancing Among Saturn’s Moons  306 Chapter Review  315 13 Uranus and Neptune The Outer Worlds of the Solar System  318 13.1 The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune  320 13.2 Orbital and Physical Properties  322 13.3 The Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune  324 13.4 Magnetospheres and Internal Structure  326 13.5 The Moon Systems of Uranus and Neptune  328 13.6 The Rings of the Outermost Jovian Planets  332 Chapter Review  335 14 Solar System Debris Keys to Our Origin  338 14.1 Asteroids  340 14.2 Comets  345 Discovery 14-1 What Killed the Dinosaurs  350 14.3 Beyond Neptune  353 14.4 Meteroids  358 Chapter Review  363 15 EXOPLANETS Planetary Systems Beyond Our Own  366 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation  368 15.2 Solar System Regularities and Irregularities  369 slide 11: x Contents 15.3 Searching for Extrasolar Planets  370 15.4 Exoplanet Properties  373 Discovery 15-1 The Closest Exoplanet  376 15.5 Is Our Solar System Unusual  379 Chapter Review  383 Part Three: Stars and Stellar Evolution  386 16 The Sun Our Parent Star  388 16.1 Physical Properties of the Sun  390 16.2 The Solar Interior  392 Discovery 16-1 Eavesdropping on the Sun  395 16.3 The Sun’s Atmosphere  397 16.4 Solar Magnetism  400 16.5 The Active Sun  405 Discovery 16-2 Solar–Terrestrial Relations  409 16.6 The Heart of the Sun  410 More Precisely 16-1 Fundamental Forces  413 16.7 Observations of Solar Neutrinos  414 More Precisely 16-2 Energy Generation in the Proton–Proton Chain  416 Chapter Review  417 17 The Stars Giants Dwarfs and the Main Sequence  420 17.1 The Solar Neighborhood  422 17.2 Luminosity and Apparent Brightness  425 17.3 Stellar Temperatures  428 More Precisely 17-1 More on the Magnitude Scale  430 17.4 Stellar Sizes  432 More Precisely 17-2 Estimating Stellar Radii  433 17.5 The Hertzsprung–Russell Diagram  434 17.6 Extending the Cosmic Distance Scale  437 17.7 Stellar Masses  440 More Precisely 17-3 Measuring Stellar Masses in Binary Stars  443 17.8 Mass and Other Stellar Properties  442 Chapter Review  445 18 The Interstellar Medium Gas and Dust Among The Stars  448 18.1 Interstellar Matter  450 18.2 Emission Nebulae  453 18.3 Dark Dust Clouds  459 18.4 21-Centimeter Radiation  462 18.5 Interstellar Molecules  463 Chapter Review  465 slide 12: Contents xi 19 Star Formation A Traumatic Birth  468 19.1 Star-Forming Regions  470 More Precisely 19-1 Competition in Star Formation  471 19.2 The Formation of Stars Like the Sun  472 19.3 Stars of Other Masses  477 19.4 Observations of Cloud Fragments and Protostars  478 Discovery 19-1 Observations of Brown Dwarfs  479 19.5 Shock Waves and Star Formation  484 19.6 Star Clusters  486 Discovery 19-2 Eta Carinae  490 Chapter Review  491 20 Stellar Evolution The Life and Death of a Star  494 20.1 Leaving the Main Sequence  496 20.2 Evolution of a Sun-Like Star  496 20.3 The Death of a Low-Mass Star  502 Discovery 20-1 Learning Astronomy from History  508 20.4 Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun  509 Discovery 20-2 Mass Loss from Giant Stars  511 20.5 Observing Stellar Evolution in Star Clusters  512 20.6 Stellar Evolution in Binary Systems  515 Chapter Review  517 21 Stellar Explosions Novae Supernovae and the Formation of the Elements  520 21.1 Life after Death for White Dwarfs  522 21.2 The End of a High-Mass Star  524 21.3 Supernovae  526 21.4 The Formation of the Elements  530 Discovery 21-1 Supernova 1987A  532 21.5 The Cycle of Stellar Evolution  538 Chapter Review  539 22 Neutron Stars and Black Holes Strange States of Matter  542 22.1 Neutron Stars  544 22.2 Pulsars  545 22.3 Neutron-Star Binaries  548 22.4 Gamma-Ray Bursts  552 22.5 Black Holes  555 22.6 Einstein’s Theories of Relativity  557 Discovery 22-1 Special Relativity  559 22.7 Space Travel Near Black Holes  561 slide 13: xii Contents 22.8 Observational Evidence for Black Holes  564 More Precisely 22-1 Tests of General Relativity  566 Discovery 22-2 Gravity Waves: A New Window on the Universe  568 Chapter Review  571 Part Four: Galaxies and Cosmology  574 23 The Milky Way Galaxy A Spiral in Space  576 23.1 Our Parent Galaxy  578 23.2 Measuring the Milky Way  579 Discovery 23-1 Early “Computers”  584 23.3 Galactic Structure  586 23.4 The Formation of the Milky Way  589 23.5 Galactic Spiral Arms  591 Discovery 23-2 Density Waves  594 23.6 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy  595 23.7 The Galactic Center  599 Chapter Review  603 24 Galaxies Building Blocks of the Universe  606 24.1 Hubble’s Galaxy Classification  608 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space  615 24.3 Hubble’s Law  619 More Precisely 24-1 Relativistic Redshifts and Look-Back Time  622 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei  622 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy  630 Chapter Review  635 25 Galaxies and Dark Matter The Large-Scale Structure of the Cosmos  638 25.1 Dark Matter in the Universe  640 25.2 Galaxy Collisions  643 25.3 Galaxy Formation and Evolution  645 Discovery 25-1 The Sloan Digital Sky Survey  651 25.4 Black Holes in Galaxies  652 25.5 The Universe on Large Scales  656 Chapter Review  663 26 Cosmology The Big Bang and the Fate of the Universe  666 26.1 The Universe on the Largest Scales  668 26.2 The Expanding Universe  670 26.3 The Fate of the Cosmos  673 slide 14: Contents xiii 26.4 The Geometry of Space  675 More Precisely 26-1 Curved Space  677 26.5 Will the Universe Expand Forever  678 26.6 Dark Energy and Cosmology  680 Discovery 26-1 Einstein and the Cosmological Constant  681 26.7 The Cosmic Microwave Background  683 Chapter Review  685 27 The Early Universe Toward the Beginning of Time  688 27.1 Back to the Big Bang  690 27.2 Evolution of the Universe  693 More Precisely 27-1 More on Fundamental Forces  694 27.3 Formation of Nuclei and Atoms  697 27.4 The Inflationary Universe  700 27.5 Formation of Structure in the Universe  705 27.6 Cosmic Structure and the Microwave Background  707 Chapter Review  711 28 Life in the Universe Are We Alone  714 28.1 Cosmic Evolution  716 Discovery 28-1 The Virus  717 28.2 Life in the Solar System  722 28.3 Intelligent Life in the Galaxy  724 28.