Published on December 13, 2016
1. Asian Architecture [ARC2213/2234] PROJECT PART B: CASE STUDY PAPER Redefining Malaysian Terrace Residential Architecture by Introducing Passive Design Strategies TEAM MEMBERS: Evelin Devina (0322176) Lim Joe Onn (0318679) Louis De Rozario (0327136) Ong Seng Peng (0319016) Roy Yiek Chin Hieng (0317726) Tristan Yu Tze Xien (0317729) LECTURER: Mr Koh Jing Hao
2. ABSTRACT Malaysia’s national population have been steadily increasing. Residential housing in Malaysia had reached greater demand than ever before. Housing plans were perceived as neglecting our local traditions, climate and context, cutting off ourselves from our past architectural heritage, which is highly practical with application of passive design elements. This paper suggests methods that can be implemented to improve heat regulation, natural lighting and relevance to local context.
3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS This paper investigates on the viability of Malaysian residential houses within its tropical context in terms of its sustainability through techniques of heat regulation and natural lighting by responding to the following questions: • What is the definition of tropical context? • What are the problems of the Malaysian terrace housing model in terms of heat regulation and natural lighting? • How heat regulation can improve ventilation in Malaysian terrace residential houses? • How natural lighting can improve the lack of light in Malaysian terrace residential houses? • What materials should be implemented to suit the tropical context of Malaysian terrace residential houses?
5. Terrace houses • Terrace housing is the most common housing typology in Malaysia (40%). • Medium density type of housing. • The adoption of terrace housing in Malaysia came during the early days of British colonization when housing provision on economy of scale required.
6. BUILDING TYPOLOGY Terrace houses • Terrace houses are typically located along a main road, arranged in linear alignments alongside the smaller roads which branched out to another smaller alley. • Fenestration is only at the front and back façade.
7. Style variation Immigrants brought their own housing styles and adapted it to Malaysian vernacular material and customized it to the tropical climatic condition. Some houses built by colonists combined the Malay traditional timber house with the characteristics of the European villas. Traditional architecture is implemented into the buildings to create an authentic vernacular style. Resulted from rapid economic and urbanization process after independence, modern urbanization emphasized the maximum utilization of land. To accommodate new social and economic needs, these typologies were developed in the various forms, built in the architectural style of international functionalism.
8. CURRENT STATE & ISSUES
9. PROBLEMS OF CURRENT RESIDENTIAL HOUSES Terrace houses can generally be built on less land than an equivalent number of detached or semi-detached homes. This makes them suitable for high density developments or for developments that intend to limit urban sprawl. However, it makes terrace houses less appealing to the public due to the perception that these houses are cramped.
10. PROBLEMS OF CURRENT RESIDENTIAL HOUSES Lack of Natural Lighting • Enclosed in between two houses of the same row • Roof is usually enclosed hence no skylight penetration into the interior spaces
11. PROBLEMS OF CURRENT RESIDENTIAL HOUSES Lack of Ventilation • Only two facades available for openings in the house • Slow air exchange in the house, causing hot air to stay for a longer duration within the building
12. PROBLEMS OF CURRENT RESIDENTIAL HOUSES Mimicking of Modern Western Houses That Are Unsuitable for Tropical Climates Focus on minimal appearance and aesthetics and short term economical profit neglects passive design, resulting in unsustainable houses that over rely on mechanical cooling and lighting systems
13. SHORTCOMINGS OF MODERN HOUSES Lack of Natural Ventilation Modern houses enclose boxes of spaces with austere walls, making less room for natural ventilation compared to vernacular houses. Modern houses completely rely on mechanical cooling systems that contributes to the urban heat island effect by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, making them harmful to the environment.
14. SHORTCOMINGS OF MODERN HOUSES Lack of Natural Lighting Many modern houses opt for an international approach which disregards the vernacular site context. Houses built in the modern style are usually sterile and does not integrate well with the tropical environment as they do not implement passive design strategies to let natural sunlight into the building.
15. SHORTCOMINGS OF MODERN HOUSES Unsuitable Materiality Modern houses typically use relatively heavy materials such as concrete, steel and masonry. These materials have high heat capacities and store plenty of heat which are released during night time, making houses hot within. Therefore, air conditioning systems are installed to cool down the the rooms, increasing energy demand.
16. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
17. Building orientation • House that is going to be built should be planned in the early stage to minimize heat gain from sun. • Sufficient shading devices to be installed in the building if site location cannot be compromise.
18. Material • Masonry and concrete are popular building materials in Malaysia due to their relatively low prices and ease of construction. • Buildings should be well insulated by installing layers with high u-value such as timber or fibre glass insulation.
19. Building envelope • The design of the renovated house should harmonise with the surrounding neighbourhood to maintain the character and ambience of its surrounding area. • Renovation without proper consideration desynchronizes a row of terrace houses and makes it messy.
20. Openings • Uniformed Buildings By-Laws (UBBL) Part III, 39 mentioned that windows should have at least more than 10% of the overall floor area and the openings should have at least more than 5% of the overall for a residential house.
21. Building envelope • Shared spaces such as living room and dining area should receive enough sunlight and ventilation to ensure power efficiency. The internal space should not block the winds from the openings. Further renovations of the house should consider this factor before proceeding.
22. GREEN BUILDING INDEX
23. “GBI” refers as Green Building Index Benefits? • Saving energy • Reduce producing heat cause global warming • Better quality of life • Efficiency of resources used • Saving Operational and maintenance
24. Types Non-Residential Tool & Residential Tool NON-RESIDENTIAL TOOL 1. energy efficiency 2. indoor environmental quality Benefits - as these have the greatest impact in the areas of energy use and well-being of the occupants and users of the building. RESIDENTIAL TOOL 1. Sustainable Site planning & management 2. Energy Efficiency Benefits - Allowing builders and residents to consider the benefits of saving energy and live better quality of life. - Encourage building designers to take sustainability into consideration in order to apply for a rating approved by GBI
25. Factor of GBI Residential tool Assessment Criteria tackle major issues in Malaysia residential housing • Encourage using energy renewable energy to cool down space • Cross ventilation method to reach human comfort - ENERGY EFFICIENCY - INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY - SUSTAINABLE SITE PLANNING & MANAGEMENT - MATERIAL & RESOURCES - WATER EFFICIENCY - INNOVATION ISSUE LACK OF VENTILATION
26. • Allow optimum sunlight enter the building, for example clerestory window. • Reduce usage of electricity during the day - INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY - ENERGY EFFICIENCY - SUSTAINABLE SITE PLANNING & MANAGEMENT - MATERIAL & RESOURCES - WATER EFFICIENCY - INNOVATION ISSUE LACK OF NATURAL LIGHTING
27. • Widely encourage using environment accommodating materials sourced from practical sources • Reutilizing of recyclables and development formwork - MATERIAL & RESOURCES - ENERGY EFFICIENCY - INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY - SUSTAINABLE SITE PLANNING & MANAGEMENT - WATER EFFICIENCY - INNOVATION ISSUE IRRELEVANCE TO TROPICAL CLIMATE
28. CASE STUDIES
29. CASE STUDY 1: RIENZI HOUSE, SINGAPORE
30. HEAT REGULATION • Maximizing air flow through its interior • Air well serves as a wind conduit, which is inspired by traditional terrace colonial shophouses. The air well at the centre channels hot air out of the building, encouraging cooler air in. The Venturi effect is applied as air comes in from larger openings but escapes via a small opening, speeding up air discharge.
31. HEAT REGULATION • Green vegetation is abundant in the residence’s design, shading the building and preventing it from absorbing too much heat from the sun • No partition walls divide the space thus allowing free flow of air from the front to the back of the building
32. NATURAL LIGHTING • Openings and windows are present on front and rear facades, allowing natural light to enter the building • Air wells allow more daylight into the centre of the house
33. CASE STUDY 2: SALINGER HOUSE, KAJANG
34. • Usage of timber that resonates with the natural environment of a tropical rainforest in Malaysia • Unique timber structure built manually by Malay traditional carpenters, specially designed to add the sense of complexity and aesthetics in materiality that reflects local artistry • Ambience of interior is dependent on its surrounding time and weather. A celebration of colours in nature through different intensities and variations.
