articles 71023 2

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Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Urania

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Slide1:  WESTERN CITIES ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY ACTION FORUM URUMQUI, PRC Jul 12-13, 2006 POLICY AND LEGISLATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ITALY Ivo ALLEGRINI CNR-Institute for Atmospheric Pollution Monterotondo S. (Rome), ITALY AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY :  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTION MONITORING ACTION EMISSIONS AMBIENT AIR AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTION INDUSTRIAL PLANTS:  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTION INDUSTRIAL PLANTS DL. 152, April 3rd 2006 Fifth Part Air protection and Emission reduction directives All civil and industrial plants and their activities that cause emissions are included in the directives. Are excluded all plants under D. Lgs. 133/05 implementation of the Directive 2000/76/CE concerning waste incineration All plants under Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control have just one authorization from IPPC that replace the previous one AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTION:  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTION SEA Title II EIA Title III IPPC Title III, art. 34 The Strategic Environmental Evaluation requires environmental effects to be taken into account in the development of certain action plan such policy, programs, planes or national regional and local program initiatives.. Environmental Impact Assessment describes and evaluates all direct and indirect effects of a project and of its main options, including option zero, on humans, fauna, flora, ground, superficial and underground water, air, climate, landscape and on their interaction, as well as on material goods and cultural, social and environmental heritage. Furthermore, it evaluates the conditions for the project and plant implementation and their operating phase. The integrated approach means that the permits must take into account the whole environmental performance of the plant*, ensuring a high level of protection of the environment itself. This approach advices both the designed authorities to coordinate their actions on industrial plant authorization and the plants to control emissions in the environment taken as a whole and no more as three different parts (water, air and ground) AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTING EMISSIONS:  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTING EMISSIONS Annex I Part II: Polluting substances limit values; Part III: Polluting substances limit values related to some specific plants and relative prescriptions; Part IV: Limit value and prescriptions for refineries, hydrocarbons extractions and geothermal plants Annex VI Establish criteria to evaluate the conformity of measures and limit values For Large Combustion Plants are fixed emission limit values, monitoring methodologies and emission control and some principles to verify the limit value conformity (Adoption of the Directive 2001/80/CE) Annex II Concerning the Volatile Organic Compounds emissions: the emission limit values, monitoring methodologies and emission control, criteria to verify limit value conformity and solvent management plan design are fixed Annex III AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTING EMISSIONS:  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY PREVENTING EMISSIONS Reduction of Industrial Emissions is largely a consequence of: Shifting of economy from primary production Relocation of plants Improvement of abatement technologies AMBIENT AIR – Ministerial Decrees:  AMBIENT AIR – Ministerial Decrees Directive 96/62:  Directive 96/62 Sets limits and quality objectives with the aim to prevent, reduce or avoid unwanted effects for human health and the environment Evaluate air quality according to common criteria and methods Make the information on air quality available to the general puiblic Maintain air quality, if good enough, or improve it Directive 96/62 DL351/99:  Directive 96/62 DL351/99 The responsibility for the implementation of Directive 96/62 is with the Regional Governments 1° and 2nd Daughter Directive DM 2 April 2002 n. 60 (I):  1° and 2nd Daughter Directive DM 2 April 2002 n. 60 (I) “Implementation of Directives 1999/30/CE and 2000/69/CE for SO2 NO2, NOx Particulate matter, Lead Benzene CO Concetration limits, alarm limits Air Quality Monitoring criteria Information to public Data reporting and format 1° and 2nd Daughter Directive DM 2 April 2002 n. 60 (II):  1° and 2nd Daughter Directive DM 2 April 2002 n. 60 (II) The Decree also includes Number of fixed stations required for monitoring Location Criteria Other information on air quality Reference measurement methods (ISO standard methods) Operative procedure for Particulate matter