Assessment Based in Evidence and Law

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Assessment Based in Evidence and Law:ABEL for Practicing Clinicians : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 1 Assessment Based in Evidence and Law:ABEL for Practicing Clinicians ASHA Convention 2006 Miami Catherine J. Crowley, MA, CCC-SLP, JD, crowley@tc.columbia.edu Natalie Agosto, MS, CF na2133@columbia.edu George Castle, MS, CF verbalarchitect@hotmail.com Lindsay Friedman, MS, CF lfriedman4@schools.nyc.gov Pamela S. Ouellette, MPA pamela_ouellette@baruch.cuny.edu Dorothy Tancredi, MS, CF dorothytancredi@yahoo.com Where it all began. . . : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 2 Where it all began. . . ADVANCE column suggested by students in the Assessment and Evaluation course, Teachers College Columbia University, Fall 2005. Students in field having supervisors who did not have the up to date knowledge base. Why the ADVANCE? : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 3 Why the ADVANCE? Survey of approximately 800 practicing SLPs over one year (2004-2005). Over 90% said that they read the ADVANCE. The ADVANCE for SLP has over 60,000 subscriptions and over half the subscribers work in the schools. Review of the Columns : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 4 Review of the Columns The federal law: IDEA 2004 Current research on construct validity: Discriminant accuracy standard (Plante and Vance (1994)) Statistical accuracy of test scores: Confidence intervals Column Review (con’t) : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 5 Column Review (con’t) The parent interview The teacher interview Identifying and addressing cultural and linguistic biases in assessment materials. Case Study—Abel, 4-year old boy : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 6 Case Study—Abel, 4-year old boy Referred for an evaluation by his preschool teacher reported that his speech is unclear reported that he communicates primarily using gestures or non-specific one-word utterances Pulled him out of arts & crafts activity for evaluation Abel grabbed my digital recorder and began spinning around the room singing unintelligibly Abel refused to answer questions from PLS-4 Abel cried inconsolably when I tried to read a book Abel threw my planned activities on the floor and repeatedly tried to leave the room What Should I Do? : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 7 What Should I Do? Report that Abel is immature, impulsive, unfocused, and uncooperative? expresses needs and wants through bad behavior rather than through language? has unintelligible speech? has poor eye contact and topic maintenance? refused to participate in the evaluation? NO! I need to re-assess my evaluation methodology! My first stop, should have been to speak with Abel’s primary caregiver. ABEL Methodology The Primary Caregiver Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 8 ABEL Methodology The Primary Caregiver Interview A child’s primary caregivers have the critical information their child’s: communication skills across communicative contexts and partners cultural background exposure to various dialects and languages experience with literacy and play Every primary caregiver should be asked 7 critical questions . . . Critical Question #1 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 9 Critical Question #1 What is the highest educational level of the mother or primary caregiver? Research has showed that the child’s vocabulary and literacy achievement is positively correlated with the mother’s educational level. Ex. Abel’s mother, who is bilingual, returned to community college for an associate’s degree in radiological imaging and his father, who is a monolingual Spanish speaker works for a dry cleaner and a restaurant. Critical Question #2 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 10 Critical Question #2 Is there a family history of speech, language, and/or academic problems? (Restrepo, 1998) A genetic basis exists for many communication disorders. Ex. Abel’s cousin, who is 8 y.o., is in special education classes at his public school. He is reportedly “slow.” Critical Question #3 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 11 Critical Question #3 How does how the child’s speech and language development compare to his/her siblings at the same age or to peers in the child’s speech community? (Restrepo, 1998) The key consideration in distinguishing between a language difference and a language disorder are the language norms of the child’s speech community. Ex. Abel’s speech, language, and motor skills developed more slowly than his sister Lillith and his brother Cain. Abel didn’t say his first word until age 2;2. Abel didn’t walk until 20 months. Abel’s mother says he is “different” from her other children. He is the baby of the family. Critical Question #4 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 12 Critical Question #4 Was the child’s performance during the evaluation typical? A child may not want to “perform” for a stranger seated at a tiny table in a small room with boring spiral-bound manuals full of pictures of watches and rubber ducks Ex. Abel’s mother says he talks non-stop to anyone who will listen, although not many people understand what he says. She worries that he is not afraid of strangers. Critical Question #5 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 13 Critical Question #5 Have there been any significant changes in the family structure recently? the child’s performance during the evaluation may be affected by factors outside of the evaluator’s (and the child’s) control. birth of a sibling death in the family serious illness divorce Ex. Abel’s father resents that his wife is completing a college degree while he often works 100 hours a week at two low-paying jobs. They fight when dinner is not on the table or the laundry is not done. Critical Question #6 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 14 Critical Question #6 What exposure has your child had to different languages or dialects? a child’s language may be evidence of a language disorder or . . . second language acquisition (including a silent period) subtractive bilingualism correct dialect forms code-switching Ex. Abel’s parents speak primarily Spanish at home and in the community. Abel’s brother and sister code-switch between Spanish, Spanish-influenced English, and African American Vernacular English. Critical Question #7 : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 15 Critical Question #7 What does your child do that makes you know (s)he is smart? provides insight into the child’s abilities, provides insight into the parent’s reliability as a reporter especially useful when the child is a multiply disabled child or an adolescent. Ex. When his father has difficulty communicating in English, Abel tries to translate for him, but Abel is not always accurate, nor is he always understood by his father or by others. What Did I Learn About Abel? : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 16 What Did I Learn About Abel? Abel’s parents are not college-educated professionals Abel may not have had home exposure to the linguistic and academic skills necessary for success in the mainstream middle-class American classroom. Abel is identified as being “different” from his siblings in terms of his linguistic and motoric development. A family history of a learning disability may exist. But—Abel’s siblings are proficient speakers of two languages and of two dialects of English. Abel is a helpful, gregarious child who enjoys talking to and interacting with strangers Abel tries to translate between Spanish and English for his monolingual Spanish-speaking father. Abel’s family is experiencing a great deal of tension surrounding his mother’s decision to pursue her education and his father’s need to work two low-paying, tiring jobs. The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 17 The Teacher Interview Critical Question #1 What is student’s grade level achievement in reading and math? Provides quantifiable data. The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 18 The Teacher Interview Critical Question #2 What supports does he need? What are student’s strengths and weaknesses? The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 19 The Teacher Interview Critical Question #3 How has he progressed over time? Do you have a portfolio or examples of his work? The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 20 The Teacher Interview Critical Question #4 How do his language skills compare to those of his classmates? The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 21 The Teacher Interview Critical Question #5 Does the teacher concur with the conclusions the SLP reached as a result of the evaluation? The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 22 The Teacher Interview Self Question: Does it seem that the student is receiving an adequate education based upon the teacher interview? The Teacher Interview : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 23 The Teacher Interview A child cannot be found to have a disability if the determinant factor for the disability is: “lack of appropriate instruction in reading, including the essential components of reading instruction”, or “lack of instruction in math.” 20 U.S.C. § 1414(b)(5)(A)(B) Cultural and Linguistic Biases in Standardized Tests : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 24 Cultural and Linguistic Biases in Standardized Tests IDEA 2004: “No cultural or racial biases” Despite review efforts, potential for biases remain “Home” and “school” languages can influence standardized test results. “Rather than measuring what they claim to measure, test items sometimes measure instead knowledge of standard forms of the language (Wolfram, 1999).” Cultural and Linguistic Bias as a Result of Census Data : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 25 Cultural and Linguistic Bias as a Result of Census Data Census data used for standardization samples show the average performance of all represented groups The Issue Many standardized tests have poor representation of minorities using the 2000 U.S. Census data. The average of the entire group may not reflect the average of individual speech communities A Popular Preschool Spanish Exam… : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 26 A Popular Preschool Spanish Exam… Tool to identify monolingual/bilingual Spanish speakers with a disorder or delay. Cultural and linguistic biases compromise validity of test. Adapted Spanish tests have over-representation of one regional/ cultural group. Standardization Sample : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 27 Standardization Sample Of 1,188 children in the standardization sample: 87% spoke a dialect of Mexican Spanish 29 (2.4%) Cuban children included 33 (2.8%) Puerto Rican children included 9 (.8%) Colombian children included 2 (.2%) Ecuadorian children included *Spanish proficiency varied and should have been clustered around a mean Puntiagudas vs Dedo Gordo : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 28 Puntiagudas vs Dedo Gordo Thumb What if… : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 29 What if… What if this exam was administered to ABEL when he was 4 years old? Where would he fall into this normative sample? Exposed to two dialects of Spanish and English Mother: Colombian Father: Ecuadorian Cultural and Linguistic Biases : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 30 Cultural and Linguistic Biases Normative sample falls short in: Discriminant accuracy Sensitivity and Specificity Ability to predict whether ABEL’s performance falls within the norms of his speech community Cultural and Linguistic Biases : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 31 Cultural and Linguistic Biases Children’s test performance is affected by prior knowledge and experience Language socialization practices: Labeling Exposure to books/Book reading styles Known questions Labeling : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 32 Labeling Item/picture labeling vs. functional description Children from labeling cultures may perform better on standardized vocabulary tests Children from