35. • Built above the ground level using post-and- beam structure to reduce the impact on land and environment • Elevated floor allows wind flow beneath it, similar to Malay vernacular design • Usage of screen shading and cross-lattice design that is prominent in local architecture
37. TYPICAL HOUSE VS RIENZI HOUSE
38. Heat Regulation Method TYPICAL MALAYSIAN HOUSING 1. Openings for ventilation located at the front side (porch/terrace) and small windows at the back alley 2. Vegetations at terrace (sometimes balcony as well) *Temperature Colour Indication RIENZI HOUSE 1. Openings for ventilation at the every level of both front and back side 2. Vegetations at each level; courtyard at the center looking creating void.
39. Heat Regulation Method EFFECTS 1. Stuffed atmosphere at the main spaces 2. Higher cost for electricity use of A/C, fan, etc. to achieve the comfort level *Temperature Colour Indication EFFECTS 1. Better air circulation inside the house 2. Vegetations help to filter the air to passively achieve the comfort level 3. The exterior space ‘moved’ to interior causing the house looked more massive from outside
40. Natural Lighting TYPICAL MALAYSIAN HOUSING Light mainly penetrates through the windows at the balcony. Balcony provides shading at terrace but obstructing the light to enter. Resulting in less to no circulation at the centre. *Shade Colour Indication RIENZI HOUSE Openings for light each lfloor and centre part (from roof). Different leveling allows not only even distribution of light but also privacy of each space.
41. Natural Lighting EFFECTS 1. No daylight can enter the core spaces of the house (centre part) 2. Higher cost for artificial lights *Shade Colour Indication EFFECTS 1. Centre light allows indirect light penetration (dayight)
42. Tropical Context Elements in Rienzi House which are not present in the typical Malaysian housing 1. Raw concrete material use gives cooler ambience and effect Image source: http://www.archdaily.com/776060/rienzi-a-d-lab 2. Water element installed both for aesthetic value and cool the temperature down 3. Vegetations, greeneries, and green roof filter the air
43. TYPICAL HOUSE VS SALINGER HOUSE
44. Heat Regulation Method TYPICAL MALAYSIAN HOUSING 1. Openings for ventilation located at the front side (porch/terrace) and small windows at the back alley 2. Vegetations at terrace (sometimes balcony as well) *Temperature Colour Indication SALINGER HOUSE 1. Timber construction with lots of direct openings to outside (surrounded by greeneries) 2. Open plan ensures cross ventilation with grills over the windows in high point in the roof so that air thus pulled through the whole space of the house 3. House orientation is positioned to capture prevailing wind Image source: http://www.akdn.org/ architecture/project/s alinger-residence
45. Natural Lighting TYPICAL MALAYSIAN HOUSING Light mainly penetrates through the windows at the balcony. Balcony provides shading at terrace but obstructing the light to enter. Resulting in less to no circulation at the centre. SALINGER HOUSE 1. With the traditional Malay concept for the house, it has lots of direct openings to outside with large roof overhang to allow daylight to come into the space but not the sun heat. Image source: http://www.akdn. org/architecture/ project/salinger- residence 2. The program of the house is very simple with main activities located at the ground floor centre open area whose ceiling expand until the end and frosted glass windows at the first floor level to allow daylight penetrates the whole area
46. Tropical Context Elements in Salinger House 1. Material The foundation is reinforced concrete whilst the other structures are from local hardwood called chengal. It is very dense and used for boat buildings as it is highly resistant to water and termites. 2. No major earthworks were done, the natural contours were kept and the topsoil was perserved.Image source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/project/salinger-residence
47. METHIODS TO IMPROVE MALAYSIAN HOUSING
48. • Air well • Vegetation • Green roof • Jack roof • Openings • Less partitions between spaces • Louvres, casements or awning windows HEAT REGULATION
49. • Air Well • Openings • Clerestory windows • Inner courtyard • Orientation • Larger windows with shading devices NATURAL LIGHTING
50. SUITING TROPICAL CONTEXT • Lightweight materials • Locally available materials • Materials of low u-Value • Abundance of tropical greenery • Levelling of floors