equivalence test 3rd Daughter Directive (Ozone) DL 21 May 2004 n. 183 :  3rd Daughter Directive (Ozone) DL 21 May 2004 n. 183 Implementation of Directive 2002/3/CE Ozone in Air nell’aria Target Values, Long term objectives, information tresholds, alarm treshold Monitoring criteria Information to public Cooperation with other Member States for the reduction of Ozone levels DM 1st October 2002 n. 261 (Preliminary assessment, Plans and programs):  DM 1st October 2002 n. 261 (Preliminary assessment, Plans and programs) “Technical specifications for preliminary assessment and criteria for palns and programs to control emissions Preliminary assessment of air quality and design of monitoring network Data and information to be provided with plans and programs DM 20/9/2002 (QA&QC procedures):  DM 20/9/2002 (QA&QC procedures) Identify technical bodies responsible for the Quality Assurance/ Quality Control of monitoring networks: Instruments certification and approval Primary and secondary standards Reference laboratories Training Cooperation with central EU technical bodies AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY HOW TO IMPROVE OBSERVATIONS:  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY HOW TO IMPROVE OBSERVATIONS Preliminary Assessment Spatial Distribution of Pollutants Design of the Monitoring network Complementing AQMS data CNR-IIA’s PROJECTS IN CHINA:  CNR-IIA’s PROJECTS IN CHINA AIR QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM: SUZHOU (2002-2006) INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM –TRAFFIC AIR POLLUTION : BEIJING (2004) LABORATORY AND OLYMPIC VILLAGE MONITORING: BEIJING (2004-2008) AIR QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM-GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION INVENTORY: LANZHOU (2004-2007) AIR POLLUTION EMISSION MONITORING : SHANGHAI (2005-2007) AIR QUALITY MONITORING IMPROVEMENT: URUMCHI (2006) Measurement campaigns:  Conventional Nitrogen Oxides NOx (NO and NO2), Sulphur Dioxide SO2, Ammonia NH3, Ozone O3, BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) New: H2S, Formaldheyde VOC Particulate matter Measurement campaigns The Analyst sampler... Pollution mapping:  Pollution mapping Pollution mapping:  Pollution mapping PRELIMINARY EMISSION SOURCE ASSESSMENT:  PRELIMINARY EMISSION SOURCE ASSESSMENT Statistical evaluation of emission source contribution upon air pollutant concentrations Representativeness : e.g.:NO2/NOx and traffic:  Representativeness : e.g.:NO2/NOx and traffic Network Macrodesign:  Network Macrodesign Spatial distribution trend Identification of zones where primary emissions (e.g. traffic NO) are higher C/Bind site selection. OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING AQMS:  OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING AQMS Integration of existing instruments for Air Quality Monitoring with new apparatuses both conventional and non conventional; Relocation of existing monitoring stations; Setting up new stations where needed; Monitoring new pollutants; Implementation of the reference monitoring station; Optimisation of QA/QC procedures with a properly equipped mobile unit; Technical training of the personnel. POLLUTANTS MONITORED IN SUZHOU :  POLLUTANTS MONITORED IN SUZHOU POLLUTANTS MONITORED IN SUZHOU :  POLLUTANTS MONITORED IN SUZHOU STATION TYPE A – Urban Background B – Exposition oriented (Residential) C – Traffic Oriented D – Regional Background AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY :  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY Lesson learned: Legislation in Italy is oriented to plans and program to reduce exposition, thus detailed information on spatial and temporal evolution of pollutants are required. When those information are available, reduction plans very often achieve the target. Why very often? AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY :  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY The driving force of atmospheric pollution is the meteorological conditions, especially atmospheric stability. In Italy, as well as in many locations in China, atmospheric stability plays an important role that is negligible in Northern European Countries. Thus, in locations where atmospheric stability is dominant, much efforts must be placed to achieve a sufficiently good Air quality. This may turn into non sustainable economic costs AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY :  AMBIENT AIR LEGISLATION IN ITALY How far can we reduce the PM (and NO2) levels? How important are the natural sources? How significant is the LRTAP in the area? Do we know with a sufficient degree of accuracy the main features of local pollution ? How traffic limitations may affect AQ? THE CHALLENGE Slide29:  Shall we win the challenge in Italy and in China? We are not sure, but we are trying very hard THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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