Published on March 13, 2014
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Exposure to asbestos and exposure monitoring Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Exposure periods to asbestos, historical perspective 13.03.14 2Timo Tuomi * still going on in Asia-Pasific, Russia, China, Kazakhstan,Brazil, India, Pakistan, Vietnam etc
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en “An estimated 125 million people are exposed to asbestos at work and 107 000 people die of asbestos-related diseases every year. These diseases will increase greatly in the coming years."(WHO) 13.03.14 3Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Asbestos in Finland (Rantanen et al, 2014) 13.03.14 4Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en War times –boosters for industrial use of asbestos • The First World War -> enormous increase in shipbuilding -> increased the use of asbestos as fire retardants in warships. • At that time, the dangers of asbestos to shipyard workers were not even considered. • The Second World War -> even more asbestos use -> rise in production from that time. 13.03.14 5Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en The industrial use of asbestos •More than 80% of all asbestos has been used in asbestos cement production •Insulation material •Numerous applications of asbestos containing products, ACP, and materials, ACM About half of the asbestos put in buildings are there in place (Finland) ! ! ! 13.03.14 6Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Asbestos exposure today ! • Occupational exposure (in BAN countries): • asbestos removal workers • workers in waste handling • repair and maintenance in premises with ACM • Environmental and domestic exposure: • maintenance and "homeimproving" activities in houses and dwellings with asbestos containing material in structures • after failing of dust control in asbestos removal worksite Occupational exposure (in countries with new asbestos use/production) The epidemics of asbestos related diseases will continue !
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Asbestos minerals 13.03.14 8Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Formation of fibrous minerals 13.03.14 9Timo Tuomi Mg Fe Si O Ca Na
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Asbestos minerals Asbestos is the collective term for six naturally occurring fibrous silicate minerals
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Asbestos under scanning EM 6000X • Kuvia asbestista • Vesi ruoka !!!! 13.03.14 11Timo Tuomi Crocidolite Anthophyllite Chrysotile Tremolite
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Exposures resulting of widespread commercial use 13.03.14 12Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi High exposure took place – asbestos spraying • spraying of asbestos was one of the most dangerous forms of application • sprayed asbestos is extremely friable, fibres are very likely to be emitted into the ambient air • a large amount of sprayed asbestos can be found in civilian and military ships which were built using this technique. The air concentrations of fibers during the spraying were up to 100-200 f/cm3
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Occupational exposure Hagelmeyer et al, 2006, Riala, 1991 1950-54 1970-74 1980 1990 Textile industry Production of •gaskets •asb. cement •brake pads (Germany) 10-200 5-20 1-15 0,1-2 Production of •asbestos cement •ACP •building •abatement •brake maintenance •misc. installations (Finland) - 0,1-80 0,1-8 0,1-1 (f/cm3 ) 13.03.14 14Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Asbestos cement production: mean fiber concentrations in different operations 13.03.14 15Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Environmental exposure to asbestos Environmental and indoor exposure today, fibers/cm3 •Outdoor, rural-urban 0,00001–0,0001 •Outdoor, ind. sources 0,01 •Indoor air 0,00003-0,006 - industrial sources (asbestos mine or factory, demolition site, or improperly protected asbestos-containing waste site) - Indoor concentrations depend on indoor sources, insulation, floor tiles, ceiling etc. (ATSDR, 2001) 13.03.14 16Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Exposure limit values in Finland (all asbestos types) 13.03.14 17Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Current limit value, EU • Workplace air: 0,1 f/cm3 for fibers longer than 5 µm, thinner than 3 µm and length/width > 3 • "Asbestos free air": 0,01 f/cm3
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Common building materials containing asbestos 13.03.14 19Timo Tuomi Paint in outer walls Asbestos cement boards Heating pipe insulation Sprayed asbestos PVC tiles and bitumen glue Insulation material, soft board and ropeFixing plaster Cast magnesiamass (floors)
