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Travel-Nature

Published on March 30, 2008

Author: Natalya

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First Coordination Meeting of Regional Air Quality Initiatives and Programs in Asia:  First Coordination Meeting of Regional Air Quality Initiatives and Programs in Asia Grand Sheraton 16 June, 2004 Bangkok, Thailand Cornie Huizenga, CAI-Asia Secretariat Overview of Presentation:  Overview of Presentation Background and Objectives of the meeting Review of status quo of Air Quality Management in Asia Priorities for Air Quality Management in Asia How to strengthen coordination and cooperation among regional programs and initiatives on AQM in Asia Part 1:  Part 1 Background and Objectives of the meeting Background:  Background CAI-Asia promotes sharing of experiences and building of partnerships. CAI-Asia has informally or formally been cooperating with several of the regional programs and organizations present is, or invited to, the meeting After having established the CAI-Asia, the website (http://www.cleanair.org/caiasia) and other activities the time has come to focus more on active regional networking and (joint) policy development Objectives & Background Objectives:  Objectives To share and discuss CAI-Asia’s views on status of AQM in Asia To share and discuss approaches adopted by regional programs and initiatives in AQM related activities To share and discuss regional AQM priorities for Asia To discuss strengthening of Coordination and Cooperation among AQM programs and Initiatives in Asia Objectives & Background Part 2:  Part 2 Review of Status of AQM in Asia Approach in describing Air Quality Management Status :  Approach in describing Air Quality Management Status Drivers: trends with respect to factors contributing to increase/decrease in emissions Pressure:trends with respect to emissions from different sources State:trends with respect to concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere Impact: trends with respect to health, environmental and economic impacts Response:trends with respect to the development of capacity to manage air quality AQM Status Asia Urbanization:  Urbanization AQM Status Asia: drivers Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects, The 1999 Revision. Population growth:  0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0 1600.0 1980 1990 2000 2002 population East Asia Southeast Asia South Asia Population growth More than One billion extra in 20 years AQM Status Asia: drivers Motorization :  Motorization Vehicle growth scenario China AQM Status Asia: drivers Source: ADB 2002. Policy Guidelines to Reduce Vehicle Emissions Source: Dongquan He, Energy Foundation 2004 Energy consumption:  Energy consumption - 500.0 1000.0 1500.0 2000.0 2500.0 3000.0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 MTOE Total Asia Pacific China India Japan AQM Status Asia: drivers Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2003 CO2 emissions:  CO2 emissions 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Metric Tons of Carbon Source: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_fea.htm CO2 emissions 1980 – 2020 Asia: Per capita CO2 Emissions 1950 AQM Status Asia: Pressure Source: IEA, 2002 Technology Changes:  Technology Changes Although there is strong growth in motorization, the introduction of cleaner engines and fuels has slowed down the overall growth in emissions and there is considerable potential to slow down the increase in emissions from transport even further Removal of lead from gasoline has drastically reduced lead being emitted per vehicle Energy switch e.g Coal to natural gas has contributed to lowering SO2 emissions in urban areas in China. AQM Status Asia: Pressure Source: Wangwongwatana, BAQ 2002 Source: BAQ 2002 Source: CAI-Asia statistics 2004 Local versus trans-boundary generated pollution:  Local versus trans-boundary generated pollution AQM Status Asia: Pressure Part of China’s sulphur emissions are deposited within China, a substantial amount is deposited in Korea (24%) and Japan (38%) Source: Draft Results BURGEAP study for China National Environment Monitoring Center (CNEMC) financed by French FASEP Air quality over Bangladesh on October 23, 2001 (left) and December 4, 2001 Source: Alles, Davis 2004 http://fire.biol.wwu.edu/trent/alles/AirPollution.pdf Air quality levels 2000-2001:  Air quality levels 2000-2001 Source: Information collected from national and local government agencies through CAI-Asia network, 2003, detailed sources available from CAI-Asia Secretariat SO2 NO2 SPM PM10 Level 0 Pre-problem SPM Limit = 90 µg/m3 (WHO, 1979) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Bangkok Busan Chongqing Colombo Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Osaka Pune Singapore Seoul Shanghai Tokyo concentration in µg/m 3 PM10 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (USEPA, 1997) SO2 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999) NO2 Limit = 40 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999) 3 3 Level 1 Moderate & Increasing Level 2 High & Stable Level 3 Medium & Decreasing level 4 Low & Stable 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 