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence  729 Chapter Review  733 Appendices Appendix 1 Scientific Notation  A-1 Appendix 2 Astronomical Measurement  A-2 Appendix 3 Tables  A-3 Glossary G-1 Answers to Check Questions AK-1 Answers to Self-Test Questions AK-6 Photo Credits/Text Permissions C-1 Index I-1 Star Charts S-1 slide 15: This page intentionally left blank slide 16: xv Online Contents PART ONE: ASTRONOMy AND THE UNIVERSE 2 Chapter 1 Charting the Heavens 4 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Constellation Orion 10 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Celestial Sphere 12 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Northern Sky 12 • ANIMATION/VIDEO Summer Solstice 13 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE The Zodiac 15 • ANIMATION/VIDEO Winter Solstice 16 • ANIMATION/VIDEO The Earth’s Seasons 16 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Seasons 16 • ANIMATION/VIDEO The Equinoxes 17 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Precession 18 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Phases of the Moon 19 • NARRATED FIGURE Lunar Phases 19 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Sidereal Month 20 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Lunar Eclipse 20 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Types of Solar Eclipse 21 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Solar Eclipse in Indiana 21 Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution 32 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Retr ograde Motion of Mars 37 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Geocentric Model 38 • ANIMATION/VIDEO Geocentric Solar System 39 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Heliocentric Solar System 39 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Retrograde Motion 41 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Venus Phases 43 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Ellipse 45 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Kepler’s Second Law 46 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Earth Captur es a Temporary Moon 52 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Orbits 53 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Escape Speed 55 Chapter 3 Radiation 58 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Water Wave 61 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Wave Proper-ties 61 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Solar Eclipse Viewed in X-rays 66 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Multispectral View of Orion Nebula 66 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Earth Aur ora in X-rays 66 • NARRATED INTERACTIVE FIGURE Electromagnetic Spectrum 66 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Fr esnel Diffraction 67 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Continuous Spectra and Blackbody Radiation 70 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Astronomical Thermometer 71 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Doppler Effect 73 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Doppler Effect 74 Chapter 4 Spectroscopy 78 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Continuous and Emission Spectra 81 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Emission Spectra 82 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Absorption Spectra 82 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Absorption Spectrum 82 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Sodium Spectrum 83 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Classical Hydr ogen Atom I 86 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Classical Hydr ogen Atom II 86 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Atomic Excitation 89 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Multispectral Views of the Orion Nebula 91 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Doppler Shift 93 Chapter 5 Telescopes 98 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL The Optics of a Simple Lens 101 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Chr omatic Aberration 102 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Reflecting Telescopes 103 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hubble Space Telescope in Orbit 104 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Gemini Contr ol Room 107 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Resolving Power 108 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Constr ucting an Image from Colored Filters 110 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Adaptive Optics 114 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Deployment of the James Webb Space Telescope 122 • ANIMATION/VIDEO Chandra Light and Data Paths 126 • NARRATED FIGURE