Published on September 24, 2014
ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: ACTION RESEARCH Submitted by, SHYJA.O Roll No: 85 B.Ed Geography
INTRODUCTION Sophisticated research of a theoretical nature requires more expertise, time, money and labour on the part of a researcher. This is because its scope is very broad and the findings of such a project is expected to have general applicability over a wide population. As such has to be conducted on a large sample representing that population. A teacher quite often might face problematic situations at are specific to his class, the solution for which cannot be arrived at by normal strategies! In such cases he too will have to explore the problematic situation, with the spirit of a researcher. But such a teacher with all his activities would find it difficult to meet the requirements of a theoretical research project that would warrant Ile conditions specified in the biginning. More over, an ordinary teacher need not be a competent researcher. In such a si tuation, it will be desirable for the teacher to take up an “Action Research” meant for arriving at a scientific solution for the complicated problematic situations. Action research may be said to be research of the teacher, for the teacher and by the teacher.
Meaning and definition of Action Research According to Stephen M. Corey , "Action Research is a process for studying problems by practitioners scientifically to take decision for improving their current practices. Now let us enumerate the peculiarities of action research, with special reference to a practicing teacher. 1. Action research in education is concerned with school problems and is carried on by school personnel to improve school practices. 2. Compared with other kinds of educational research, it is simple and easier to conduct. Educational research of a theoretical nature seeks to discover new knowledge; action research aims at gathering evidence and strategies of solution with respect to a specific problem; sampling bias is less in action research because the small group with which the teacher faces the issue itself forms the sample. 3. 3. Action research organised investigative activity, aimed towards the study leading to constructive change required for the qualitative improvement of the work of the specific endeavour concerned especially when problematic situations arise. 4. It is research designed to find the solution for a felt problem, that demands investigation and have direct application in the setting in which the research is conducted. 5. Action research is a type of applied research or decision - oriented research. The researcher is the practitioner himself, who will take the decision and enjoy its benefit. 6. Action research is undertaken to solve an immediate practical problem that cannot be solved by ordinary strategies. The goal of adding to scientific knowledge is only secondary or even tertiary.
Objectives of Action Research Action research projects are conducted, for achieving the following objectives 1. To improve the conditions of various infra-structural facilities of an educational institution. 2. To develop scientific attitude among teachers where by they are motivated to study problems scientifically before taking decisions about complicated issues. 3. To develop democratic attitude among students and teachers while understanding and solving their problems. 4. To bring excellence in the working style of the institution. 5. To develop the ability and insight among administrators to improve and modify institutional conditions with a scientific outlook. 6. To root out the conservative and static environment prevailing in most educational institutions. 7. To make the educational system capable of generating a healthy environment conducive to learning. 8. To raise the level of performance and the level of aspiration of the students. Key points to be taken care of while doing Action Research 1. Ensuring empirical support, authenticity and hence acceptability to the actions taken by a practitioner in a situation involving an issue, the solution for which was not evident 2. Arriving at feasible an fruitful from the consequences of changes 3. Working out self reflective cycles of planning, implementing, observing, reflecting and replanning. 4. Adoption of participatory, collaborative strategies
5. Gathering of evidences to decide whether ideas, assumptions and previous practices have been false or incorrect (or both) 6. Have open mindedness critical attitude towards issues and their solutions. Steps in Action-Research 1. Identification of the problem: A teacher should be sensitive towards job-related tasks and problems concerned. The problem should be need based. He must be really interested in the problem. It must arise from his own experience. It must be specific and limited in scope. 2. Pin-pointing the problem: After identifying the problem it should be defined so that goal and action could be specified. If the problem is related to teaching and learning, it is to be localized in terms of class, subject, group that has felt the problem and the nature' of the puzzle felt by the teacher. 3. Analysing the causes of the problem: The causes of the problem are to be analysed with the help of theory, previous experiences, preliminary evidences, etc. The nature of the cause also is to be analysed in order to determine whether it is under the control or beyond the control of an investigator. More over, this will help in formulating action hypotheses. Success of any action research depends upon the correct diagnosis of the causes. 4. Formulating action hypotheses: This involves individual commitment to some definite action leading to the solution of the specific problem. The teacher has to ask himself a searching question and state his hypothesis in the form: "If I do this...then this will happen" For each difficulty, there may be one or more action hypotheses each ancticipating and proposing a feasible solution which need to be tested. The basis for formulating action hypotheses are the causes of the problem experienced by the investigator. The statement of action hypothesis consists of two
aspects - action and goal. It is to be stated in the form of a proposition that such and such an action taken might help in achieving the goal by solving such and such an aspect of the problem. 5. Development of a design for testing the action hypotheses: The design is developed for testing all the important action hypotheses. Some actions may be taken and their results observed. If a hypothesis is not accepted, a second design is developed for testing another hypothesis) The design of action research is flexible and can be designed at any time. according to the convenience of the investigator. However, it is desirable to design a well thoughtout plan of action including a time schedule. 6. The causes of the problem: Accepting or rejecting an action hypothesis leads to certain conclusions. The conclusion indicates some prescription for solving the particular problem that has provoked and necessitated the investigator to explore. The conclusions are meant to make decisions regarding actions to be taken for modifying and improving the current practices concerned, with a view to solve the problems that led to the action research.
CONCLUSION “Action Research” meant for arriving at a scientific solution for the complicated problematic situations. Action research may be said to be research of the teacher, for the teacher and by the teacher. The conclusions are meant to make decisions regarding actions to be taken for modifying and improving the current practices concerned, with a view to solve the problems that led to the action research. A teacher quite often might face problematic situations at are specific to his class, the solution for which cannot be arrived at by normal strategies! In such cases he too will have to explore the problematic situation, with the spirit of a researcher.
REFERENCE 1. K.Shivarajan- Trends And Development In Modern Educational Practices 2. www.wikipedia.org 3. www.google.org
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