AQM Status Asia: State Observations on state of air quality:  Observations on state of air quality Several cities have recorded improvements in air quality on annual basis, e.g. Bangkok, but these cities continue to surpass short-term standards on a regular basis It is hard to describe State of air quality in Asian cities due to paucity of available data If pollutants are not measured e.g. Ozone or fine particulate they can not be assessed. It does not mean that the problem is not there Different cities and countries use different scales to define air quality, which makes comparison difficult Information presented in previous slide can NOT be used to rank air quality among Asian cities AQM Status Asia: State Health Effects and Health Costs :  Health Effects and Health Costs Health Effects 1,025,000 1,619,000 Indoor Air 487,000 799,000 Urban Outdoor Air 730,000 1,730,000 Unsafe Water Asian Estimate Global Estimate Risks 1,025,000 1,619,000 Indoor Air 487,000 799,000 Urban Outdoor Air 730,000 1,730,000 Unsafe Water Asian Estimate Global Estimate Risks Number of Premature Deaths • Manila US$392M • Shanghai US$880M • Bangkok US$424M • India US$14 to $ 191.6M • Jakarta US$ 100 M Health Costs (per year) Exposure Risks • Manila US$392M • Shanghai US$880M • Bangkok US$424M • India US$14 to $ 191.6M • Jakarta US$ 100 M Health Costs (per year) Exposure Risks AQM Status Asia: Impact Source: WHO, 2002 Source: Greenbaum and O’Keefe, BAQ 2003 Source: ADB 2002. Policy Guidelines on Reducing Vehicle Emissions Benchmarking of AQM capacity:  Review Both city profile and questionnaire to be reviewed by air quality experts in the city Overall review panel (e.g. WHO, World Bank and ADB, etc) Benchmarking of AQM capacity AQM Profile 15-20 page document: general information description of pollution sources Air Quality Data Impacts of air pollution Policies, Programs and Projects Conclusions AQM Questionnaire AQM Status Asia: Response Air quality measurement capability:  Air quality measurement capability Status of AQ monitoring in Asia Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft) Only in few cases are monitoring stations linked in a network Routine regulatory monitoring generally does not (yet) include ozone and PM 2.5 QA/QC programs are not institutionalized in most cases Routine regulatory monitoring generally does not (yet) include ozone and PM 2.5 AQM Status Asia: Response Draft Draft Draft Data Assessment and Availability:  Data Assessment and Availability A number of cities have APIs, but not all publish AQ information on a regular basis. API’s in most cases do not include pollutants of concern such as PM10 or Ozone. There is no study on the effectiveness of API as a communication tool Whether people look at it; or Whether people understand it Cities with API do not appear to use API as management tool, e.g. issue air quality alerts Comprehensive overview of air quality in Asia is not available. CAI-Asia is facing difficulties in obtaining information AQM Status Asia: Response Emissions estimates:  Emissions estimates Many cities have initiated development of Emission Inventories BUT Level of detail/ disaggregation varies greatly Reliability of activity data on which inventories are based and Emission factors used is questionable for many of the cities Inventories in many of the cases were conducted by outside groups: academe or consulting firms CAUTION in formulating AQM policies based on current Emission Inventories AQM Status Asia: Response Draft, Draft, Draft Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft) AQM management capacity:  Stage 4 – Moderate and decreasing levels of air pollution; continuous monitoring, full fledged policies and control measures, emerging focus on air pollution prevention Stage 3 – High but decreasing levels of air pollution; manual and continuous monitoring, comprehensive legislation and AQM Action Plans Stage 2 – High but stabilizing levels of air pollution; ad-hoc legislation, start of monitoring, tail-pipe/ stack emissions control Stage 1 – Moderate and increasing levels of air pollution; ad-hoc monitoring and ad-hoc control measures Stage 0 – Pre-problem stage; no or very basic AQM Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft) AQM management capacity Stage 5 – Low and decreasing levels of air pollution; routine review and updates in legislation, monitoring, policies and strong focus on air pollution prevention Tokyo, Singapore, Osaka, Seoul Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Busan Colombo, Dhaka, HCM City, Hanoi, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Manila, Yogyakarta Beijing, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Taipei Karachi, Surabaya Classification according to stages is based on AQ capability questionnaire, AQ levels and City profile. AQM Status Asia: Response Draft, Draft, Draft Part 3:  Part 3 Priorities for AQM in Asia Potential Priority Areas :  Potential Priority Areas Comprehensive Approach to air quality management Impact assessment of air pollution Roll-out air quality management to more cities (New) pollutants of concern: PM, Ozone, VOCs and heavy metals Increased emphasis on prevention of