articles 59041 peshawar2

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Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Dionigi

Source: authorstream.com

AIR POLLUTION IN PESHAWAR NWFP-PAKISTAN :  AIR POLLUTION IN PESHAWAR NWFP-PAKISTAN Shams-ur-Rehman Chief Analyst ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GOVERNMENT OF NWFP, PESHAWAR (PAKISTAN) Historical Background:  Historical Background Clean air is the blessing of nature and a pre-requisite for the survival of human life. With rapid increase in population, urbanization and industrialization, air pollution is becoming very common problem especially in urban areas of NWFP. The large influx of Afghan refugees during the past 15 years has also led to a greater demand for more food, more shelter, more transportation and more manufacturing activities which has ultimately resulted into chronic air pollution problem particularly in Peshawar. Major problems are from automobiles exhaust emissions, industrial emissions, specially from brick kilns factories, domestic burning and wind blown dust arising from unpaved roads. Status of Air Pollution in Peshawar :  Status of Air Pollution in Peshawar Air Pollution in Peshawar in 1993 DHV Consultant BV, Netherlands carried out air pollution measurements in May, 1993. Table-1 Concentration of polluting component in ambient air in ug/m3 Concentration of CO (8 hours average) at different spots in Peshawar City in 1995 (Permissible level = 9 ppm):  Concentration of CO (8 hours average) at different spots in Peshawar City in 1995 (Permissible level = 9 ppm) Concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (8 hours average) at different spots in Peshawar in 1995 (Permissible Level = 0.05 ppm):  Concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (8 hours average) at different spots in Peshawar in 1995 (Permissible Level = 0.05 ppm) Main Sources of Air Pollution in Peshawar :  Main Sources of Air Pollution in Peshawar Vehicular Emissions Industrial Emissions Emissions From Brick Kiln Factories. Massive Burning of Solid Waste/Refuse Domestic Burnings Vehicular Pollution:  Vehicular Pollution Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Smoke, Dust, Hydrocarbons and Tetraethyl lead are the main components of vehicular emissions poured into the urban air. Fuel adulteration and use of ill-maintained vehicles enhances emissions from motor vehicle exhaust. A large amount of suspended dust is generated due to vehicles driving on unpaved road shoulders, poorly maintained and overcrowded roads. In Peshawar, being a boarder City of Afghanistan, the large influx of Afghan transporters has greatly increased the problem of air pollution. Industrial Emissions:  Industrial Emissions Industrial emissions from chimneys is also a source of air pollution in Peshawar. In NWFP there are about 1500 industrial units with 305 Chips and Stone Crushers as well as 450 Brick Kilns. The industrial units in NWFP are scattered over a vast stretch of the province with greater concentration in and around the cities of Peshawar, Haripur, Charsadda, Nowshera and Gadoon Amazai. Stake emissions from most of the industries are unregulated and uncontrolled except few industries which have installed treatment facilities. Emissions From Brick Kilns:  Emissions From Brick Kilns Approximately 450 brick kilns are situated in and around Peshawar City. Taking a monthly average a brick kiln producing 800,000 bricks uses large amount of rubber to start the fire and burns a total of eight tons fire wood, 200 tons of low quality coal, 20 drums of used mobile oil. The combustion of old rubber Tyres and used mobile oil in these factories emits hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide The emissions from brick kilns also include many other toxic pollutants such as Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Dioxins, which is believed to be carcinogenic. The increased number of Brick Kilns situated in the Province particularly in Peshawar have almost doubled the level of air pollution mainly due to the use of large amount of rubber, low quality of coal and used oil for burning purposes e.g. 67% PM10, 13% CO, 6% NOx, and 49% SO2 are contributed by brick kilns. Massive Burning Of Solid Waste/Refuse:  Massive Burning Of Solid Waste/Refuse In NWFP generation of municipal solid waste is estimated to be between 0.6 to 0.8 Kilograms per day per capita and virtually there does not exist any appropriate waste management system. Approximately 40% of the generated wastes remain at collection points, or in streets, where they emit a host of pollutants into the air, making it unacceptable for breathing. Also the roadside and on dump burning of the municipal solid waste's generates create air pollution problem. Burning of the wastes generates Furan and Dioxin gases which on inhaling produce diseases even worse than cancer. Domestic Activities:  Domestic Activities Domestic burning of fuel i.e. wood, animal dung especially in rural areas also contributes to air pollution. The burning of garbage, straw and other things for domestic uses may produce air pollution although on small scale but a potential cause of health problem. Dust arising from small scale domestic activities also contributes to over all air pollution in the urban areas. In city center and bazaars the numerous outside food stalls and restaurants also cause local air pollution due to frying meat in oil and roasting on charcoal fires. Air Pollution Control Legislation:  Air Pollution Control Legislation 1. Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance, 1983 2. National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan 3. Pakistan Environment Protection Act, 1997 In NWFP the following legislation is present for control of air & noise pollution.   i) NWFP local Govt. ordinance, 1979 (section-54 & 56). ii) Pakistan Panel Code (1860), (Section 278). iii) Motor Vehicles Ordinance 1965 & Motor Vehicles Rules, 1969 (Section 163 (1)). iv) Factories Act, 1934 (Section 39). v) West Pakistan Regulations Control of Loud Speakers & Sound Amplifiers Ordinance, 1965. Air pollution Control Measures by EPA, NWFP:  Air pollution Control Measures by EPA, NWFP 1. Auto-Emissions Establishment of Vehicular Emission Testing Station (VETS) in 1997, which has tested so far more than 50,000 vehicles. Contribution of Vehicle Emission Testing Station Air pollution Control Measures by EPA, NWFP:  Brick Kiln Emissions The use of rubber in brick kilns was banned by the Provincial Govt. orders issued through a handout on October 13, 1999. Accordingly, EPA issued notices to most of the brick kilns to immediately stop the use of rubber in their kilns. A programme was initiated for the Brick kiln Owner Association under a GTZ assisted project for giving them training in good house keeping, energy saving thus indirectly decreasing the emission levels. Air pollution Control Measures by EPA, NWFP Urban Traffic Management Plan:  Urban Traffic Management Plan The existing road transport plans of Peshawar do not fulfill the requirements of the whole population residing in Peshawar City. Many commercial areas and residential colonies are not accessible by the present public transport system and the public are compelled to use private cars, taxies and auto-rickshaws to approach these areas. EPA, NWFP is working on a project to design such a public transport management system which fulfill the requirements of the whole public residing in the city. This is a long term project which need a lot of investment but the activity is on high priority at the Provincial Development Program. Air Pollution Measurement & Present Status of Monitoring System for Air Quality :  Air Pollution Measurement & Present Status of Monitoring System for Air Quality An effective monitoring requires reliable ambient air pollution measurements equipments and permanent monitoring stations. Presently none of the agency has yet installed permanent monitoring stations for air pollution measurements. EPA is going to acquire mobile laboratory in the near future through a mega JICA grant which shall be used for monitoring of liquid effluent and air emissions from industries, municipalities and motor vehicle exhaust. In the present circumstances, EPA, NWFP carry out random monitoring/measurements of air pollutant gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxides and noise level with the help of portable pocket gas detectors.

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