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Assignment 2 Group Presentation Regional Economic Development East Timor Final

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Information about Assignment 2 Group Presentation Regional Economic Development East...
Education

Published on September 24, 2008

Author: gusfeb99

Source: slideshare.net

Description

It's my presentation for my Assignment on Regional Economic Development Course
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East Timor, The New Democratic Nation By Quang Trong Hieu Lynda Browning, Raelene Lister and Febry Soebagio

vision Creating Political and Social Stability to Develop as an Independent Nation Vision

History 1520 – Colonized by portuguse 1613 – Dutch took control of western portion 1860 – Portugal & Netherlands fought until a treaty was reached World War II – Australia & Japan fought each other on the island 1975 – Portuguese pulled out

1520 – Colonized by portuguse

1613 – Dutch took control of western portion

1860 – Portugal & Netherlands fought until a treaty was reached

World War II – Australia & Japan fought each other on the island

1975 – Portuguese pulled out

Recent History 1972 – 1999, Indonesia Occupation 30 th of August 1999, National Referendum 20 th of May 2002, Nationhood was declared. President Xanana Gusmao was elected April 2007, To end domestic chaos, New President Election was held and Jose Ramos Horta became President and Xanana Gusmao was elected as the Prime Minister February 2008, President Ramos Horta survived an assassination attempt by Rebel Army

1972 – 1999, Indonesia Occupation

30 th of August 1999, National Referendum

20 th of May 2002, Nationhood was declared. President Xanana Gusmao was elected

April 2007, To end domestic chaos, New President Election was held and Jose Ramos Horta became President and Xanana Gusmao was elected as the Prime Minister

February 2008, President Ramos Horta survived an assassination attempt by Rebel Army

Background Religion, ethnicity & language 97% population are Roman Catholic, 1% Muslims, 1% Protestants and 1% others The Timorese consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Malayo-Polynesian and Melanesian/Papuan Descent Language: two official languages are Portuguese, and Tetun, which belongs to the Austronesian family of languages Another fifteen indigenous languages are spoken

97% population are Roman Catholic, 1% Muslims, 1% Protestants and 1% others

The Timorese consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Malayo-Polynesian and Melanesian/Papuan Descent

Language: two official languages are Portuguese, and Tetun, which belongs to the Austronesian family of languages

Another fifteen indigenous languages are spoken

Background Health There are only 10 hospitals in East Timor with about 155 doctors and 1355 nurses for a population of 80,000 Infrastructure, material and human resource are extremely poor Malnutrition and tuberculosis is rife in the country The population has a deep distrust of the doctors working in the puskesmas (popular health dispensary) Most of Doctors are Indonesian medical students coming to East Timor for internship. The East Timorese population is ignorant of disease and hygiene control Timor-Leste has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the region

There are only 10 hospitals in East Timor with about 155 doctors and 1355 nurses for a population of 80,000

Infrastructure, material and human resource are extremely poor

Malnutrition and tuberculosis is rife in the country

The population has a deep distrust of the doctors working in the puskesmas (popular health dispensary)

Most of Doctors are Indonesian medical students coming to East Timor for internship.

The East Timorese population is ignorant of disease and hygiene control

Timor-Leste has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the region

Current Situation Looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of : Geography/environment Social and political Education and employment Economic assets and existing infrastructure

Looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of :

Geography/environment

Social and political

Education and employment

Economic assets and existing infrastructure

Geography/Environment Area – 15,007 km3 Climate – Tropical, hot, humid, distinct rainy & dry seasons Terrain – Mountainous Elevation – Highest point Foto Tatamailao 2,963m

Area – 15,007 km3

Climate – Tropical, hot, humid, distinct rainy & dry seasons

Terrain – Mountainous

Elevation – Highest point Foto Tatamailao 2,963m

Geography/Environment Cont... Land uses * arable land * permanet crops * other Irrigated land – 1,005 km2

Land uses * arable land

* permanet crops

* other

Irrigated land – 1,005 km2

Geography/Environment Positives Negatives

Positives

Geography/Environment Opportunities Natural resources – gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble Threats

Opportunities

Natural resources – gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble

Threats

Social (Demographics, religion & ethnicity) Population : 952,618 (July 2002, est.); Growth Rate : 2,06% (2006 est.) Infant Mortality : 51.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est. ) Density per sq mi : 192 Life Expectancy at birth: male : 62.64 years female : 67.17 years (2002 est.) Birth rate: 28.07 births/1,000 population (2002 est.), Death rate: 6.52 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Population : 952,618 (July 2002, est.); Growth Rate : 2,06% (2006 est.)

