Published on February 22, 2014
Professor Paige Prater T, R, 12PM-1:20PM
Big Ideas Sculptors: human figure…Roman sculpture Scientific investigation Linear perspective Wealthy merchant class (condottieri) Artistic competition & individual achievement innovation
th 15 Century Italy Florence, Milan, & Venice Wealthy families: political power + artistic patronage Medici (merchants/bankers>virtual rulers) in Florence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l88oJARJ9Fs (first 7 min) Renewed interest in ancient literary texts Plato & NeoPlatonists Spiritual vs physical (ideal vs matter) Government: Florence: constitutional oligarchy civic architecture
Church of San Lorenzo Old Sacristy: https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=LK v0hRyiGCY&list=PL AAEFE618A27E29D2 Square module throughout Pietra serena – gray Tuscan sandstone
Church of San Lorenzo, Florence - Exterior
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi Begun 1446
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi – sgraffito in courtyard
Florence Cathedral 1367 – dome envisioned; no technical ―know-how‖ 1407 – sculptor-turned-architect, Filippo Brunelleschi proposed a technical solution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQ8F_yPwqz A&list=PLAAEFE618A27E29D2&index=4
Florence Cathedral: Bronze Doors Competition Lorenzo Ghiberti Filippo Brunelleschi
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1381?-1455), The Gates of Paradise East doors for Florentine Baptistery; commissioned 1425; installed 1452. Restoration Project completed in 2012: http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=C6AbLI4QBAU
Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise – Jacob & Esau
Sculpture Realism Space Classical past
Orsanmichele Grain loggia (grain market) – 14 guilds commissioned to fill ground-floor niches with statuary Nanni di Banco The Four Crowned Martyrs Donatello St. George View of north east corner of the church from Via Calzaiuoli (http://www.orsanmichele.net/photos-video/)
The Four Crowned Martyrs – Nanni di Banco c. 1409-1417. 6’ height of figures.
St. George – Donatello, 1417—1420 Height 6’5‖.
Donatello – David 1446-1460(?) First life-size, freestanding nude since antiquity! Originally in Medici Palace in 1469 with inscribed base: ―The victor is whoever defends the fatherland. All-powerful God crushes the angry enemy. Behold, a boy overcomes the great tyrant. Conquer, O citizens!‖
Donatello – Equestrian Statue of Erasmo da Narni (Gattamelata), 1443-1453 Piazza del Santo, Padua. Bronze, ~12’2‖ high.
The Trinity (1426, fresco)-Masaccio (―Big Tom‖) Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai (14011428/1429?) Linear perspective
The Expulsion of Adam & Eve from Paradise (c. 1427) Masaccio Brancacci Chapel, Churc of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence. Only scene NOT from the life of St. Peter http://www.yout ube.com/watch?v =hMzFbORRiss
The Tribute Money (c. 1427) Masaccio Brancacci Chapel, church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence. Fresco. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDPNSPbjzQ8
Fra Angelico (―Angelic Brother‖) (1395/1400-1455) Beatified in 1984 Took vows as a Dominican monk between 1418-1421. 1438-1445 – worked with assistants to create meditational paintings for each monk’s cell at monastery of San Marco
Annunciation – Fra Angelico Top of stairs, north corridor Linear perspective 1438-1445 – 7’ 1‖ x 10’ 6‖ http://ww w.youtube.c om/watch? v=3BV_pG3HPQ
Paolo Ucello (―Paul Bird‖) The Battle of San Romano (1438-1440)
Fra Filippo Lippi – Portrait of a Woman and a Man, c. 1435-1445 Earliest surviving double portrait of the Italian Renaissance Tempera on wood panel, 25 ¼‖ x 16 ½‖. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Beyond 1550: Northern Italy Artists trained in Florence moved around; influence of Donatello, Masaccio, and Brunelleschi spreads… Ducal courts at Urbino and Mantua Classical ideas and innovation continued to characterize the artwork.