Multiple Wavelengths 128 PART TWO: OUR PLANETARy SySTEM 132 Chapter 6 The Solar System 134 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO An Astr onomical Ruler 139 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The Gas Giants 141 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Size and Scale of the Terrestrial Planets I II 141 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Gravitational Assist 142 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Nebular Contraction 145 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Solar System Formation 152 slide 17: • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pr otoplanetary Disk Destruction 153 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pr otoplanetary Disks in the Orion Nebula 153 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Jovian Condensation 153 Chapter 7 Earth 160 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Earth as Seen by Galileo 164 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO NEAR Earth Swingby 164 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Ozone Hole Over the Antarctic 166 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL The Greenhouse Effect 166 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Gr eenhouse Effect 166 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Plate Drift 178 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Norther n and Southern Lights 182 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Solar and Lunar Tides 184 Chapter 8 The Moon and Mercury 188 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO T ransit of Mercury 191 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Full Rotation of Moon 193 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Lunar Flyby 193 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE The Moon’ s Synchronous Rotation 195 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO First Step on the Moon 198 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Ranger Spacecraft Descent to Moon 199 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Mer cury’ s Rotation 200 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Meteor oid Impact 201 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pr otoplanetary Collision 209 • NARRATED FIGURE Moon Formation 211 Chapter 9 Venus 216 • NARRA TED FIGURE V enus’ s Brightness 218 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Super - spaceship—Voyage to Venus 219 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The Rotation of Venus 219 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO T ransit of V enus 220 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO T opography of Venus 222 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Flight Over Alpha Regio 225 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Flight Over Sif Mons Volcano 225 Chapter 10 Mars 236 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hubble View of Mars 240 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Mars Map 241 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Flight Over Tharsis 242 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Flight Over Mariner Valley 243 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Comparative Planetology: Mars 245 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Meteorites Ejected from Mars 251 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hubble View of Mars Polar Cap 252 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Flight Over Opportunity at Gustav Crater 254 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Mars Rover Landing 254 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Flight Over Columbia Hills 254 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Atmospheric Lifetimes 257 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Martian Moons: Phobos Deimos 260 Chapter 11 Jupiter 264 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Jupiter— Differential Rotation 267 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Jupiter’ s Rotation 268 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Rotational Flattening 268 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Zonal Flow 270 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Galileo Mission to Jupiter 272 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Comet Impact with Jupiter 275 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The Gas Giants II 276 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Galilean Moons Transit Jupiter 279 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Galilean Moons 279 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Io Cutaway 280 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE V o l c a n o e s o n Io 282 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Galileo’s View of Europa 284 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Galileo’s View of Ganymede 285 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Mission 286 Chapter 12 Saturn 290 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Satur n Cloud Rotation 295 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Satur n Ring Plane Crossing 298 • NARRATED FIGURE Roche Limit 299 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Satur n’ s Rings Up Close 301 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Voyager Ring Spokes 302 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Satur n Satellite Transit 303 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Huygens Landing