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Information about ASD BASIC

Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Waldarrama


Autism Spectrum Disorders:  Autism Spectrum Disorders Characteristics and Instructional Supports Autism Spectrum Disorders:  Autism Spectrum Disorders Neurological Basis Genetic link Appears in first few years of life Characteristics vary across individuals Incidence is increasing: 1 in 166 children under 18 More boys than girls Varying Diagnoses: “Pervasive Developmental Disorders”:  Varying Diagnoses: “Pervasive Developmental Disorders” Autism Asperger’s Syndrome PDD-NOS Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Rett’s Syndrome Continued development of new skills Progressive permanent loss of skills Core Characteristics of ASD:  Core Characteristics of ASD Communication Verbal skills vary May be more proficient with gestures or pictures May use vocabulary that is different than original meaning Repetitive words may be used out of context Concrete vs. abstract understanding of vocabulary and idiosyncratic phrases Lack of reciprocity in conversation Core Characteristics of ASD:  Core Characteristics of ASD Social Skills Interpretation of others’ words or tone Interpretation of others’ behavior Judgment of meaning and expectations Initiation and response Understanding of “rules” Core Characteristics of ASD:  Core Characteristics of ASD Restricted Repertoire of Interests or Behavior Repetitive behavior (for stimulation, to reduce anxiety, in times of stress, etc.) Perseveration… “getting stuck” Talking about a favorite topic Completing a task Physical movement High level of interest in one topic and low in others There is comfort in routine and “sameness” Favorite areas of interest may be highly motivating Core Characteristics of ASD:  Core Characteristics of ASD Sensory Processing & Movement Hyper-sensitive (over reactive) Hypo-sensitive (under reactive) Spatial positioning in space Motor Planning OLFACTORY (smell) & TASTE VESTIBULAR (movement) AUDITORY (Hearing) VISUAL (sight) TACTILE (touch) Other Characteristics of ASD:  Other Characteristics of ASD Executive function Difficulty organizing and handling multiple tasks Difficulty with transition and change Getting Stuck (perseveration) Physical movement On tasks On topics Processing speed Other Characteristics of ASD:  Other Characteristics of ASD Anxiety and stress Problematic behavior Self-stimulatory (ritualistic, self-stimulatory, stereotypical-repetitive, self-injurious) Impulsive, with lack of judgment Without understanding social “rule” Act without fear (no interpretation) To communicate when there is no other way! Jamie Burke 2003 Bad behavior, my friends, is just violent speech A spectrum disorder: different children are affected to different degrees in each area:  A spectrum disorder: different children are affected to different degrees in each area “If you’ve seen one child with Autism, you have seen one child with Autism.” Autism? Thoughts to ponder…:  Thoughts to ponder… Competence is defined more by social skills than by intellectual skills. Without social competence… what happens? Students are more likely to learn from teachers who… demonstrate caring and make an effort to understand who they are and what they mean by their behavior and other forms of communication. Outcomes for All Students (Schwartz, 2000):  Outcomes for All Students (Schwartz, 2000) Membership Relationships Inclusion Skills Membership:  Membership Neighborhood school placement Participation in physical spaces, activities with peers Accommodations to participate in general education instruction Participation in: teacher-designed groups student-designed groups class-wide activities school-wide activities out of school activities Relationships:  Relationships Companion Learner Teacher Helper Helpee Friend Students need: Opportunity to interact Opportunity for various roles Communication method Social skills Adults who value them (role model) Informed peers Knowledge/Skills:  Knowledge/Skills Social Communication Academic Self-Management Personal Hygiene Adults need to provide: Accommodations and modifications Individualized interventions Communication system Collaboration Positive Behavioral Supports Evidence-based strategies:  Evidence-based strategies A specific intervention or instructional approach that has a base of high quality research over a range of different individuals, in a range of places, over a range of behaviors. Evidence-based strategies:  Evidence-based strategies Instruction based on a behavioral model Clear cues Direct explicit instruction Prompting as needed to get the response Reinforcement of performance (what actually motivates the student, not just praise or stickers!) Repeated practice Within the context of every-day activities Evidence-based strategies:  Evidence-based strategies Self-management of behavior - how to respond in social and stressful situations Scripts: modeling and video-taping scenarios (peer tutors are helpful!) Social Stories: Descriptive statements of the setting, subject, etc. Directive statements about how to respond Affirmative statements that describe beliefs about the situation Control statements: analogies to promote understanding Cooperative statements to identify who is available to help and how that help will be provided. Telling My Friends that I am Back :  Telling My Friends that I am Back Sometimes I leave the room to take a walk and calm down.  