pollution rather than managing the tail-pipe and the stack-pipe Integrate local air quality management with trans-boundary air quality management Integrate local air quality management with GHG abatement Funding for AQM Priorities for AQM in Asia Comprehensive approach to AQM:  Comprehensive approach to AQM Benchmarking study: comprehensive approach to AQM, over time, gives the best results QA/QC THE priority in AQ monitoring Continuous monitoring Access to information (detailed AQ data) to mobilize support and funding for AQM Emissions inventories the weakest link in AQM in Asia Management strategies need to address mobile, stationary and area sources More institutional capacity/budget to implement AQM policies 1. Air quality measurement 4.Management strategies 3. Emissions estimates 2. Data assessment/ availability Priorities for AQM in Asia Impact assessment of Air Pollution in Asia:  Impact assessment of Air Pollution in Asia PAPA project fills important gap, but: Need for increased capacity to assess health impacts in Asia: exposure analysis, vulnerability of special groups (poor, children, elderly) Capacity to be more evenly spread across Asia Indigenize the capacity to carry out health impact research further More detailed health and air pollution data Make a start with more substantial work on impact assessment of air pollution on environment (climate and crop growth rates, buildings) Improve quality of economic impact analysis of air pollution and do them on a routine basis Priorities for AQM in Asia Roll-out of AQM to more cities:  Roll-out of AQM to more cities Asia has about 5000 cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. In many of the countries in Asia AQM is limited to 5-10 cities. National governments will need to focus more on legislation, capacity building and oversight and delegate responsibility for actual implementation of AQM to lower administrative levels Capacity building program required for secondary cities Do secondary cities need modified version of comprehensive AQM systems ? Priorities for AQM in Asia (new) pollutants of concern PM, Ozone, VOCs and heavy metals:  (new) pollutants of concern PM, Ozone, VOCs and heavy metals Fine PM (PM10, , PM 2.5) and ultra-fine particulate major health risk. WHO indicates no safe levels. Should Asian countries have PM standards? PM monitoring to be improved and more targeted PM reduction strategies to be improved Relative importance of PM in API’s to be reconsidered Increase in motorization in Asia sharpens the need to have standards for Ozone, monitor it and control it. Few countries in Asia monitor VOCs and heavy metals Priorities for AQM in Asia Prevention of pollution and tail-stack pipe solutions:  Prevention of pollution and tail-stack pipe solutions Increase in drivers of air pollution in Asia makes it unlikely that tail and stack-pipe control can manage air pollution Fuel switching and larger share of renewable energy sources Relocation of pollution from population sources Public transport Better Land-use planning Emissions Standards (technology) Clean Fuels Inspection & Maintenance Change Modal Split through Land-use Planning, Transport Planning and Travel Demand Management Mobile Sources of Pollution Make optimal use of cleaner technology in stationary and mobile sources of pollution Cleaner fuels and engines Better maintenance Priorities for AQM in Asia Integration of local AQM with trans-boundary AQM:  Integration of local AQM with trans-boundary AQM AQM strategies usually do not take account of the contribution made by pollution originating from outside. Local AQ monitoring systems and trans-boundary AQ monitoring systems to be integrated Emission inventories and source apportionment studies to reflect what part of pollution is from local origin and what is “imported” Where substantive “imports” occur joint strategies to be developed with areas where pollution originates (Example of the Pearl Delta) Overall trans-boundary air pollution underscores the need for harmonized approaches to AQM and need for regional cooperation Priorities for AQM in Asia Integration of local AQM with GHG abatement:  Integration of local AQM with GHG abatement Air pollution and Greenhouse gasses share many “drivers” population growth, urbanization, energy use, motorization. It makes sense therefore to develop joint strategies. Co-benefits of local air pollution control and GHG abatement till now not well documented. Knowledge management to be improved. Air pollution community and GHG community need to improve communication. Revise organizational structures. More joint pilot projects. Priorities for AQM in Asia Funding:  Funding Expansion of AQ management (quantity and quality) will require substantive funding. Air Quality management is relatively under funded compared to water quality management and other urban services Funding of AQM needs to be made less dependent on donor funding Alternative funding sources such as GEF to be explored Polluters (stationary – mobile) need to increase funding to prevent/control pollution Awareness raising that money spent on AQM is money well spent Air pollution prevention in mobile sector through improved maintenance