on Titan 309 Chapter 13 Uranus and Neptune 318 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Neptune’ s Dark Spot 321 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Rotation of Uranus 324 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Rotation of Neptune 325 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Jovian Magnetic Fields 327 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Jovian Interiors 327 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Geysers on Triton 331 Chapter 14 Solar System Debris 338 • NARRA TED INTERACTIVE Inner Solar System 340 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Orbiting Er os 341 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO NEAR Descent 341 xvi slide 18: • ANIMA TION/VIDEO NEAR Landing 341 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Sun Grazing Comets 346 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Anatomy of a Comet Part 1 346 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Comet Hale-Bopp Nucleus Animation 347 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Anatomy of a Comet Part 2 347 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Deep Impact Simulation 352 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Comet Wild-2 352 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Deep Impact 352 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Orbits of Neptune and Pluto 354 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Neptune and Pluto 354 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hubble’s View of Pluto 355 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Historical Observations of Pluto 355 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Aster oid/Comet Breakup 359 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Delta Capricor nid Meteor Near Orion 359 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Daytime Passage of Meteor Fireball 359 Chapter 15 Exoplanets 366 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pr otoplanetary Disks in the Orion Nebula 369 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pr otoplanetary Disk Destruction 369 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Evolution of Protoplanetary Disk 370 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The For mation of the Solar System 370 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Planets Revealed 372 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE An Extrasolar Transit 373 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hot Jupiter Extrasolar Planet Evaporating 380 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Survey for Transiting Extrasolar Planets 380 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Jupiter -like Planet 380 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE S i n k i n g Planet 380 PART THREE: STARS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION 386 Chapter 16 The Sun 388 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Super - Spaceship—Voyage to the Sun 390 • NARRATED FIGURE Stellar Balance 392 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Solar Granulation 396 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Solar Chromosphere 399 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Sunspot 401 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Solar Flar e 407 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Cor onal Mass Ejections 407 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Solar Fusion 412 Chapter 17 The Stars 420 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Stellar Parallax 422 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The Inverse-Square Law 425 • NARRATED FIGURE Inverse-Square Law 425 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Appar ent Magnitude 427 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE H–R Diagram of Well-Known Stars 435 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE H–R Diagram of Nearby Stars 435 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO White Dwarfs in Globular Cluster 436 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Hertzspr ung– Russell Diagram 436 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Binary Stars— Radial Velocity Curves 440 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Spectr oscopic Binary 440 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Eclipsing Binary Stars—Light Curves 441 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Eclipsing Binary 441 Chapter 18 The Interstellar Medium 448 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pillars Behind the Dust 451 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Infrared View of Nebulae 451 • NARRA TED FIGURE Reddening 451 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Orion Nebula Mosaic 453 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The T arantula Nebula 454 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE T rifid Nebula 454 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Gaseous Pillars of Star Birth the Eagle Nebula 456 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Horsehead Nebula 461 Chapter 19 Star Formation 468 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Stellar Birth 475 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Newbor n Star on the H–R Diagram 476 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Binary Br own Dwarfs 479 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Orion Nebula Up Close 481 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pr