Arteriviridae

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Information about Arteriviridae
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Published on March 9, 2014

Author: jclargado

Source: slideshare.net

•Derived from Equine Areteritis virus

•Spherical virions •50-70 nm in diameter •Enveloped •Linear positive sense •Single-stranded RNA •13-15 kb in size •Infectious genomic RNA

•Single nucleocapsid protein-N • 6 enveloped proteinsE,GP2,GP3,GP 4 GP5,M

•Large enveloped gycoprotein

Order: Nidovirales Family: Arteriviridae Genus: Arterivirus Species: Equine Arterivirus Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating virus Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

•Replicate mostly in macrophages •Very minimal in other cell types •Host range is highly restricted •Can subvert protective host innate immune responses •Apoptosis •IFN signaling pathways

•Receptors for PRRS 1. CD163 2.Sialoadhesin 3. Heparin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans

CYTOPLASMIC •Attachment to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.

•Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane. •ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.

•Synthesis and proteolysis of replicase polyproteins. •Replication occurs in viral factories. •A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).

•dsRNA genome is transcribed thereby proiding ssRNA(+) genomes. •Synthesis of structural proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNAs.

•Assembly and buddi ng at the membranes of ER, intermediate compartments, and/or Golgi complex. •Release of new virions.

1. Equine Viral Arteritis 2. Porcine Reproductie and Respiratory Syndrome 3. Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating Disease 4. Simian Hemorrhagic Fever

PINK EYE

SCROTAL EDEMA

•1st designated as “mystery swine disease” •“lelystad virus”-Netherland •Causative virus first appeared-US, Asia, Europe

•Infects only domestic and wild pigs •initially characterized by •Anorexia •Fever •Lethargy

•Affected animals: •Dyspnea/ hyperpnea •Transient hyperemia •Cyanosis of the extremities

Dry sows-first month of infection •Short periods of inappetence •The body temperature may be elevated

•Transient discoloration (blueing) of the ears •Premature births

•Sows in late gestation •Abortion •Premature births •Stillbirths •Mummified fetuses

stillbirth Mummified fetuses

•More diarrhoea. •Less viable piglets. •Increase in respiratory infections

Diarrhea in infected piglets

•Period of slight inappetence. •Mild coughing. •Hairy wasting pigs. •In some herds there are no symptoms.

weakness Rough hair coat

•Inappetence •Increased body temperature •Lethargy •Loss of libido •Lowered fertility •Poor litter sizes •Lowered sperm output

•Droplet contamination •Nasal secretions, saliva, feces and urine •Permanently populated houses •Movement of carrier pigs.

•Airborne transmission •Mechanical means via faeces, dust, droplets and contaminated equipment, etc. •Contaminated boots and clothing. •Vehicles. •Artificial insemination

•Mortality is high •Direct contact •Through secretions •Excretions •Transplacental transmission

PATHOGENESIS • virus replicates in the macrophages of the lungs, lymphoid tissue and endothelial cells •Viremia-24 hours

Lesions of acute infection •Lymph node enlargement •Intestinal pneumonia

DISEAS CAUSATI ES VE AGENT SAMPLE/S DIAGNOSTIC TEST NASOPHARYNGEAL SWABS, BLOOD RT-PCR EQUINE VIRAL ARTERITIS EQUINE ARTERIVIRUS PORCINE REPRODUCT IE AND RESPIRATO RY SYNDROME PORCINE REPRODUCTIE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS TISSUES LACTATE DEHYDROGE GENASE ELEVATNG DISEASE LACTATE DEHYDROGENA SE ELEVATNG VIRUS BLOOD SEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION SIMIAN SIMIAN WHOLE BLOOD REVERSE PLACENTAL TISSUES AND FLUIDS FROM FETAL LUNG, LIVER, LYMPHORECTICULAR TISSUES IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL TESTING HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING BLOOD SEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

•Infected pigs are immune to reinfection •Vaccination-live attenuated, inactivated •limit the frequency of seed stock introductions to the sow herd •assure that the replacement gilts be well-acclimatized to the PRRS virus

•Boars introduced into negative herds should be quarantined for 60-90 days after purchase and confirmed negative serologically

•depopulate, clean and disinfect the facilities and, after a few weeks, repopulate with stock free of PRRS

•Control is by exclusion •no specific treatment •Broad-spectrum antibiotics. •Anti-inflammatory products (e.g. aspirin)

• Other helpful techniques • Early weaning and isolation of piglets •Regular serologic monitoring • Testing (ELISA, PCR and IFA) •Removal of persistent carriers in herds •improving biosecurity.

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