Infant Mortality : 51.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est. ) Density per sq mi : 192

Life Expectancy at birth: male : 62.64 years female : 67.17 years (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 28.07 births/1,000 population (2002 est.), Death rate: 6.52 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Social (Demographics, religion & ethnicity) Summary - Annual GDP per capita is only USD$367 - Population increases at 5.36% per year - More than 60 per cent of the population is under age 18. - unemployment rate is currently 43 per cent among young urban males - Literacy rates are low - Catholic is the dominating religion in the country - The average life expectancy for males is 55 years and for females 58 years - The population is highly heterogeneous and aside from East Timorese includes a small fraction of people who are not ethnically East Timorese: including Chinese merchants, descendants of Arab migrants and Indonesians who married East Timorese

Summary

- Annual GDP per capita is only USD$367

- Population increases at 5.36% per year

- More than 60 per cent of the population is under age 18.

- unemployment rate is currently 43 per cent among young urban males

- Literacy rates are low

- Catholic is the dominating religion in the country

- The average life expectancy for males is 55 years and for females 58 years

- The population is highly heterogeneous and aside from East Timorese includes a small fraction of people who are not ethnically East Timorese: including Chinese merchants, descendants of Arab migrants and Indonesians who married East Timorese

Social (Demographics, religion & ethnicity) Positives - There is one dominant religion (Roman Catholic) - Many Timorese are coming back to the country. - Many efforts have been made to improve the country by Timorese leaders Negatives - Violence is rampant in the country and police not capable of enforcement - Contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor nutrition exacerbate the health risks. - There is a current population distrust with the government administration

Positives

- There is one dominant religion (Roman Catholic)

- Many Timorese are coming back to the country.

- Many efforts have been made to improve the country by Timorese leaders

Negatives

- Violence is rampant in the country and police not capable of enforcement

- Contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor nutrition exacerbate the health risks.

- There is a current population distrust with the government administration

Social Opportunities - An opportunity existed for the new country to establish innovative participatory practices in governance, defense and its economy - With the support from many countries, East Timor is striving to solve basic issues Threats - The population security issues remain unresolved. - Problems with implementation of social projects, governance and corruption. - The system of law is not clear

Opportunities

- An opportunity existed for the new country to establish innovative participatory practices in governance, defense and its economy

- With the support from many countries, East Timor is striving to solve basic issues

Threats

- The population security issues remain unresolved.

- Problems with implementation of social projects, governance and corruption.

- The system of law is not clear

Political

Education Before 1975 - (Portuguese Occupation) : Literacy Rate 10% - Since 1959 the number of elementary school rose from 9898 to 27299 in 1969. - Lack of teachers, very few Timorese had more than primary school education Indonesia Occupation (1975-1999) - The number of schools multiplied and every village had a primary school - In 1995 33.1% of Timorese aged15+ had completed Primary School - Higher Education was developed, the University of East Timor was established - Many East Timor Students study in many Indonesia universities and abroad

Before 1975

- (Portuguese Occupation) : Literacy Rate 10%

- Since 1959 the number of elementary school rose from 9898 to 27299 in 1969.

- Lack of teachers, very few Timorese had more than primary school education

Indonesia Occupation (1975-1999)

- The number of schools multiplied and every village had a primary school

- In 1995 33.1% of Timorese aged15+ had completed Primary School

- Higher Education was developed, the University of East Timor was established

- Many East Timor Students study in many Indonesia universities and abroad

Education Positives - Quite a number of East Timorese are well educated, - The foundation for education has been established since Portuguese and Indonesia occupation Negatives - The language used in varies Portugese, Indonesian & Tatum - Teachers lack basic teaching skills - Students’ poverty restricts ability to purchase books and school equipments - Low wage of teachers

Positives

- Quite a number of East Timorese are well educated,

- The foundation for education has been established since Portuguese and Indonesia occupation

Negatives

- The language used in varies Portugese, Indonesian & Tatum

- Teachers lack basic teaching skills

- Students’ poverty restricts ability to purchase books and school equipments

- Low wage of teachers

Education Opportunities - The education facilities, destroyed during the conflict, could be reconstructed and used again - Many East Timorese children have chance to continue their education after the conflict - The improvement of teaching quality due to foreign assistance Threats - Low wages discourage young people from becoming teachers - The long process of rebuilding education facilities could hamper the teaching activities - The increase of Illiteracy rate

Opportunities

- The education facilities, destroyed during the conflict, could be reconstructed and used again