otostars 482 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Herbig–Har o Objects 483 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Bipolar Outflow 483 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO T rigger ed Star Formation 485 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Pr otostellar Collisions 489 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Y oung Stars in Orion 489 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Carina Nebula 490 Chapter 20 Stellar Evolution 494 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO H–R Diagram T racks Stellar Evolution 498 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Red Giant Evolution 499 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Death of the Sun Part 1 502 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE G-T ype Star Evolution 502 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Death of the Sun Part II 503 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Helix Nebula Animation 504 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Helix Nebula 504 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Bi-Polar Planetary Nebula 504 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE White Dwarf on the H–R Diagram 505 xvii slide 19: • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Helix Nebula White Dwarf 506 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO White Dwarf Cooling Sequence 506 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Evolution of a 1-Solar-Mass Star 507 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Light Echo 511 Chapter 21 Stellar Explosions 520 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Recur r ent Nova 523 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Heavy- Element Fusion 524 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Str uctur e of Supernova 526 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Super nova Explosion 526 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Crab Supernova Remnant 529 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Super nova Remnant in Cassiopeia 530 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE V ela Supernova Remnant 530 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Composition and Structure of the Ring Around Supernova 1987A 533 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Shockwaves Hit the Ring of Supernova 1987A 533 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Stellar Recycling 538 Chapter 22 Neutron Stars and Black Holes 542 • NARRATED FIGURE Pulsar Model 546 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Pulsar in Crab Nebula 547 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO X-ray Binary Star 549 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Colliding Binary Neutron Stars 554 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Escape Speed and Black Hole Event Horizons 557 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE C u r v e d Space 560 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Ener gy Released from a Black Hole 563 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Gravitational Redshift 563 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Black Hole and Companion Star 565 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Black Hole Devours Neutron Star 565 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Stellar Black Hole 567 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Super massive Black Hole Black Hole in the Center of M32 569 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Black Hole Accretion Disk and Jets 569 PART FOUR: GALAXIES AND COSMOLOGy 574 Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy 576 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Cepheid V ariable Star in Distant Galaxy 581 • NARRATED FIGURE Globular Cluster Distribution 585 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Stellar Populations in Our Galaxy 585 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Infrar ed View of the Milky Way 587 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Milky Way Spiral Structure 592 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Differential Galactic Rotation 593 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Spiral Density Waves 593 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Rotating Globular Cluster 597 • SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL Gravitational Lensing 598 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Galactic Center 599 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO X-ray View of Galactic Core 600 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way 601 Chapter 24 Galaxies 606 • NARRATED FIGURE Galaxy Rotation 616 • • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Spacetime Diagram for an Extragalactic Supernova 623 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Active Galaxy 624 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO M87 Jet 628 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Er uption of a Supermassive Black Hole 628 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE M87 Jet 628 Chapter 25 Galaxies and Dark Matter 638 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Rotation Curve for a Merry-Go-Round 640 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Galaxy Rotation Curves 640 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Dark Matter 641 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Galaxy Collision 644 