When I come back into the classroom I will go to my seat and quietly tell my neighbor “I am back.”  My teachers like it when I come back into the room and am using a quiet voice. My friends will be happy when I am back in the classroom. When I am quiet, my friends can finish doing their school work. I also like to be happy and finish my work. If I have difficulty being quiet, I can squeeze my rubber ball. If I am having trouble staying in my seat or finding my work, I can raise my hand to get help from my teacher. She will say “I’ll be right there” and then she will come to my desk. Evidence-based strategies:  Evidence-based strategies “Positive Behavior Support” “Functional” Assessment: what is motivating and maintaining the inappropriate behavior Use SUPPORTS to prevent the behavior and minimize the need for the behavior TEACH alternative & replacement behavior A RESPONSE PLAN when the behavior occurs should be more focused on minimizing the effectiveness of the behavior than punishing it Effective Program Elements:  Effective Program Elements Individualized planning Emphasis on social skills development Predictability and routine Planning for transitions and change to routine Systematic, behaviorally based instruction Family involvement Functional approach to problem behavior (Dawson & Osterling, 1997; Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber, and Kincaid, 2003) A Supportive Environment:  A Supportive Environment Identify sensory influences Design VISUAL cues and schedules Design organized physical environments Set physical and activity boundaries Organize tasks Use assistive technology CHOICE CHOICE: Types of Choices:  CHOICE: Types of Choices WITHIN: Which materials to use? BETWEEN: This or that? WITH WHOM: Which partner? WHERE: Location for activity? WHEN: When to take a break? REFUSAL: Snack or not? TERMINATE: Keep going or finished? Be prepared to honor choices! Be prepared to follow up with next steps CHOICE: Incorporate into regular routines:  CHOICE: Incorporate into regular routines Recess activities Snack time Seating options to complete classwork Center activities Book Materials (markers, crayons, pens ,etc.) Job in cooperative groups SCHEDULES: Daily w/ details:  SCHEDULES: Daily w/ details Sample daily schedule with times & words. Some classes include further details. Use of a “picture clock” may also be helpful. SCHEDULES: Individual:  SCHEDULES: Individual Located on a wall within the classroom; part of a “transition” area for the student SCHEDULES: To promote interaction:  SCHEDULES: To promote interaction This schedule was placed purposefully by the classroom teacher’s desk to facilitate more interaction during “check-in” times. SCHEDULES: As an activity:  SCHEDULES: As an activity This schedule operates as an activity on its own. Each morning the student works with an adult or peer to “assemble” the schedule. This gives the student a chance to ask questions or learn more about the day. SCHEDULES: Between-Task Schedules:  SCHEDULES: Between-Task Schedules To break down a block of time into more specific activities Ex. Guided Reading = Read aloud with teacher, Complete worksheet, SSR SCHEDULES: Within task:  SCHEDULES: Within task To break down a specific task into a series of steps. This strip also serves as a reminder to the student when s/he is at the sink washing hands. Boundary Setting:  Boundary Setting Use visuals to clearly define areas: Furniture – where class meets for literature Tape – to show proper desk/chair placement Activities – color code materials Organize a Task::  Organize a Task: Develop work “system” geared to student’s skill level - Use visual cues so student can understand: What work? How much work? How will I know when the work is finished? What comes next? “When I’m done…”:  “When I’m done…” When I’m done, I can go to the computer. When I’m done, I can read a book. Countdown Card:  Countdown Card How much longer? 5 4 3 2 1 Countdown cards show a visual of the amount of time remaining. Consider moving each time segment to the back as student completes work. “Time” is made much more concrete using this card. TURN TAKING:  TURN TAKING Move name to back Move name to envelope Move name off card For pairs, write names on each side ? TURN Sam Kyla Jack Shawn To help students learn the “content”:  To help students learn the “content” Software that can help: Boardmaker – Writing w/ Symbols 2000 & BuildAbility - PixWriter & Picture It – Kidspiration, Inspiration – Boardmaker: Adapted stories:  Boardmaker: Adapted stories (fee for subscribing; monthly story w/ activities) (free) (free) Slide38:  Closing Thoughts, Questions, Comments? Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education

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