Art History Survey - 15th Century in Italy

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Information about Art History Survey - 15th Century in Italy

Published on February 22, 2014

Author: PaigePrater



An introduction to Italian art of the fifteenth century. Featuring artists such as, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Uccello, Fra Angelico, Ghirlandaio, and more! Florence, Venice, Urbino, and Mantua are also featured artistic cities/places.

Professor Paige Prater T, R, 12PM-1:20PM

Big Ideas  Sculptors: human figure…Roman sculpture Scientific investigation Linear perspective Wealthy merchant class (condottieri) Artistic competition & individual achievement innovation

th 15 Century Italy   Florence, Milan, & Venice  Wealthy families: political power + artistic patronage  Medici (merchants/bankers>virtual rulers) in Florence  (first 7 min)  Renewed interest in ancient literary texts  Plato & NeoPlatonists  Spiritual vs physical (ideal vs matter)  Government:  Florence: constitutional oligarchy  civic architecture

Church of San Lorenzo   Old Sacristy: https://www.youtu v0hRyiGCY&list=PL AAEFE618A27E29D2  Square module throughout  Pietra serena – gray Tuscan sandstone

Church of San Lorenzo, Florence - Exterior 

Palazzo Medici-Riccardi   Begun 1446

Palazzo Medici-Riccardi – sgraffito in courtyard 

Florence Cathedral  1367 – dome envisioned; no technical ―know-how‖  1407 – sculptor-turned-architect, Filippo Brunelleschi proposed a technical solution  A&list=PLAAEFE618A27E29D2&index=4 

Florence Cathedral: Bronze Doors Competition Lorenzo Ghiberti Filippo Brunelleschi 

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1381?-1455), The Gates of Paradise   East doors for Florentine Baptistery; commissioned 1425; installed 1452.  Restoration Project completed in 2012: ch?v=C6AbLI4QBAU

Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise – Jacob & Esau 

Sculpture   Realism  Space  Classical past

Orsanmichele   Grain loggia (grain market) – 14 guilds commissioned to fill ground-floor niches with statuary  Nanni di Banco The Four Crowned Martyrs  Donatello St. George View of north east corner of the church from Via Calzaiuoli (

The Four Crowned Martyrs – Nanni di Banco c. 1409-1417. 6’ height of figures. 

St. George – Donatello,  1417—1420 Height 6’5‖.

Donatello – David 1446-1460(?)  First life-size, freestanding nude since antiquity!  Originally in Medici Palace in 1469 with inscribed base: ―The victor is whoever defends the fatherland. All-powerful God crushes the angry enemy. Behold, a boy overcomes the great tyrant. Conquer, O citizens!‖ 

Donatello – Equestrian Statue of Erasmo da Narni (Gattamelata), 1443-1453   Piazza del Santo, Padua. Bronze, ~12’2‖ high.

The Trinity (1426, fresco)-Masaccio (―Big Tom‖)   Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai (14011428/1429?)  Linear perspective

 The Expulsion of Adam & Eve from Paradise (c. 1427) Masaccio  Brancacci Chapel, Churc of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence.  Only scene NOT from the life of St. Peter  http://www.yout =hMzFbORRiss

The Tribute Money (c. 1427) Masaccio  Brancacci Chapel, church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence. Fresco.  

Fra Angelico (―Angelic Brother‖) (1395/1400-1455)   Beatified in 1984  Took vows as a Dominican monk between 1418-1421.  1438-1445 – worked with assistants to create meditational paintings for each monk’s cell at monastery of San Marco

Annunciation – Fra Angelico   Top of stairs, north corridor  Linear perspective  1438-1445 – 7’ 1‖ x 10’ 6‖  http://ww om/watch? v=3BV_pG3HPQ

Paolo Ucello (―Paul Bird‖)   The Battle of San Romano (1438-1440)

Fra Filippo Lippi – Portrait of a Woman and a  Man, c. 1435-1445  Earliest surviving double portrait of the Italian Renaissance  Tempera on wood panel, 25 ¼‖ x 16 ½‖. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Beyond 1550: Northern Italy   Artists trained in Florence moved around; influence of Donatello, Masaccio, and Brunelleschi spreads…  Ducal courts at Urbino and Mantua  Classical ideas and innovation continued to characterize the artwork.

