Published on February 19, 2014
ASTRAL • • • Advanced Surface Technology Reseach Group A material science research group at Lappeenranta University of Technology Located in Mikkeli, Finland
Main research areas Thin film deposition techniques and applications, particularly for nanoscale structures: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) • • • • • Conformality Uniformity Thickness control Hermeticity Ability to form nanolaminates
ALD – Atomic Layer Deposition Atomically precise control of material layer thickness, composition and structure
ALD – Atomic Layer Deposition Chemical vapor deposition method with sequential self-limiting gassolids reactions First atomic layer onto substrate is formed by chemisorption (in ideal case), second layer with chemical reaction Materials are built up one atomic layer at a time (cycle) (In practice, due to the size of the molecules (steric hindrance), less than 1 mono layer may be formed at a time)
Schematic of ALD Reactor
Al2O3 ALD – Model ALD system Chemisorption of the first precursor onto the substrate (A) AlOH * + Al(CH3)3 AlOAl(CH3)2* + CH4 H C H H C H C H Al H O H H C H H Al O Substrate H H C H O C H H H H H H H H O O H H reaction products CH4
Al2O3 ALD – Model ALD system Inert gas purge to remove the excess of reaction products and unreacted precursor (A) AlOH * + Al(CH3)3 AlOAl(CH3)2* + CH4 Purge after TMA pulse H C H H C H Excess TMA H H Al H H H H C C H H C H reaction products CH4 H H H H Passivated surface H C H H H C H Al O H H H C H H H C Al O H H H C H H H C Al H H H O Substrate C H H H C Al O C H H C H H H Al O H H
Al2O3 ALD – Model ALD system Introduction of the second precursor (B) AlCH3 * + H20 Al2OH * + CH4 H2O pulse O H H C H H H C H Al O H H H C H H H H C Al O H H H C H H H C Al H H H O Substrate C H H H C Al O C H H C H H H Al O H H
Al2O3 ALD – Model ALD system Surface reactions to produce desired film material (B) AlCH3 * + H20 Al2OH * + CH4 H C H H H H H C H H C H H reation products CH4 H H Al(CH3)3 + OH H H C H H H C H Al O H H H C H H C Al O H H O H H O C Al Al O O Substrate C H H C H H H Al O H H
Al2O3 ALD – Model ALD system Self limiting growth of the film through surface passivation (B) AlCH3 * + H20 Al2OH * + CH4 Purge after H2O pulse H H H C H H C H H H H H H H C C H H H H C H H H H C H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O Al Al Al Al Al O O O O O Substrate reaction products CH4 One atomic layer of passivated surface
Al2O3 ALD – Model ALD system Process cycle repeated to reach required thickness 2 Al(CH3)3 + 3 H20 Al2O3 + 6 CH4 H H H H H O O O O O Al O O Al O O Al O O Al O O Al O O Al O Al Al Al Al O O O O O O Al O Growth rate for Al2O3 O O Al O O O Al O O O Al O O Al O O Al Al Al Al Al O O O O O Substrate 1Å/Cycle
Batch system cycle Precursor A Purge • Stationary substrate Purge Precursor B • Sequential exposure • Time sequenced gas pulses A Purge B Purge
Batch ALD systems Beneq TFS500 • Batch system • Includes plasma chamber (plasma chamber configuration was an ASTRaL design) ASM F120 Beneq TFS200 (plasma ALD)
Spatial ALD separate gas zones exhaust purge B purge A purge B purge A purge moving substrate
Spatial ALD coating head flexible substrate Beneq TFS200R
Roll-to-roll ALD systems 500 mm web Beneq WCS 500 roll-to-roll system
ALD research in Mikkeli Diffusion barrier layers on flexible substrates • roll-to-roll ALD research • water vapour and oxygen barriers • paper-based packaging • photovoltaic cells and organic light emitting diodes Photocatalytic materials • titanium dioxide, doped, structural investigations of crystal growth and activation • water and air purification Bioactive materials • biocidal coatings • antibacterial surfaces • control of time profile of antibacterial release • zinc oxide and zinc oxide-based nanolaminates
ALD research in Mikkeli Surface functionalisation • hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces Polymer layers • molecular layer deposition of PET Sensor materials • tin oxide gas sensors Optoelectronic materials • zinc oxide • copper chloride Process development
Summary • Focus on atomic layer deposition • Process, materials and applications research • Unique facility for roll-to-roll ALD • Open for collaboration www.astral.fi
Contact Details Project Coordinator JANNE KEKÄLÄINEN firstname.lastname@example.org GSM +358 50 344 9494 http://www.linkedin.com/in/jannekekalainen http://twitter.com/JanneKekalainen _____________________________________ LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ASTRaL - Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli, Finland http://www.astral.fi/
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