Assessing Climate Change Impact and Adptaion Measures in Surat, Gujarat, India

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Information about Assessing Climate Change Impact and Adptaion Measures in Surat, Gujarat,...

Published on March 12, 2014

Author: ShakilURP06BUET


Earl Harper, Darienne Hunziker, Stanislav Novosad, Rebecca Scott, Shahadat Hossain Shakil

STRUCTURE 1. Actual and Predicted Climatic Impacts 2. Impacts on the Urban Poor 3. Efforts to Address the Impacts 4. Conclusions

LOCATION Source:, 2011

TEMPERATURE (IPCC, 2013: 1374)(IPCC, 2013: 1375) Temperature Change 2046- 2065 December-FebruaryJune-August

PRECIPITATION Season Precipitation Rainy Days Heavy Rain Winter -24.5% -34% Pre-Monsoon -12.2% -10.4% Monsoon +11.1% -0.66% Post-Monsoon +0.13% +0.26% Annual +9.6% -1.01% +18.2% (Singh et al., 2008: 2989)

PRECIPITATION (PREDICTED) Precipitation Changes 2046-2056 October-March (IPCC, 2013: 1376)(IPCC, 2013: 1377) April-September

ECONOMY AND DEMOGRAPHICS • Surat’s Population has almost doubled within a decade, from 2.8 million to 4.5 million • 131st richest city in the world with a GDP of US$40 Billion • 42% of global diamond cutting and polishing industry • 1.2 million textile workers, merchants and traders (Parikh et al., 2013)

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES & VULNERABILITY • 64% of municipal land occupied by slums • Tendency to settle along creeks, rivers and drainage channels • 20% of population (80% of which are migrants) live in slums • Migrant population identified as a challenge and most vulnerable • Increased risk of pluvial, fluvial and tidal flooding (Edge, 2011; Kantor, Ranni & Unni, 2006)

(Parikh et al., 2013)

VULNERABILITY (CONT’D) • Surat slums have better access to water and sanitation than others in India • Sanitized toilets were available to 96% of households in 2010 • 87% of households have access to municipal sewerage systems • 94% collection efficiency for wastewater and solid human waste • Monsoon uncertainty places pressure on dam management • Proposed new infrastructure: • Storm Water Drainage • Solid Waste Management Systems • Sewerage (Expansion and Improvement) • Transportation • Housing (TARU et al., 2013; Edge, 2011)

MULTI-LEVEL, NETWORKED GOVERNANCE • National Action Plan on Climate Change • Gujurat State Disaster Management Authority • Surat Municipal Corporation • Surat Urban Development Authority • The South Gujurat Chamber of Commerce and Industry • Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network

FORMAL RESPONSES (SURAT MUNICIPAL CORP.) S H O R T T E R M • Drainage Maintenance • LED Ukai Dam Water Level Display • Flood warnings: • Mega-phones • SMS • Television L O N G T E R M • Embankment work • Storm Drain Improvements • Relocation of housing • Revise DMP for Climate Risks (ISET, 2009; TARU and ACCCRN, 2011; TARU, 201

(ACCCRN , 2013; Bhat et al., 2013; TARU, 2011) ACCCRN AND SURAT GOVERNMENT RESPONSES • End-to End Early Warning System (EWS) • Surat Climate Change Trust • Urban Health and Climate Resilience Centre • Urban Service Monitoring System • Promoting cool roof and Passive Ventilation

END-TO-END EARLY WARNING SYSTEM To respond to current and future flood risk • Establishment of Surat Climate Change Trust • Integrated Meteorological, and Reservoir Modelling System • Early Warning System • Support to the Poor Impacts • Improved and sustainable governance of the early warning system • Provision of approximately four days warning • Safe failure of the Ukai Dam – managing flows to reduce flood damage and vulnerability of the poor (TARU and ACCRN, 2011; ACCRN, 2013; Bhat et al., 2013; Brown et al., 20

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH The combination of location, climate, socio demographic structure and development activities of Surat are highly conducive to the growth and transmission of vector borne diseases. Increase in disease transmission in extreme events due to:  High population densities  Damage and ‘disruption of pre-existing sanitation services such as piped water and sewage  Disruption of public health programs in immediate post disaster period  Poor drainage and stagnant water in floods (Kovats and Akhtar, 2008; ISET, 2011)