- Many East Timorese children have chance to continue their education after the conflict

- The improvement of teaching quality due to foreign assistance

Threats

- Low wages discourage young people from becoming teachers

- The long process of rebuilding education facilities could hamper the teaching activities

- The increase of Illiteracy rate

Employment Type of Jobs in East Timor : Government Employee Self-Employment - Contracting; Taxi Driver, Money Changer in Black Market, Agricultural activities Private Sector - Security, Hotel & Restaurant Staff, Retail Staff

Type of Jobs in East Timor :

Government Employee

Self-Employment

- Contracting; Taxi Driver, Money Changer in Black Market, Agricultural activities

Private Sector

- Security, Hotel & Restaurant Staff,

Retail Staff

Employment Challenge Limited Vacancies and Business Capital Majority of unemployed are Unskilled and Uneducated No worker rights

Challenge

Limited Vacancies and Business Capital

Majority of unemployed are Unskilled and Uneducated

No worker rights

Economic assets & existing infrastructure Conflict prior to and since independence has resulted in loss or deterioration of : Power supply Water Supply Road Networks Communication Networks

Conflict prior to and since independence has resulted in loss or deterioration of :

Power supply

Water Supply

Road Networks

Communication Networks

Economic assets & existing infrastructure Improvements in infrastructure are vital for all sectors of East Timor growth: Agricultural productivity Poverty reduction Delivery of government services Health services

Improvements in infrastructure are vital for all sectors of East Timor growth:

Agricultural productivity

Poverty reduction

Delivery of government services

Health services

Economic assets & existing infrastructure Assets : International Support Gas and Oil fields

Assets :

International Support

Gas and Oil fields

Economic assets & existing infrastructure Issues : No local experience/knowledge Corruption Possible continuing political instability and violence

Issues :

No local experience/knowledge

Corruption

Possible continuing political instability and violence

Goals and desired outcomes Improved health Education Employment Basic infrastructure

Improved health

Education

Employment

Basic infrastructure

Strategy 1. Health Goals - Create Better Sanitation - Improve Health Condition and Understanding within Community - Reduce The Mortality Rate How (do it) - Allocate Budget to Build Better Sanitation - Train Local Community Leaders to be Health Facilitator Programme - Build Health Centre in Every Community How (Measure) Short Term Programme Timeframe 6 Month

Goals

- Create Better Sanitation

- Improve Health Condition and Understanding within Community

- Reduce The Mortality Rate

How (do it)

- Allocate Budget to Build Better Sanitation

- Train Local Community Leaders to be Health Facilitator Programme

- Build Health Centre in Every Community

How (Measure)

Short Term Programme

Timeframe

6 Month

Strategy 2. Education Goals - Provide better education facilities for East Timorese - Improving Living Standard of teachers How (do it) - Rebuilding program for destroyed primary schools - Increase teacher’s salaries - Provide free accommodation for teachers and school staff - Build new higher education institutions in areas outside Dili - Create Teacher training curriculum - Recruit new teachers from young people How (Measure) Short Term Plan Timeframe 7 Years

Goals

- Provide better education facilities for East Timorese

- Improving Living Standard of teachers

How (do it)

- Rebuilding program for destroyed primary schools

- Increase teacher’s salaries

- Provide free accommodation for teachers and school staff

- Build new higher education institutions in areas outside Dili

- Create Teacher training curriculum

- Recruit new teachers from young people

How (Measure)

Short Term Plan

Timeframe

7 Years

Strategy 3. Employment Goals - Encourage People to Start Self-Employment - Reduce The Number of Unskilled Labour - Open New Jobs in Private Sector How To Do It - Provide Microcredit Program to Run Small Scale Business and Entrepreneurship - Build Government Training Institution to Increase The Number of Skilled Labour - Create Political and Social Stability for Investment - Open New Land for Agriculture Activities, especially Coffee Measures - Short Term Plan TimeFrame - 1 to 3 years

Goals

- Encourage People to Start Self-Employment

- Reduce The Number of Unskilled Labour

- Open New Jobs in Private Sector

How To Do It

- Provide Microcredit Program to Run Small Scale Business and Entrepreneurship

- Build Government Training Institution to Increase The Number of Skilled Labour

- Create Political and Social Stability for Investment

- Open New Land for Agriculture Activities, especially Coffee

Measures

- Short Term Plan

TimeFrame

- 1 to 3 years

Strategy 4. Basic Infrastructure Goal : Diversity of power production, Increase in power availability to rural households, reduction in power costs;. By : Implementation of the Rural Electrification Masterplan ; Completion of Ira Lalaro Hydropower Project. Result: Power production increased, reduction in diesel usage resulting in lower costs – less illegal tapping of power lines. Timeframe: Five Years

Goal : Diversity of power production, Increase in power availability to rural households, reduction in power costs;.