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Measurement and analysis of asbestos • Airborne fibers • during asbestos work • inside respirator • in the exhaust air of a filtering unit • after cleaning and dismantling of the enclosed area • Settled dust (asbestos contamination) on surfaces • floors, tables, pipe canals, inside ventilation ducts • archive folders, office papers, shelfs, etc • Asbestos as a constituent • in building materials • in rocks, ores and soils • in water, (earlier in beverages, wine) • Asbestos burden inhuman body • in human lung tissue, (post mortem or surgical samples) 13.03.14 Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Asbestos under light microscope (disp. staining) 13.03.14 21Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en9.10.2012 Source : Heli Lallukka/FIOH Method of exposure measurement (air samples) •The air concentration of asbestos fibers is determined from filter with electron microscopic counting and analysis with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) with standardized procedures. Fibers with a minimum length of 5 µm and maximum width of 3 µm and the length to width ratio of at least 3:1, are counted Filter holder to sampling pump elektronimikroskooppi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Asbestos under electron microscope (SEM) Point of the elemental analysis
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Fiber 1: crushing EDS-Spectrum of tremolite fibers from a metal ore mine Fiber 2: crushing Fiber 3: crushing Standard tremolite (IOM) Source :Heli Lallukka/FIOH samples coated with gold (Au)
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Summary data from measurements after 2004 (Finland): • asbestos fiber concentration inside respirator • typically less than 0,01 f/cm3 (exceptions exist !!) • air concentration during asbestos removal (outside respirator) • sprayed asbestos, 50-200 f/cm3 • vinyl tile removal 0,1–0,5 f/cm3 • pipe insulation removal 2,0–10 f/cm3
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Asbestos is still mined and manufactured
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Concentrations of airborne fibers (> 5 µm) and dust in mining and milling (Uralasbest, 1995) (Tossavainen et al, 1999 , Am J Ind Med) Fiber conc. SEM (f/cm3) Fiber conc. Light micr. (f/cm3) Dust conc. (mg/m3) Quarry 0,08 (0,01-0,27) 0,52 (<0,1-2,8) Plant No. 4 4,61 (0,18-14,0) 3,62 (0,11-11,6) 2,33 (0,1-12,4) Plant No. 6 0,69 (0,03-5,60) 0,63 (0,03-5,1) 0,83 (<0,1-4,5) 13.03.14 27Timo Tuomi ”Dust levels about the same as in mines and factories in Canada Zimbabwe and India, All fibers were chrysotile” (Tossavainen et al, 1999 , Am J Ind Med)
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Chrysotile fiber concentrations (>1 µm) in lung tissue of autopsy cases, Asbest Town Hospital (Tossavainen etal, Am J Ind Med, 2000) Type of exposure Mean chrysotile fiber conc. (f/g) N >1x106 (f/g) N Chrysotile Mining 8,0 0,9-24,5 7 * 8 Chrysotile milling and manuf. 11,6 2,0-50,6 11 11 Unknown occup. in chrysotile industry 13,1 0,8-26,3 4 5 Unknown exposure 2,6 0,1-14,6 13 23 13.03.14 28Timo Tuomi * the amount of tremolite fibers was about 10% of the chrysotile fibers
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi ARD diagnostics and epi research: Evaluation of asbestos exposure from work history • Interview, employment records • Probability of exposure (for studies): • Definite, asbestos manufacture, -spraying, insulation • Probable, construction, shipbuilding,pipefitting • Possible, mining, car repair, maintenance • Unlikely, office work, education, health care, agriculture • Counting of fiber years (cumulative dose, individual): • Faserjahre- approach (Germany, BK-Report 2013) • number of work days per year X mean fiber (air) concentration during work day • work description (asbestos exposure) of different works/occupations • example: 240 days x 1 f/ml = 1 fiber year (Germany) • 25 fiber years = lung cancer risk is doubled
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Fibers stay in the lungs • the adverse heath effects of asbestos are caused by inhalation of asbestos dust =airborne fibers • asbestos fibers stay in the lungs and clearance is slow (chrysotile behaves differently from amphiboles)
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi The body burden – what we have learned of exposure and fibers in the lung (Helsinki Criteria, 1997) Highly indicative to past occupational exposure to asbestos: •Pulmonary fiber concentration (> 1 µm): 1 million f/g dry tissue or 0,1 million f/g dry tissue (amphibole fibers) •"Asbestos body" concentration in BAL-fluid > 1 AB/ml (BAL) or 1000 AB/g dry tissue The relative risk of lung cancer risk is 2: •Pulmonary fiber concentration (> 5 µm): > 2 million f/g (amphibole fibers) Pulmonary fiber concentration (> 1 µm): > 5 million f/g (amphibole fibers) 5000-15000 AB/g dry tissue or 5-15 AB/ml (BAL)
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Asbestos exposure of today and tomorrow 1. We have still millions of tonnes in place as a source of exposure 2. New asbestos is produced and used • Removing all existing asbestos is a goal (EU Parliament Initiative, 2012) • Safe removal and waste management is needed and has to be developed further • Reliable low cost methods to identify asbestos have to be developed for countries with modest resources • Where ACM are found, what does it look like, history of the building and material use 13.03.14 32Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 Timo Tuomi Thank You ! Warm thanks to Heli Lallukka, Juhani Piirainen, Panu Oksa, Jorma Rantanen
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en13.03.14 34Timo Tuomi
© Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi/en Health Council of the Netherlands, 2012. Asbestos: risks of environ- mental and occupational exposure Risk level OEL (TEM) corresponding to the risk level (f/cm3 ) Chrysotile Mixed (max. 20 % amphibole 100 % amphibole 4x10-3 0,2 0,13 0,042 4x10-5 0,002 0,0013 0,00042 13.03.14 35Timo Tuomi
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