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Starburst Galaxy 644 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Starburst Galaxy 644 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The Evolution of Galaxies 647 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hubble Deep Field Zoom I 647 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Hubble Deep Field Zoom II 647 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Galaxy Merger 650 • NARRATED FIGURE Galaxy Evolution 655 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Cluster Merger 656 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Absorption Line “Forest” 659 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO How a Gravitational Lens Works 660 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Gravitational Lens 660 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Simulation of Gravitational Lens in Space 661 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Dark Matter Collision 662 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Bullet Cluster Collision 662 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Cluster Collision 662 xviii slide 20: Chapter 26 Cosmology 666 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Cosmic Structure 668 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE The Expanding Raisin Cake Universe 672 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Receding Galaxies 672 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Cosmological Redshift 673 Chapter 27 The Early Universe 688 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO The First Stars Reionize the Universe 696 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Creation of the Cosmic Microwave Background 699 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Cosmic Str uctur e 706 • NARRATED FIGURE Structure Formation 706 • INTERACTIVE FIGURE Early Structure 708 Chapter 28 Life in the Universe 714 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Icy Or ganics in Planet-Forming Disc 719 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Earth’ s Biospher e in Action: Plankton Bloom 722 • NARRATED FIGURE Drake Equation 725 • ANIMA TION/VIDEO Aster oid Impacting the Earth 728 xix slide 21: This page intentionally left blank slide 22: About the Authors Eric Chaisson Eric holds a doctorate in astrophysics from Harvard University where he spent 10 years on the faculty of Arts and Sciences. For more than two decades there- after he served on the senior science staff at the Space Telescope Science Institute and held various profes- sorships at Johns Hopkins and Tufts universities. He is now back at Harvard where he teaches and con- ducts research at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Eric has written 12 books on astronomy and has published nearly 200 scientific papers in pro- fessional journals. Steve McMillan Steve holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree in math- ematics from Cambridge University and a doctorate in astronomy from Harvard University. He held postdoctoral positions at the University of Illinois and Northwestern University where he continued his research in theoretical astrophysics star clusters and high-performance comput- ing. Steve is currently Distinguished Professor of Physics at Drexel University and a frequent visiting researcher at Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study and Leiden University. He has published more than 100 articles and scientific papers in professional journals. xxi slide 23: This page intentionally left blank slide 24: xxiii Preface Astronomy is a science that thrives on new discoveries. Fueled by new technologies and novel theoretical insights the study of the cosmos continues to change our understanding of the universe. W e are pleased to have the opportunity to present in this book a representative sample of the known facts evolving ideas and frontier discoveries in astronomy today. Astronomy Today has been written for students who have taken no previous college science courses and who will likely not major in physics or astronomy. It is intended for use in a one- or two-semester nontechnical astronomy course. We present a broad view of astronomy straightfor- wardly descriptive and without complex mathematics. The absence of sophisticated mathematics however in no way prevents discussion of important concepts. Rather we rely on qualitative reasoning as well as analogies with objects and phenomena familiar to the student to explain the complexi- ties of the subject without oversimplification. We have tried to communicate the excitement we feel about astronomy and to awaken students to the marvelous universe around us. We are very gratified that the first seven editions of this text have been so well received by many in the astronomy education community. In using those earlier texts many teachers and students have given us helpful feedback and constructive criticisms. From these we have learned to com- municate better both the fundamentals and the excitement of astronomy. Many improvements inspired by these comments have been incorporated into this new edition. Focus of the Eighth Edition From the first edition we have tried to meet the challenge of writing a book that is both accurate and approachable. To the student astronomy sometimes seems like a long list of unfamiliar terms to be memorized and repeated. Many new terms and concepts will be introduced in this course but we hope students will also learn and remember how science is