has very good returns because of reduced fuel consumption and reduced breakdowns Manila US$392M Shanghai US$880M Bangkok US$424M India US$14 to $ 191.6M Jakarta US$ 100 M Health Costs (per year) Air pollution prevention in stationary sector cleaner production, reduced fuel consumption and reduced breakdowns Justification for additional funding Priorities for AQM in Asia Part 4:  Part 4 How to strengthen Coordination and Cooperation among AQM programs and Initiatives in Asia Initiatives and organizations with AQM portfolio:  Initiatives and organizations with AQM portfolio Status of AQ monitoring in Asia Source: Draft Results CAI-Asia Survey AQM initiatives and Programs, 2004 AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia - AQM Projects by country -:  - AQM Projects by country - AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia AQM Projects by type :  AQM Projects by type AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Ambient Air Monitoring Mobile Sources Stationary Sources GHG Abatement Indoor Air Pollution Transboundary Air Pollution Note: One Project can have multiple objectives Breakdown Mobile Source Projects by sub-objective:  Breakdown Mobile Source Projects by sub-objective AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia Note: One Project can have multiple sub-objectives AQM Projects by Component:  AQM Projects by Component AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Policy/ Strategies Development Data Gathering and Analysis Awareness Raising Capacity Building Equipment Support Note: One Project can have multiple components Collective Knowledge base:  Collective Knowledge base No established data-base of programs and projects – duplication of efforts Programs and Projects have produced substantive body of knowledge yet results are not well documented and not shared beyond groups directly involved in project implementation No joint agenda which documents type of programs and projects that will be required AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia Integration external funded projects with regular AQM efforts:  Integration external funded projects with regular AQM efforts Results from special projects until now are not fully utilized in the formulation of AQ management policies and practices Methodology and technology of special AQ data projects is often more advanced than regular AQ monitoring programs Transfer of skills from special projects to regulatory agencies is limited AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia -CAI-Asia-:  -CAI-Asia- The Clean Air Initiative promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian Cities through sharing experiences and building partnership Sharing knowledge and experiences on air quality management Capacity building Improving policy and regulatory frameworks at the regional level Assisting cities in formulating and implementing integrated air quality management systems Piloting projects to encourage innovation “Create an Air Quality Management Community in Asia” AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia CAI-Asia Membership:  CITIES Bangkok,Thailand Chiang Mai,Thailand Chengdu,PRC Chittagong,Bangladesh Chongqing,PRC Colombo,Sri Lanka Dhaka, Bangladesh Guangzhou,PRC Haiphong, Viet Nam Hangzhou,PRC Hanoi,Viet Nam Harbin,PRC Ho Chi Minh City,Viet Nam Hong Kong, SAR, China Hyderabad, India Islamabad,Pakistan Kathmandu,Nepal Lahore, Pakistan Makati,Philippines Metro Manila, Philippines Mumbai, India Naga,Philippines Phnom Penh,Cambodia Pune, India Singapore, (NEA) Surabaya,Indonesia Tianjin,PRC Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Yogyakarta,Indonesia NGAs Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, India Australia Department of Environment and Heritage Balochistan EPA, Pakistan Central Pollution Control Board, India Department of Environment, Bangladesh Department of Forests, Ecology and Env’t, Karnataka State, India Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines Department of Energy, Philippines Department of Transportation and Communications, Philippines Dhaka Transport Coordination Board, Bangladesh Environmental Protection Agency Karachi, Pakistan Ministry of Environment, Cambodia Ministry of Environment, Indonesia Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Cambodia Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, India Pollution Control Department, Thailand State Environmental Protection Administration (PRC focal point) Viet Nam Register, Viet Nam DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES Asian Development Bank Australian Department for Environment and Heritage German Agency for Technical Cooperation The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation United States-Asia Environmental Partnership Sida World Bank FULL PRIVATE SECTOR Member Ford Motor Shell Company ASSOCIATE PRIVATE SECTOR Member AVL Corning ETI ACFA DEKRA ESP Cerulean EMITEC IPIECA MAHA SGS 50 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia CAI-Asia Membership What does CAI-Asia bring to the table ?:  What does CAI-Asia bring to the table ? Knowledge Management Capacity Building Regional Policy and Standards Integrated Air Quality Strategies