SURAT URBAN HEALTH AND CLIMATE RESILIENCE CENTRE Building upon Surat’s strong health capacity to address the nature of health risks posed climate change in urban environments • Climate informed surveillance system: early detection and prompt treatment to facilitate efficient planning and response • Minimize conditions favourable to vector survival and disease transmission: environmental engineering, biological measures, and insecticides. • Community participation in preventative measures: mosquito nets, repellents, protective clothing and reduction of mosquito breeding sites etc.. (ISET, 2011; Edge, 2008)

EFFECTIVENESS AND FUTURE In-migration and urban expansion must remain central to planning Program outreach mechanisms must be more accessible to the urban poor ACCCRN: a valuable stimulator Surat has integrated climate change into urban planning • UHCRC: a model for other cities • Surat Climate Change Trust: has been formally integrated into city governance and planning network • Chamber of Commerce: addressing housing for migrants • Finance: secured private sector funding • Programs: engagement tool or full integration of UCCR? (Bhat et al., 2013; Bhat, 2011; Kernaghan and da Silva, 2013)

ACCCRN, (2013). ACCCRN City Projects. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network & The Rockefeller Foundation. ACCCRN, (2014). About ACCCRN. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 5th March 2014] Bhat, G. K., (2011). Coping to Resilience – Indore and Surat, India. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 3rd March 2014] Bhat, G. K., Karanth, A., Dashora, L. & Rajasekar, U., (2013). Addressing Flooding in the City of Surat Beyond its Boundaries. Environment and Urbanization, 25(2), 429-41 Brown, A., Dayal, A. & Rio, C.R.D., (2012). From Practice to Theory: Emerging Lessons from Asia for Building Urban Climate Change Resilience. Environment and Urbanization, 24(2), 531–56 C2ES, (2008). National Action Plan on Climate Change. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 5th March 2014] Government of India Chaplin, S. E., (1999). Cities, sewers and poverty: India's politics of sanitation. Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 145-58 Edge, T. L., (2011). Surat City Resilience Strategy. TARU, ACCCRN, Surat Municipal Corporation and the Southern Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and Industry. GCG, (2010). The National Action Plan on Climate Change. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 5th March 2014] GSDMA, (2014). State Level Cyclone Preparedness and Response Plan. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 5th March 2014] IPCC, (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Worldwide: IPCC ISET, (2009). Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN): Responding to The Urban Climate Challenge. Boulder, Colorado: ISET ISET, (2010). Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network: Surat – Health Impact & Adaptation. [Online Report] Available at: [Accessed: 27th February 2014] REFERENCES

Kantor, P., Rani, U., & Unni, J. (2006). Decent Work Deficits in Informal Economy: Case of Surat. Economic and Political Weekly, 2089-2097. Kernaghan, S., & da Silva, J. (2013). Initiating and sustaining action: Experiences building resilience to climate change in Asian cities. Urban Climate. 1-17 Kovats. S, & Akhtar, R., (2008). Climate, Climate Change and Human Health in Asian cities. Environment and Urbanization, 20(1), 165-75, (2011). Surat, India [Online] Avaliable at: [Accessed: 7th March 2014] Parikh, J., Jindal, P. & Sandal, G., (2013). Climate Resilient Urban Development, Vulnerability Profiles of 20 Indian Cities. COE-IRADe Rajasekar, U., Bhat, G. K. & Karanth, A., (2012). Tale of Two Cities: Developing City Resilience Strategies Under Climate Change Scenarios for Indore and Surat, India. ACCCRN Synthesis Report [Online] Available at: [Accessed 27th February 2014] The Rockefeller Foundation, (2014). Stories of Resilience: Asia Archives. The Rockefeller Foundation: 100 Resilient Cities. [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 5th March 2014]. Singh, P., Kumar, V., Thomas, T. & Arora, M., (2008). Changes in Rainfall and Relative Humidity in River Basins in Northwest and Central India. Hydrological Processes, 22(16), 2982-92. TARU, (2011). Early Warning System (EWS) Project Brochure. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 5th March 2014] TARU & ACCCRN, (2011). Surat City Resilience Strategy. Gurgaon, India: TARU Leading Edge Pvt. Ltd. & Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network. TARU, GEAG & TERI, (2013). Urbanisation- Poverty -Climate Change: A Synthesis Report - India-Case Studies (Vol. II). Gurgaon, India: TARU Leading Edge Pvt. Ltd., Gorakhpur Environmental Action Group & The Energy and Resources Institute. Woodward, A., Hales, S. & Weinstein, P., (1998). Climate change and human health in the Asia Pacific region: who will be most vulnerable? Climate Research, 11(1), 31-8 REFERENCES (CONT’D)

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