Urbino Count Federico da Montefeltro, a condottiere, hires Luciano Laurana (c. 1420/1425-1479) to finish out the palace at Urbino Montefeltro becomes Duke in 1476 Fourth wing added; courtyard facades redecorated Piers embellished with pilasters Trompe l’oeil (―fool the eye‖) effects Intarsia (wood inlay)
Courtyard, Ducal Palace, Urbino (1467-1472)
Ducal Palace, Urbino, cutaway http://arts.muohio.edu/faculty/benson/urbino/urbino.htm
Studiolo – Montefeltro’s study (1476) Intarsia! Probably done by woodworker/architect, Giuliano da Maiano (1432-1490)
Ducal court artist: Piero Della Francesca (c.1415-1492) Worked in Florence in the 1430s Knew current art theory and practice Linear and atmospheric perspective Spatial illusion Modeling of forms
Baptism of Christ (c. 1450)– Piero della Francesca Tempera on wood panel 66‖ x 45 ¾‖. National Gallery, London. http://www .youtube.co m/watch?v= qv2K1yk0LC E&list=PLA AEFE618A27 E29D2&inde x=15
Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro (c. 1474)– Piero della Francesca OIL on wood panel, ea 18 ½‖ x 13‖. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Battista died at age 26, after birth of 9th child! Federico grieved.
Mantua Marquis of Mantua: Ludovico Gonzaga, a condottiere Gonzaga rules territory of Italian plain between Venice and Milan Humanist ideas in his court: art & literature
Camera Picta – Ducal Palace, Mantua (1465-1474) Andrea Mantegna, artist of the frescos Tower chamber in palace Radical perspective in domed ceiling: di sotto in sù (―from below upwards‖) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GN0P5RkQAow&list=PLAAEFE618 A27E29D2&index=32
Sistine Chapel - Rome Pope Sixtus IV – 1480s – called group of young Florentine and Umbrian artists including Pietro Vannucci (―Perugino‖) – worked on Christ Giving the Keys to Saint Peter Sandro Botticelli Ghirlandaio Michelangelo (ceiling and scene behind altar) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PEE3B8Fsuc0
Sculpture in Florence Verrocchio (―true eye‖), a.k.a Andrea di Michele Cioni (1435-1488) goldsmith, painter, and bronze sculptor Teacher of Da Vinci and Perugino! David, Verrocchio. Medici Palace, c. 1470-1475. Bronze with gilded details. 49 5/8‖ high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
Hercules and Antaeus – Antonio del Pollaiuolo, c. 1475 Bronze, 18‖ with base. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Polaiuolo: embroidery designer, goldsmith, painter, printmaker, and sculptor; started working for Medici family in 1460
The Battle of the Nudes Pollaiuolo, c. 1465-1470, etching
Ghirlandaio Nickname means ―garland maker‖, a.k.a. Domenico di Tommaso Bigordi (1449-1494) Father was a goldsmith known for his floral wreaths 1483-1486 Life of St. Francis murals Commissioned by Francesco Sassetti, manager of Medici bank, for burial chapel at Santa Trinità in Florence
Scenes from the Life of St. Francis; Altarpiece with Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds
Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds (1485).
Confirmation of the Franciscan by Pope Rule Honorius III
Birth of Venus (1484-1486)-Botticelli http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdp22elrY7s&li st=PLAAEFE618A27E29D2&index=18
Primavera (1482)Botticelli http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwZn852brII&l ist=PLAAEFE618A27E29D2&index=19
Gentile & Giovanni Bellini Venice Oligarchy with elected duke (―doge‖) Gentile: large and lively narratives
Gentile Bellini – Procession of the Relic of the True Cross before the Church of St. Mark – c. 1496, oil on canvas, 12’ x 24’ 5‖
Giovanni Bellini – Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS. Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian, and Louis of Toulouse – oil on wood panel, c. 1478
Giovanni Bellini – St. Francis in Ecstasy – c. 1470s, oil and tempera on wood panel
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