done how the universe works and how things are connected. In the eighth edition we have taken particular care to show how astronomers know what they know and to highlight both the scientific principles underlying their work and the process used in discovery. New and Revised Material Astronomy is a rapidly evolving field and in the three years since the publication of the seventh edition of Astronomy Today has seen many new discoveries covering the entire spectrum of astronomical research. Almost every chapter in the eighth edition has been substantially updated with new information. Several chapters have also seen significant reorganization in order to streamline the overall presentation strengthen our focus on the process of science and reflect new understanding and emphases in contemporary astronomy. In addition to updates throughout the text on the num- bers and properties of the many astronomical objects the many substantive changes include the following: l A new Discovery box in Chapter 5 on the ALMA inter- ferometric array. l Significant revision in Chapter 5 of the discussion of infrared telescopes including new coverage of Herschel and introduction of the James Webb Space Telescope. l A new two-page box in Chapter 6 on planetary exploration. l Incorporation and reorganization of the entire “standard” theory of solar system formation into Chapter 6 laying the groundwork for interpreting the planetary data presented in Part 2 and allowing Chapter 15 to focus on solar system details irregularities and exoplanets. l Updated discussion in Discovery 8-1 of Chang’e GRAIL and other recent lunar missions new discussion of the Prospector LRO and LCROSS missions with updated coverage of the search for lunar ice. l Updated coverage in Chapter 8 of the lunar core and interior based on the latest GRAIL results. l Updated discussion in Chapter 8 of surface features on Mercury following the Messenger mission. l Updated discussion in Chapter 8 of Mercury’s inner and outer core and magnetic field and formation in light of new Messenger data. l Updated discussion in Chapter 9 of Venus Express find- ings and status. l Updated discussion in Chapter 10 of the collision hypoth- esis as the origin of the northern Martian lowlands. l Reorganized and updated discussion in Chapter 10 of liquid water on the Martian surface. l Updated discussion in Chapter 10 on the Spirit Opportunity and Phoenix landers new material on the Curiosity lander and its findings. l Revised discussion in Chapter 10 of the origin of the Martian moons. l Updated coverage of cometary impacts in Discovery 11-1 indicating that such impacts are commonplace in the solar system. slide 25: xxiv Preface The Illustration Program Visualization plays an important role in both the teaching and the practice of astronomy and we con- tinue to place strong emphasis on this aspect of our book. We have tried to combine aesthetic beauty with scientific accuracy in the art- ist’s conceptions that adorn the text and we have sought to pre- sent the best and latest imagery of a wide range of cosmic objects. Each illustration has been care- fully crafted to enhance student learning each is pedagogically sound and tied tightly to the nearby discus- sion of important scientific facts and ideas. This edition contains more than 100 revised figures that show the latest imagery and the results learned from them. Compound Art It is rare that a single image be it a pho- tograph or an artist’s conception can capture all aspects of a complex subject. Wherever possible multiple-part figures are used in an attempt to convey the greatest amount of information in the most vivid way: l Visible images are often presented along with their counter- parts captured at other wavelengths. l Interpretive line drawings are often superimposed on or juxtaposed with real astronomical photographs helping students to really “see” what the photographs reveal. l Breakouts—often multiple ones—are used to zoom in from wide-field shots to close-ups so that detailed images can be understood in their larger context. Interactive Figures and Photos Icons through- out the text direct students to dynamic interactive versions of art and photos on MasteringAstronomy®. Using online applets students can manipulate factors such as time wavelength scale and perspective to increase their understanding of these figures. R I V U X G Plume Volcano Volcanic plume Surface 1500 km Interactive FIGURE 11.20 Volcanoes on Io The main image shows a Galileo view of Io whose surface is kept smooth and brightly colored by constant volcanism revealed here as dark circular features. The left inset shows an umbrella-like eruption of one of Io’s volcanoes as Galileo flew past this fascinating moon in 1997 the plume measures about 150 km high and 300 km across. The right inset shows another v olcano this one face-on where sur face features here are resolv ed to j ust a fe w kilometers. NASA Cloud Earth’s atmosphere Reradiated infrared radiation Carbon dioxide molecules Infrared partially absorbed in atmosphere Visible sunlight Reected sunlight Escaping infrared radiation Sunlight reaches surface Earth’s surface Interactive FIGURE 7.5 Greenhouse Effect Sunlight that is not reflected by clouds reaches Earth’s surface warming it up. Infrared radiation reradiated from the surface is partially absorbed by carbon dioxide and also water vapor not shown here in the atmosphere causing the overall surface temperature to rise.

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