Pilot Projects Workshops cleanairnet.org/caiasia CAI-Asia Listserv Benchmarking Study AQM Best Practices CATNet Asia Distance learning course Special Training Courses Strategic Framework for AQM in Asia CAI-Asia Oil Industry Dialogue Priority Agenda for AQM in Asia Country and City based AQM strategies Country and city based local networks PAPA Project Poverty and Air Pollution Diesel Emission Factor Development PSUTA (sustainable transport) Fuel additives BAQ 2002 BAQ 2003 BAQ 2004 Sustainable Transport, Vietnam Sustainable Urban Dev., Shanghai Heating, Ulaanbaatar Clean Air Congress, London AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia Who has the capacity to coordinate ?:  Who has the capacity to coordinate ? Generally the will to coordinate and cooperate is larger than the capacity to actually do so Limited capacity means difficulties in making data available, no travel funds to attend coordination meetings, limited possibility to prepare for and follow-up to coordination meetings Few programs, with dedicated secretariats have actual capacity to engage in coordination, eg. CAI-Asia (8 persons), IGES, … Coordination mandate of these programs is partly self appointed. Natural mandate for coordination with UNEP? But, what is their capacity? AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia What are we coordinating? :  What are we coordinating? globally: (awareness raising on AQM, broad policy approaches, information exchange, capacity building) Regionally: (same as globally but at Asia specific level, more emphasis on harmonization of policies and standards) Nationally: (policy and standards setting, institutional structures, capacity building and AQM implementation coordination and oversight) City: ( implementation coordination within policies and structures set at the national level). Awareness Raising and Knowledge management Policies & Standards Implementation Coordination AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for global coordination -:  - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for global coordination - Strengthen general knowledge base on AQM through http://www.cleanairnet.org Hosted under World Bank contract (tech. Support Chile) Managed by ADB and WB (tech. Support Chile) Discuss possibilities for coordinated approaches to capacity building with Latin America, Africa and Asia based on CATNet-Asia model and Distance learning course Discuss desirability and feasibility of further organizational cooperation and integration of CAI-Asia, CAI-LAC (Latin America) and CAI-SSA (Sub-Sahara Africa) AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for regional coordination -:  - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for regional coordination - Four main products: Synthesis of Air pollution health impact studies- PAPA project – describes why AQM is needed in Asia Strategic Framework for Air Quality management (APMA/CAI-Asia) – outlines a broad based, high level approach to AQM in Asia Benchmarking of Air Quality Management capability (APMA/CAI-Asia) – assesses how far Asian cities are in the implementation of SF for AQM in Asia Priority Agenda for AQM in Asia (CAI-Asia/????) – in the further strengthening of AQM capacity in Asia, what should be the focus of AQM AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for national coordination -:  - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for national coordination - Establishment of national networks in main countries of Asia Encourage discussion on national policies and standards on AQM Promote capacity building programs China local Network (under establishment) Lead: ADB- EF India local Network (under establishment) Lead: ADB Bangladesh local Network (under establishment) Lead: ADB + WB Nepal local Network (under establishment) Lead: ADB Sri-Lanka local Network (AIRMAC) Lead: USAID/US-AEP Vietnam Network Lead: USAID/US-AEP AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for city coordination -:  - CAI-Asia 2004 objective for city coordination - Establishment of city networks where relevant Encourage discussion on implementation cooperation Promote capacity building programs Jakarta Network (Mitra Emisi Bersih) Lead: USAID/US-AEP Manila local Network (Partnership for Clean Air) Lead: ADB Pune local Network Lead: USAID/US-AEP Karachi local network (Under establishment) Lead: IUCN AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia How do we continue with coordination and cooperation?:  How do we continue with coordination and cooperation? No predefined concept of “coordination” and “cooperation” Each “coordinator” will define concept of “coordination” and “cooperation” Avoid over-dependence on one organization for coordination and cooperation There can and should be several coordinators for global, regional, national and local level, and thematic topics (e.g. PAPA program) Make certain that the coordinators talk to each other and that there are communication structures (websites, listservers, workshops, dedicated meetings) The most successful coordination and cooperation is organic! AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

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