non-labeling cultures may perform worse on standardized tests but have a deeper semantic knowledge of targeted vocabulary words Book Reading Styles : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 33 Book Reading Styles According to Anderson-Yockel & Haynes (1994), European American mothers asked significantly more yes/no and “wh” questions than did African American mothers. European American Dyads appeared to be more consistent with mainstream school cultural expectations which rely on questioning strategies to demonstrate knowledge and literacy. Known Questions : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 34 Known Questions According to Langdon and Cheng (1992), Latino children are not typically asked to retell events or facts that adults already know. Ex. “Tell me about the fire engine on the table.” The Sociolinguistic Parameters of: : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 35 The Sociolinguistic Parameters of: Topic Participant Setting Function Holograms : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 36 Holograms Make student come to life through examples Ex. (e.g. “ Initially, Abel had marked difficulty with syllable segmentation. Using Dynamic Assessment, the examiner explained syllable segmentation by clapping his hands to each syllable in a word. Later, during examples 15 through 20 of the phonemic awareness section, Abel looked up towards the ceiling and segmented the 3 syllable words by slicing his hand through the air as he said each syllable out loud (E-le-phant). This demonstrates Abel’s learning potential as he seemed to learn segmentation after minimal modeling. It also showed that he developed his own strategy, slicing his had instead of clapping. ”) *For further information on Dynamic Assessment see references You should be asking yourself… : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 37 You should be asking yourself… Did I give this child the type of opportunities that would enable him/her to demonstrate their true language ability? Did I give enough opportunities? Are the tasks that I used appropriate for this student’s sociolinguistic background? Have I obtained information from his/her teachers and caretakers? Do I have information about him/her in a natural setting? Did I include holograms throughout the evaluation? What to do Monday morning? : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 38 What to do Monday morning? Meet with administrators to address the relationship of assessments and disproportionate referral of minority students for special education. Identify policy or local regulations that are ineffective. Gather research and volunteer for inservice. Sleep soundly…… References : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 39 References Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004). 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists. www.advanceweb.com/speech Crowley, C. & Ouellette, P. (2006). Introducing ABEL: Assessment based in evidence and law. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(4), p. 10. Crowley, C. & Ouellette, P. (2006) Asking the critical questions: The parent interview. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(9), p. 10. Crowley, C, Bielefeld, A., & Oullette, P. (2006). Putting tests to the test: Confidence intervals. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(13), p. 10. Crowley, C, Oullette, P. & Bielefeld, A., (2006). Putting tests to the test: Discriminant accuracy. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(17), p. 9. Crowley, C. & Ouellette, P. (2006). What IDEA 2004 says about assesssment. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(23), p. 11. Crowley, C. & Ouellette, P. (2006). Columnists respond to readers’ questions. ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(43), p. 17. Gray, S., Plante, E., Vance, R. & Henrichsen, M. (1999). The diagnostic accuracy of four vocabulary tests administered to preschool-age children. Language, Speech, and Hearing in Schools, 30(2), pp. 196-206. Heath, S.B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in Society (Vol. II). New York: Cambridge. pp. 49-76. Catts, H.W., Kamhi, A.G. (2005).  Language and Reading Disabilities, 2nd Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Fox, S. (2006). Are you ready, willing, and ABEL to update your skills? ADVANCE for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 16(4), p. 5. References (con’t) : Copyright Crowley, Agosto, Castle, Friedman, Ouellette, Tancredi 2006 40 References (con’t) Kratcoski, A.M. (1998). Guidelines for using portfolios in assessment and evaluation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 29(1), pp. 3-10. Lidz, C. & Pena, E. (1996). Dynamic Assessment: The Model, its Relevance as a Nonbiased Approach, and its Application to Latino American Preschool Children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27(4), pp. 367-372. McCauley, R.J. & Swisher, L. (1984). Psychometric review of language and articulation tests for preschool children, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 49, pp. 34-42. McCauley, R.J. & Swisher, L. (1984). Use and misuse of norm-referenced tests in clinical assessment: a hypothetical case, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 49, pp. 338-348. Peña, E. & Quinn, R. (1997). Task familiarity: Effects on the test performance of Puerto Rican and African American children, Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 28 (Oct. 1997), pp. 323-332. Plante, E. & Vance R. (1994). Selection of Preschool Language Tests: A Data-Based Approach, Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 25, pp. 15-24. Restrepo, M.A. (1998). Identifiers of Predominantly Spanish-Speaking Children with Language Impairment, JSLHR, pp. 1398-1411. Westby, C. (1990). Ethnographic Interviewing: Asking the right questions to the right people in the right ways. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 13(1), pp. 101-111. Wolfram, W., Adger, C.T., Christian, D. (1999). Dialects in Schools and communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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