By : Implementation of the Rural Electrification Masterplan ; Completion of Ira Lalaro Hydropower Project.

Result: Power production increased, reduction in diesel usage resulting in lower costs – less illegal tapping of power lines.

Timeframe: Five Years

Strategy 4. Basic Infrastructure Goal : Water and Sanitation By : Government to contract foreign water and sanitation engineers to investigate and implement a program to supply clean water and septic sanitation systems to every village. Result: Reduction in deaths from cholera; reduced infant mortality. Timeframe: Fifteen Years

Goal : Water and Sanitation

By : Government to contract foreign water and sanitation engineers to investigate and implement a program to supply clean water and septic sanitation systems to every village.

Result: Reduction in deaths from cholera; reduced infant mortality.

Timeframe: Fifteen Years

Strategy 4. Basic Infrastructure Goal : A maintained road network By : Implementation of the road investment plan prepared by Asia Development Bank Result: Funded road work program for primary, secondary and regional roads. Increase of commercial & domestic vehicles. Timeframe: Ten Years

Goal : A maintained road network

By : Implementation of the road investment plan prepared by Asia Development Bank

Result: Funded road work program for primary, secondary and regional roads. Increase of commercial & domestic vehicles.

Timeframe: Ten Years

Strategy 4. Basic Infrastructure Goal : Communication network By : Introduction of competition in telecommunication providers. Legislation to implement a roll out of a village phone program Result: Access to land line , increase in mobile phone usage and internet access. Timeframe: Three Years

Goal : Communication network

By : Introduction of competition in telecommunication providers. Legislation to implement a roll out of a village phone program

Result: Access to land line , increase in mobile phone usage and internet access.

Timeframe: Three Years

Strategy 4 Improved security system Goals By 2013, East Timor will have a efficient working system of police force How Implement training program for police Police supplied with sufficient equipment and transportation facility A strict penalties and an effective legal system made to deter offenders Effectively cooperate with international peace-keeping force and make the most of other countries’ support

Goals

By 2013, East Timor will have a efficient working system of police force

How

Implement training program for police

Police supplied with sufficient equipment and transportation facility

A strict penalties and an effective legal system made to deter offenders

Effectively cooperate with international peace-keeping force and make the most of other countries’ support

Strategy 4 Improved security system Goal A clear system of law that is supported by the population What Cooperate with international consultants on the law system The law expert and law students are exposed to experience from other new countries The new law is made and the population’s opinion are surveyed How Enhance diplomacy and make most use of good relationships with different countries Different communication channels with the community are established Law makers and students are exposed to experience from other newly developed countries by international support

Goal

A clear system of law that is supported by the population

What

Cooperate with international consultants on the law system

The law expert and law students are exposed to experience from other new countries

The new law is made and the population’s opinion are surveyed

How

Enhance diplomacy and make most use of good relationships with different countries

Different communication channels with the community are established

Law makers and students are exposed to experience from other newly developed countries by international support

 

Future East Timor has a multiple of issues to overcome before it can take its place as an independent nation. Issues around law and order, governance and poverty.

East Timor has a multiple of issues to overcome before it can take its place as an independent nation. Issues around law and order, governance and poverty.

Conclusion

Thank-you

Reference Information Please Database, 2007 Pearson Education [viewed 9 May 2008] http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0902237.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_East_Timor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor http://epress.anu.edu.au/oota/ch3.htm http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/bec02221.htm http://www.seasite.niu.edu/easttimor/background.htm#1.%20c.%20Demography http://www.ausaid.gov.au/country/country.cfm?CountryId=911 (population growth) http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/Timorleste.html (population statistics) http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0902237.html

Information Please Database, 2007 Pearson Education [viewed 9 May 2008] http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0902237.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_East_Timor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor

http://epress.anu.edu.au/oota/ch3.htm

http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/bec02221.htm

http://www.seasite.niu.edu/easttimor/background.htm#1.%20c.%20Demography

http://www.ausaid.gov.au/country/country.cfm?CountryId=911 (population growth)

http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/Timorleste.html (population statistics)

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0902237.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_East_Timor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor http://epress.anu.edu.au/oota/ch3.htm http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/bec02221.htm References (Education)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_East_Timor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor

http://epress.anu.edu.au/oota/ch3.htm

http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/bec02221.htm

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