Urbino   Count Federico da Montefeltro, a condottiere, hires Luciano Laurana (c. 1420/1425-1479) to finish out the palace at Urbino  Montefeltro becomes Duke in 1476  Fourth wing added; courtyard facades redecorated  Piers embellished with pilasters  Trompe l’oeil (―fool the eye‖) effects  Intarsia (wood inlay)

Courtyard, Ducal Palace, Urbino (1467-1472) 

Ducal Palace, Urbino, cutaway 

Studiolo – Montefeltro’s study (1476)   Intarsia!  Probably done by woodworker/architect, Giuliano da Maiano (1432-1490)

Ducal court artist: Piero Della Francesca (c.1415-1492)   Worked in Florence in the 1430s  Knew current art theory and practice  Linear and atmospheric perspective  Spatial illusion  Modeling of forms

Baptism of Christ (c. 1450)– Piero della Francesca  Tempera on wood panel  66‖ x 45 ¾‖. National Gallery, London.  http://www m/watch?v= qv2K1yk0LC E&list=PLA AEFE618A27 E29D2&inde x=15 

Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro (c. 1474)– Piero della Francesca   OIL on wood panel, ea 18 ½‖ x 13‖. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.  Battista died at age 26, after birth of 9th child! Federico grieved.

Mantua   Marquis of Mantua: Ludovico Gonzaga, a condottiere  Gonzaga rules territory of Italian plain between Venice and Milan  Humanist ideas in his court: art & literature

Camera Picta – Ducal Palace, Mantua (1465-1474)   Andrea Mantegna, artist of the frescos  Tower chamber in palace  Radical perspective in domed ceiling: di sotto in sù (―from below upwards‖)  A27E29D2&index=32

Sistine Chapel - Rome   Pope Sixtus IV – 1480s – called group of young Florentine and Umbrian artists including  Pietro Vannucci (―Perugino‖) – worked on Christ Giving the Keys to Saint Peter  Sandro Botticelli  Ghirlandaio  Michelangelo (ceiling and scene behind altar) 

 Sculpture in Florence  Verrocchio (―true eye‖), a.k.a Andrea di Michele Cioni (1435-1488) goldsmith, painter, and bronze sculptor  Teacher of Da Vinci and Perugino! David, Verrocchio. Medici Palace, c. 1470-1475. Bronze with gilded details. 49 5/8‖ high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.

Hercules and Antaeus – Antonio del Pollaiuolo, c. 1475   Bronze, 18‖ with base. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.  Polaiuolo: embroidery designer, goldsmith, painter, printmaker, and sculptor; started working for Medici family in 1460

The Battle of the Nudes Pollaiuolo, c. 1465-1470, etching 

Ghirlandaio   Nickname means ―garland maker‖, a.k.a. Domenico di Tommaso Bigordi (1449-1494)  Father was a goldsmith known for his floral wreaths  1483-1486 Life of St. Francis murals  Commissioned by Francesco Sassetti, manager of Medici bank, for burial chapel at Santa Trinità in Florence

 Scenes from the Life of St. Francis; Altarpiece with Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds

Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds (1485). 

Confirmation of the Franciscan  by Pope Rule Honorius III

Birth of Venus (1484-1486)-Botticelli   st=PLAAEFE618A27E29D2&index=18

Primavera (1482)Botticelli   ist=PLAAEFE618A27E29D2&index=19

Gentile & Giovanni Bellini   Venice  Oligarchy with elected duke (―doge‖)  Gentile: large and lively narratives

Gentile Bellini – Procession of the Relic of the True Cross before the Church of St. Mark – c. 1496, oil on canvas, 12’ x 24’ 5‖ 

 Giovanni Bellini – Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS. Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian, and Louis of Toulouse – oil on wood panel, c. 1478

Giovanni Bellini – St. Francis in Ecstasy – c. 1470s, oil and tempera on wood panel 

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